Summary: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.

Top Publications

  1. He F, Melen K, Maljanen S, Lundberg R, Jiang M, Osterlund P, et al. Ebolavirus protein VP24 interferes with innate immune responses by inhibiting interferon-?1 gene expression. Virology. 2017;509:23-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results emphasize the importance of VP24 in EBOV infection cycle, making VP24 as an excellent target for drug development. ..
  2. Osterholm M. Ebola and Zika: Cautionary tales. Science. 2016;353:1073 pubmed publisher
  3. Martin P, Laupland K, Frost E, Valiquette L. Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus disease. Intensive Care Med. 2015;41:895-8 pubmed publisher
  4. Baştuğ A, Bodur H. Ebola viral disease: What should be done to combat the epidemic in 2014?. Turk J Med Sci. 2015;45:1-5 pubmed
    ..This article provides a review of the literature regarding the characteristics and management of EVD outbreak. ..
  5. Rubin E, Baden L. Out of Africa--caring for patients with Ebola. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:2430-2 pubmed publisher
  6. Edmond M, Diekema D, Perencevich E. Ebola virus disease and the need for new personal protective equipment. JAMA. 2014;312:2495-6 pubmed publisher
  7. Brady O. Scale up the supply of experimental Ebola drugs. Nature. 2014;512:233 pubmed publisher
  8. Schmidt M, Hoenen T. Characterization of the catalytic center of the Ebola virus L polymerase. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005996 pubmed publisher
  9. Rübsamen N, Castell S, Horn J, Karch A, Ott J, Raupach Rosin H, et al. Ebola risk perception in Germany, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:1012-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Although most participants were not worried about EVD at the current stage of the epidemic, misperceptions regarding transmission were common and could trigger inappropriate behavior changes. ..

More Information


  1. Watanabe T, Kawaoka Y. Control of Ebola hemorrhagic fever: vaccine development and our Ebola project in Sierra Leone. Uirusu. 2016;66:53-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we evaluated the vaccine efficacy of Ebola ?VP30 virus in a non-human primate model and describe our collaborative Ebola project in Sierra Leone. ..
  2. Zhang Y, Gong Y, Wang C, Liu W, Wang Z, Xia Z, et al. Rapid deployment of a mobile biosafety level-3 laboratory in Sierra Leone during the 2014 Ebola virus epidemic. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005622 pubmed publisher
    ..The MBSL-3 Lab significantly contributed to establishing a suitable laboratory response capacity during the emergence of EVD in Sierra Leone. ..
  3. ElSherif M, Brown C, MacKinnon Cameron D, Li L, Racine T, Alimonti J, et al. Assessing the safety and immunogenicity of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus Ebola vaccine in healthy adults: a randomized clinical trial. CMAJ. 2017;189:E819-E827 pubmed publisher
    ..In response, alive attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vaccine expressing Zaire Ebolavirus glycoprotein (rVSV?G-ZEBOV-GP) was evaluated in humans...
  4. Hayden E. Ethical dilemma for Ebola drug trials. Nature. 2014;515:177-8 pubmed publisher
  5. Buceta J, Johnson K. Modeling the Ebola zoonotic dynamics: Interplay between enviroclimatic factors and bat ecology. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179559 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultimately, our study can be relevant to predict hot spots of Ebola outbreaks in space and time and suggest conservation policies to mitigate the risk of spillovers. ..
  6. Zou Z, MISASI J, Sullivan N, Sun P. Overexpression of Ebola virus envelope GP1 protein. Protein Expr Purif. 2017;135:45-53 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA structural prediction showed the codon optimization removed two potential RNA pseudoknot structures. This methodology is also applicable to the expression of other difficult virus envelope proteins. ..
  7. Siddharta A, Pfaender S, Vielle N, Dijkman R, Friesland M, Becker B, et al. Virucidal Activity of World Health Organization-Recommended Formulations Against Enveloped Viruses, Including Zika, Ebola, and Emerging Coronaviruses. J Infect Dis. 2017;215:902-906 pubmed publisher
  8. Vidal S. Glycofullerenes: Sweet fullerenes vanquish viruses. Nat Chem. 2016;8:4-6 pubmed publisher
  9. Deen G, McDonald S, Marrinan J, Sesay F, Ervin E, Thorson A, et al. Implementation of a study to examine the persistence of Ebola virus in the body fluids of Ebola virus disease survivors in Sierra Leone: Methodology and lessons learned. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005723 pubmed publisher
    ..Adequate resources should be rapidly made available to answer critical research questions, in order to better inform response efforts. ..
