Summary: A family of RNA viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, containing filamentous virions. Although they resemble RHABDOVIRIDAE in possessing helical nucleocapsids, Filoviridae differ in the length and degree of branching in their virions. There are two genera: EBOLAVIRUS and MARBURGVIRUS.

Top Publications

  1. Kuhn J. Filoviruses. A compendium of 40 years of epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies. Arch Virol Suppl. 2008;20:13-360 pubmed
  2. Warfield K, Aman M. Advances in virus-like particle vaccines for filoviruses. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 3:S1053-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will discuss published work to date regarding development of the VLP vaccines for prevention of lethal filovirus hemorrhagic fever...
  3. Towner J, Sealy T, Ksiazek T, Nichol S. High-throughput molecular detection of hemorrhagic fever virus threats with applications for outbreak settings. J Infect Dis. 2007;196 Suppl 2:S205-12 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the applicability of this method to an outbreak setting was demonstrated by correct analysis of >500 specimens at a field laboratory established during a recent outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever in Angola. ..
  4. Hoenen T, Groseth A, de Kok Mercado F, Kuhn J, Wahl Jensen V. Minigenomes, transcription and replication competent virus-like particles and beyond: reverse genetics systems for filoviruses and other negative stranded hemorrhagic fever viruses. Antiviral Res. 2011;91:195-208 pubmed publisher
  5. Barrette R, Xu L, Rowland J, McIntosh M. Current perspectives on the phylogeny of Filoviridae. Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:1514-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Bundibugyo ebolavirus; the recent discovery of Lloviu virus as a potential new genus, Cuevavirus, within Filoviridae; and germline integrations of filovirus-like sequences in some animal species bring new insights into the ..
  6. Kuhn J, Becker S, Ebihara H, Geisbert T, Johnson K, Kawaoka Y, et al. Proposal for a revised taxonomy of the family Filoviridae: classification, names of taxa and viruses, and virus abbreviations. Arch Virol. 2010;155:2083-103 pubmed publisher
    The taxonomy of the family Filoviridae (marburgviruses and ebolaviruses) has changed several times since the discovery of its members, resulting in a plethora of species and virus names and abbreviations...
  7. Hartman A, Towner J, Nichol S. Ebola and marburg hemorrhagic fever. Clin Lab Med. 2010;30:161-77 pubmed publisher
  8. Aleksandrowicz P, Wolf K, Falzarano D, Feldmann H, Seebach J, Schnittler H. Viral haemorrhagic fever and vascular alterations. Hamostaseologie. 2008;28:77-84 pubmed
  9. Warfield K, Posten N, Swenson D, Olinger G, Esposito D, Gillette W, et al. Filovirus-like particles produced in insect cells: immunogenicity and protection in rodents. J Infect Dis. 2007;196 Suppl 2:S421-9 pubmed
    ..The goal of this work was to increase the yield of VLPs, while retaining their immunogenic properties...

More Information


  1. Sanchez A. Analysis of filovirus entry into vero e6 cells, using inhibitors of endocytosis, endosomal acidification, structural integrity, and cathepsin (B and L) activity. J Infect Dis. 2007;196 Suppl 2:S251-8 pubmed
    ..These observations obtained using wild-type viruses confirm the results of studies utilizing recombinant systems and offer additional insights into filovirus entry. ..
  2. Bausch D, Feldmann H, Geisbert T, Bray M, Sprecher A, Boumandouki P, et al. Outbreaks of filovirus hemorrhagic fever: time to refocus on the patient. J Infect Dis. 2007;196 Suppl 2:S136-41 pubmed
    ..quot; A summary of the opportunities for and challenges to improving treatment of filovirus hemorrhagic fevers is presented here...
  3. Kuhn J, Dodd L, Wahl Jensen V, Radoshitzky S, Bavari S, Jahrling P. Evaluation of perceived threat differences posed by filovirus variants. Biosecur Bioterror. 2011;9:361-71 pubmed publisher
  4. Fenimore P, Muhammad M, Fischer W, Foley B, Bakken R, Thurmond J, et al. Designing and testing broadly-protective filoviral vaccines optimized for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope coverage. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44769 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate in vivo immunogenicity and protection against a heterologous challenge in a mouse model. This design work delineates the likely requirements and limitations on broadly-protective filoviral CTL vaccines...