  10. Agnandji S, Fernandes J, Bache E, Obiang Mba R, Brosnahan J, Kabwende L, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of rVSV?G-ZEBOV-GP Ebola vaccine in adults and children in Lambaréné, Gabon: A phase I randomised trial. PLoS Med. 2017;14:e1002402 pubmed publisher
    ..The rVSV?G-ZEBOV-GP vaccine prevented Ebola virus disease when used at 2 × 107 plaque-forming units (PFU) in a trial in Guinea. This study provides further safety and immunogenicity data...
  11. Vogel G. Infectious Diseases. Delays hinder Ebola genomics. Science. 2014;346:684-5 pubmed publisher
  12. Nyakarahuka L, Skjerve E, Nabadda D, Sitali D, Mumba C, Mwiine F, et al. Knowledge and attitude towards Ebola and Marburg virus diseases in Uganda using quantitative and participatory epidemiology techniques. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005907 pubmed publisher
    ..The public health sector should enhance this community knowledge gap to empower them more by supplying educational materials for epidemic preparedness in future using appropriate communication channels as proposed by the communities. ..
  13. Kondratowicz A, Maury W. Ebolavirus: a brief review of novel therapeutic targets. Future Microbiol. 2012;7:1-4 pubmed publisher
  14. Heppner D, Kemp T, Martin B, Ramsey W, Nichols R, Dasen E, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of the rVSV?G-ZEBOV-GP Ebola virus vaccine candidate in healthy adults: a phase 1b randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017;17:854-866 pubmed publisher
    ..The immunogenicity results support selection of the 2?×?107 PFU dose. Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, US Department of Health and Human Services. ..
  15. Lamontagne F, Clement C, Fletcher T, Jacob S, Fischer W, Fowler R. Doing today's work superbly well--treating Ebola with current tools. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:1565-6 pubmed publisher
  16. Cellarier G, Bordes J, Karkowski L, Gagnon N, Billhot M, Cournac J, et al. Safety, feasibility, and interest of transthoracic echocardiography in a deployed French military Ebola virus disease treatment center in Guinea. Intensive Care Med. 2015;41:1491-2 pubmed publisher
  17. Cox E, Borio L, Temple R. Evaluating Ebola therapies--the case for RCTs. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:2350-1 pubmed publisher
  18. Falzarano D, Safronetz D, Prescott J, Marzi A, Feldmann F, Feldmann H. Lack of protection against ebola virus from chloroquine in mice and hamsters. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:1065-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In mouse and hamster models, treatment did not improve survival. Chloroquine is not a promising treatment for Ebola. Efforts should be directed toward other drug classes. ..
  19. Yi F, Guo J, Dabbagh D, Spear M, He S, Kehn Hall K, et al. Discovery of Novel Small-Molecule Inhibitors of LIM Domain Kinase for Inhibiting HIV-1. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, R10015 inhibits multiple viruses, including Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), and herpes simplex virus 1 (..
  20. Kondoh T, Manzoor R, Nao N, Maruyama J, Furuyama W, Miyamoto H, et al. Putative endogenous filovirus VP35-like protein potentially functions as an IFN antagonist but not a polymerase cofactor. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186450 pubmed publisher
    ..However, their potential roles in ebolavirus infection are unclear...
  21. Crowe S, Maenner M, Kuah S, Erickson B, Coffee M, Knust B, et al. Prognostic Indicators for Ebola Patient Survival. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22:217-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Ct values may be useful for clinicians making treatment decisions or managing patient or family expectations. ..
  22. Kucharski A, Eggo R, Watson C, Camacho A, Funk S, Edmunds W. Effectiveness of Ring Vaccination as Control Strategy for Ebola Virus Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22:105-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in later stages of the epidemic or in outbreaks with less intense transmission or more effective control, this strategy could help eliminate the disease. ..
  23. Kelly J, Richardson E, Barry M. Persistent Ebola Virus in the Eye. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:1981-2 pubmed publisher
  24. VanderZanden L, Bray M, Fuller D, Roberts T, Custer D, Spik K, et al. DNA vaccines expressing either the GP or NP genes of Ebola virus protect mice from lethal challenge. Virology. 1998;246:134-44 pubmed
    ..5 microgram of the GP DNA vaccine. Comparing the GP and NP vaccines indicated that approximately the same level of protection could be achieved with either vaccine. ..
  25. Feldmann H. Ebola--a growing threat?. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:1375-8 pubmed publisher
  26. Mandl J, Feinberg M. Robust and sustained immune activation in human Ebola virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:4518-9 pubmed publisher
  27. Ruedas J, Ladner J, Ettinger C, Gummuluru S, Palacios G, Connor J. Spontaneous Mutation at Amino Acid 544 of the Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Potentiates Virus Entry and Selection in Tissue Culture. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Intriguingly, T544I is not found in any Sudan, Bundibugyo, or Tai Forest ebolavirus sequences...
  28. Baskerville A, Fisher Hoch S, Neild G, Dowsett A. Ultrastructural pathology of experimental Ebola haemorrhagic fever virus infection. J Pathol. 1985;147:199-209 pubmed
    ..Since particles were not found in seminiferous epithelium, the degeneration of spermatogonia and spermatocytes was probably secondary to ischaemia. ..
  29. Chen Z, Liang H, Chen X, Ke Y, Zhou Z, Yang M, et al. An Ebola virus-encoded microRNA-like fragment serves as a biomarker for early diagnosis of Ebola virus disease. Cell Res. 2016;26:380-3 pubmed publisher
  30. Vogel G. Infectious Diseases. Testing new Ebola tests. Science. 2014;345:1549-50 pubmed publisher
  31. Ashbaugh H, Kuang B, Gadoth A, Alfonso V, Mukadi P, Doshi R, et al. Detecting Ebola with limited laboratory access in the Democratic Republic of Congo: evaluation of a clinical passive surveillance reporting system. Trop Med Int Health. 2017;22:1141-1153 pubmed publisher
  32. Shuaib F, Gunnala R, Musa E, Mahoney F, Oguntimehin O, Nguku P, et al. Ebola virus disease outbreak - Nigeria, July-September 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63:867-72 pubmed
  33. Zhao Y, Ren J, Harlos K, Jones D, Zeltina A, Bowden T, et al. Toremifene interacts with and destabilizes the Ebola virus glycoprotein. Nature. 2016;535:169-172 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these complex structures reveal the mechanism of inhibition and may guide the development of more powerful anti-EBOV drugs. ..
  34. del Rio C, Mehta A, Lyon G, Guarner J. Ebola hemorrhagic fever in 2014: the tale of an evolving epidemic. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161:746-8 pubmed publisher
  35. Janke C, Heim K, Steiner F, Massaquoi M, Gbanya M, Frey C, et al. Beyond Ebola treatment units: severe infection temporary treatment units as an essential element of Ebola case management during an outbreak. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:124 pubmed publisher
  36. Wec A, Herbert A, Murin C, Nyakatura E, Abelson D, Fels J, et al. Antibodies from a Human Survivor Define Sites of Vulnerability for Broad Protection against Ebolaviruses. Cell. 2017;169:878-890.e15 pubmed publisher
    ..we mined the human immune response to natural EBOV infection and identified mAbs with exceptionally potent pan-ebolavirus neutralizing activity and protective efficacy against three virulent ebolaviruses...
  37. Victory K, Coronado F, Ifono S, Soropogui T, Dahl B. Ebola transmission linked to a single traditional funeral ceremony - Kissidougou, Guinea, December, 2014-January 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64:386-8 pubmed
    ..Improved training for prompt reporting of cases, investigation, and contact tracing, and community acceptance of safe burial methods can reduce the risk for Ebola transmission in rural communities. ..
  38. Durski K, Singaravelu S, Teo J, Naidoo D, Bawo L, Jambai A, et al. Development, Use, and Impact of a Global Laboratory Database During the 2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa. J Infect Dis. 2017;215:1799-1806 pubmed publisher
    ..The usefulness and value of a multifunctional global laboratory database is far reaching, with uses including virtual biobanking, disease forecasting, and adaption to other disease outbreaks. ..