  5. Warfield K, Swenson D, Demmin G, Bavari S. Filovirus-like particles as vaccines and discovery tools. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2005;4:429-40 pubmed publisher
    Ebola and Marburg viruses are members of the family Filoviridae, which cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Filovirus outbreaks have been sporadic, with mortality rates currently ranging from 30 to 90%...
  6. Jasenosky L, Neumann G, Lukashevich I, Kawaoka Y. Ebola virus VP40-induced particle formation and association with the lipid bilayer. J Virol. 2001;75:5205-14 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that VP40 binds the lipid bilayer in an efficient yet structurally complex fashion. ..
  7. Feldmann H, Nichol S, Klenk H, Peters C, Sanchez A. Characterization of filoviruses based on differences in structure and antigenicity of the virion glycoprotein. Virology. 1994;199:469-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These data, together with prior findings, indicate that the genus Filovirus can be divided into a MBG group and EBO group...
  8. Spurgers K, Alefantis T, Peyser B, Ruthel G, Bergeron A, Costantino J, et al. Identification of essential filovirion-associated host factors by serial proteomic analysis and RNAi screen. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2010;9:2690-703 pubmed publisher
    ..The proteomic analysis presented here contributes to a greater understanding of filovirus biology and potentially identifies host factors that can be targeted for antiviral drug development. ..
  9. Empig C, Goldsmith M. Association of the caveola vesicular system with cellular entry by filoviruses. J Virol. 2002;76:5266-70 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results provide evidence suggesting that filoviruses use caveolae to gain entry into cells. ..
  10. Takada A, Fujioka K, Tsuiji M, Morikawa A, Higashi N, Ebihara H, et al. Human macrophage C-type lectin specific for galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine promotes filovirus entry. J Virol. 2004;78:2943-7 pubmed
    ..We propose that filoviruses use different C-type lectins to gain cellular entry, depending on the cell type, and promote efficient viral replication. ..
  11. Bradfute S, Bavari S. Correlates of immunity to filovirus infection. Viruses. 2011;3:982-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..It is likely that there are several types of successful immune responses, depending on the type of filovirus, and the presence and timing of vaccination or drug treatment...
  12. Feldmann H, Geisbert T, Kawaoka Y. Filoviruses: recent advances and future challenges. J Infect Dis. 2007;196 Suppl 2:S129-30 pubmed
  13. Peterson A, Carroll D, Mills J, Johnson K. Potential mammalian filovirus reservoirs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:2073-81 pubmed
    ..Studying the remainder of these taxa may be a fruitful avenue for pursuing the identity of natural reservoirs of filoviruses. ..
  14. Fuller C, Ruthel G, Warfield K, Swenson D, Bosio C, Aman M, et al. NKp30-dependent cytolysis of filovirus-infected human dendritic cells. Cell Microbiol. 2007;9:962-76 pubmed
    ..Further elucidation of the biology of NK cell activation, specifically natural cytotoxicity receptors like NKp30 and NKp46, promises to aid our understanding of microbial pathology. ..
  15. Dolnik O, Kolesnikova L, Becker S. Filoviruses: Interactions with the host cell. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:756-76 pubmed
    ..This review describes advances in understanding the interactions between host cells and filoviruses during viral attachment, entry, transcription, assembly and budding...
  16. Hartlieb B, Weissenhorn W. Filovirus assembly and budding. Virology. 2006;344:64-70 pubmed publisher
    ..As a consequence, assembly and budding steps are defined to specific cellular compartments, and the recent progress in understanding how the different components are assembled into stable enveloped virus particles is reviewed...
  17. Gramberg T, Hofmann H, Möller P, Lalor P, Marzi A, Geier M, et al. LSECtin interacts with filovirus glycoproteins and the spike protein of SARS coronavirus. Virology. 2005;340:224-36 pubmed
    ..In summary, we identified LSECtin as an attachment factor that in conjunction with DC-SIGNR might concentrate viral pathogens in liver and lymph nodes. ..
  18. Mohamadzadeh M. Potential factors induced by filoviruses that lead to immune supression. Curr Mol Med. 2009;9:174-85 pubmed
    ..Thus, in light of accumulating scientific observations, the challenge is now to characterize the molecular mechanisms that may result in rational strategies leading to new therapeutics and vaccines. ..