  39. Piszczek J, Partlow E. Stepped-wedge trial design to evaluate Ebola treatments. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15:762-3 pubmed publisher
  40. Yin C, Yau S. A coevolution analysis for identifying protein-protein interactions by Fourier transform. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0174862 pubmed publisher
    ..The Python programs in this study are available to public at URL (https://github.com/cyinbox/PPI). ..
  41. Baden L, Kanapathipillai R, Campion E, Morrissey S, Rubin E, Drazen J. Ebola--an ongoing crisis. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:1458-9 pubmed publisher
  42. Keïta M, Duraffour S, Loman N, Rambaut A, Diallo B, Magassouba N, et al. Unusual Ebola Virus Chain of Transmission, Conakry, Guinea, 2014-2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22:2149-2152 pubmed publisher
    ..This transmission chain over 11 months suggests slow Ebola virus evolution. ..
  43. Qiu S, Leung A, Bo Y, Kozak R, Anand S, Warkentin C, et al. Ebola virus requires phosphatidylinositol (3,5) bisphosphate production for efficient viral entry. Virology. 2018;513:17-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our studies suggest that EBOV requires PtdIns(3,5)P2 production in cells to promote efficient delivery to NPC1. ..
  44. Theocharopoulos G, Danis K, Greig J, Hoffmann A, de Valk H, Jimissa A, et al. Ebola management centre proximity associated with reduced delays of healthcare of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) patients, Tonkolili, Sierra Leone, 2014-15. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176692 pubmed publisher
    ..High viral load and vomiting at admission predicted fatality. Healthcare providers should consider the location of EMCs to ensure equitable access during Ebola outbreaks. ..
  45. Duehr J, Wohlbold T, Oestereich L, Chromikova V, Amanat F, Rajendran M, et al. Novel Cross-Reactive Monoclonal Antibodies against Ebolavirus Glycoproteins Show Protection in a Murine Challenge Model. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Several monoclonal antibodies against the ebolavirus glycoprotein are currently in development as therapeutics...
  46. Saeidnia S, Abdollahi M. Ebola hemorrhagic fever: current outbreak and progress in finding a cure. Daru. 2014;22:70 pubmed publisher
  47. Nanyonga M, Saidu J, Ramsay A, Shindo N, Bausch D. Sequelae of Ebola Virus Disease, Kenema District, Sierra Leone. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62:125-6 pubmed publisher
  48. Chen Q, Davidson A. Synthesis, conformational study and antiviral activity of l-like neplanocin derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017;27:4436-4439 pubmed publisher
    ..The conformational behavior of "sugar" puckering (north/south) and nucleobase orientation (syn /anti) may contribute to the antiviral activity differences. For compound 3, antiviral activity was also found against Ebola virus. ..
  49. Dowall S, Bosworth A, Watson R, Bewley K, Taylor I, Rayner E, et al. Chloroquine inhibited Ebola virus replication in vitro but failed to protect against infection and disease in the in vivo guinea pig model. J Gen Virol. 2015;96:3484-3492 pubmed publisher
    ..However, no protective effects were observed in vivo when EBOV-infected guinea pigs were treated with chloroquine. These results advocate that chloroquine should not be considered as a treatment strategy for EBOV. ..
  50. Chevalier M, Chung W, Smith J, Weil L, Hughes S, Joyner S, et al. Ebola virus disease cluster in the United States--Dallas County, Texas, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63:1087-8 pubmed
    ..Before September 25, 2014, only four patients with Ebola had been treated in the United States; all of these patients had been diagnosed in West Africa and medically evacuated to the United States for care. ..
  51. Lanini S, Portella G, Vairo F, Kobinger G, Pesenti A, Langer M, et al. Blood kinetics of Ebola virus in survivors and nonsurvivors. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:4692-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Italian Ministry of Health; Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs; EMERGENCY's private donations; and Royal Engineers for DFID-UK. ..
  52. Prescott J, Bushmaker T, Fischer R, Miazgowicz K, Judson S, Munster V. Postmortem stability of Ebola virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:856-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We used Ebola virus-infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks. ..
  53. Ellerbrok H, Jacobsen S, Patel P, Rieger T, Eickmann M, Becker S, et al. External quality assessment study for ebolavirus PCR-diagnostic promotes international preparedness during the 2014 - 2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005570 pubmed publisher
    ..mobile laboratories were deployed to the mainly affected countries Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia to provide ebolavirus diagnostic capacity...