  19. Taylor D, Leach R, Bruenn J. Filoviruses are ancient and integrated into mammalian genomes. BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:193 pubmed publisher
    Hemorrhagic diseases from Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus (Filoviridae) infections can be dangerous to humans because of high fatality rates and a lack of effective treatments or vaccine...
  20. Bray M. The role of the Type I interferon response in the resistance of mice to filovirus infection. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:1365-73 pubmed
    ..The outcome of filovirus transfer between animal species appears to be determined by interactions between the virus and the innate immune response...
  21. Warren T, Warfield K, Wells J, Enterlein S, Smith M, Ruthel G, et al. Antiviral activity of a small-molecule inhibitor of filovirus infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:2152-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results identify a promising antiviral therapeutic candidate for the treatment of filovirus infections...
  22. Bradfute S, Dye J, Bavari S. Filovirus vaccines. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7:701-11 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the uses of rodent models in vaccine development, as well as correlates of immunity, are discussed...
  23. Miller E, Chandran K. Filovirus entry into cells - new insights. Curr Opin Virol. 2012;2:206-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Membrane fusion delivers the viral nucleocapsid core into the cytoplasm, which is the site of filovirus replication. This review summarizes our understanding of the filovirus entry mechanism, with emphasis on recent findings...
  24. Guo H, Pan X, Mao R, Zhang X, Wang L, Lu X, et al. Alkylated porphyrins have broad antiviral activity against hepadnaviruses, flaviviruses, filoviruses, and arenaviruses. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:478-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The possible application of this family of compounds as antiviral agents, as microbicides and systemic virus neutralizing agents, is discussed...
  25. Lever M, Piercy T, Steward J, Eastaugh L, Smither S, Taylor C, et al. Lethality and pathogenesis of airborne infection with filoviruses in A129 ?/? -/- interferon receptor-deficient mice. J Med Microbiol. 2012;61:8-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The KO mouse may provide a useful model to test potential antiviral therapeutics against wild-type filoviruses...
  26. Dye J, Herbert A, Kuehne A, Barth J, Muhammad M, Zak S, et al. Postexposure antibody prophylaxis protects nonhuman primates from filovirus disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:5034-9 pubmed publisher
  27. Radoshitzky S, Dong L, Chi X, Clester J, Retterer C, Spurgers K, et al. Infectious Lassa virus, but not filoviruses, is restricted by BST-2/tetherin. J Virol. 2010;84:10569-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that BST-2 might be a broad antiviral factor with the ability to restrict release of a wide variety of human pathogens. However, at least filoviruses, RVFV, and CPXV are immune to its inhibitory effect. ..
  28. Welsch S, Kolesnikova L, Krähling V, Riches J, Becker S, Briggs J. Electron tomography reveals the steps in filovirus budding. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000875 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that this represents a general sequence of events also followed by other filamentous and rod-shaped viruses...
  29. Martina B, Osterhaus A. "Filoviruses": a real pandemic threat?. EMBO Mol Med. 2009;1:10-8 pubmed publisher
  30. Roddy P, Colebunders R, Jeffs B, Palma P, van Herp M, Borchert M. Filovirus hemorrhagic fever outbreak case management: a review of current and future treatment options. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 3:S791-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our outlined summary may assist future FHF outbreak case management teams to create collaborative platforms and develop relevant treatment protocols aimed at improving clinical outcome...
  31. Reed D, Mohamadzadeh M. Status and challenges of filovirus vaccines. Vaccine. 2007;25:1923-34 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, nonhuman primate studies have shown that protection against Marburg and Ebola is possible and there is hope that one day a vaccine will be licensed for human use. ..
  32. Swenson D, Wang D, Luo M, Warfield K, Woraratanadharm J, Holman D, et al. Vaccine to confer to nonhuman primates complete protection against multistrain Ebola and Marburg virus infections. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:460-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicates the feasibility of vaccination against all current filovirus threats in the event of natural hemorrhagic fever outbreak or biological attack...
  33. Sinn P, Hickey M, Staber P, Dylla D, Jeffers S, Davidson B, et al. Lentivirus vectors pseudotyped with filoviral envelope glycoproteins transduce airway epithelia from the apical surface independently of folate receptor alpha. J Virol. 2003;77:5902-10 pubmed
    ..Understanding viral vector binding and entry pathways is fundamental for developing cystic fibrosis gene therapy applications. ..
  34. Kuhn J, Bào Y, Bavari S, Becker S, Bradfute S, Brauburger K, et al. Virus nomenclature below the species level: a standardized nomenclature for filovirus strains and variants rescued from cDNA. Arch Virol. 2014;159:1229-37 pubmed publisher
    ..EBOV" would suffice if only one EBOV strain/variant/isolate is addressed. ..
  35. Gonzalez J, Pourrut X, Leroy E. Ebolavirus and other filoviruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2007;315:363-87 pubmed
    ..During the reproductive period, infected body fluid can also be shed in the environment and present a potential risk for indirect transmission to other vertebrates...
  36. Simmons G. Filovirus entry. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;790:83-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, host cell factors such as endosomal proteases and the intracellular receptor Niemann-Pick C1 are now known to play a vital role in activating the membrane fusion potential of filovirus glycoproteins. ..
  37. Klaus J, Eisenhauer P, Russo J, Mason A, Do D, King B, et al. The intracellular cargo receptor ERGIC-53 is required for the production of infectious arenavirus, coronavirus, and filovirus particles. Cell Host Microbe. 2013;14:522-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we have identified a class of pathogen-derived ERGIC-53 ligands, a lectin-independent basis for their association with ERGIC-53, and a role for ERGIC-53 in the propagation of several highly pathogenic RNA virus families. ..
  38. Siragam V, Wong G, Qiu X. Animal models for filovirus infections. Zool Res. 2018;39:15-24 pubmed publisher
    The family Filoviridae, which includes the genera Marburgvirus and Ebolavirus, contains some of the most pathogenic viruses in humans and non-human primates (NHPs), causing severe hemorrhagic fevers with high ..
  39. Nakayama E, Yokoyama A, Miyamoto H, Igarashi M, Kishida N, Matsuno K, et al. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of filovirus species-specific antibodies. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:1723-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the usefulness of our ELISA for diagnostics as well as ecological and serosurvey studies...
  40. Müller S, Möller P, Bick M, Wurr S, Becker S, Gunther S, et al. Inhibition of filovirus replication by the zinc finger antiviral protein. J Virol. 2007;81:2391-400 pubmed
    ..This inhibitory effect could be partially compensated for by overexpression of L protein. In conclusion, the data demonstrate that ZAP exhibits antiviral activity against filoviruses, presumably by decreasing the level of viral mRNA. ..
  41. Rebensburg S, Helfer M, Schneider M, Koppensteiner H, Eberle J, Schindler M, et al. Potent in vitro antiviral activity of Cistus incanus extract against HIV and Filoviruses targets viral envelope proteins. Sci Rep. 2016;6:20394 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that Ci extracts show potent and broad in vitro antiviral activity against viruses that cause life-threatening diseases in humans and are promising sources of agents that target virus particles. ..
  42. Zahn R, Gillisen G, Roos A, Koning M, van der Helm E, Spek D, et al. Ad35 and ad26 vaccine vectors induce potent and cross-reactive antibody and T-cell responses to multiple filovirus species. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44115 pubmed publisher
    ..Combination of the five selected filovirus glycoproteins in one multivalent vaccine potentially elicits protective immunity in man against all major filovirus strains that have caused lethal outbreaks in the last 20 years. ..
  43. Andrei G, De Clercq E. Molecular approaches for the treatment of hemorrhagic fever virus infections. Antiviral Res. 1993;22:45-75 pubmed
    ..e., pyrazofurin); CTP synthetase inhibitors (i.e., cyclopentylcytosine and cyclopentenylcytosine); SAH hydrolase inhibitors (i.e., neplanocin A); polyanionic substances (i.e., sulfated polymers); interferon and immunomodulators. ..
  44. Han Z, Sagum C, Bedford M, Sidhu S, Sudol M, Harty R. ITCH E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Interacts with Ebola Virus VP40 To Regulate Budding. J Virol. 2016;90:9163-71 pubmed publisher
    Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) belong to the Filoviridae family and can cause outbreaks of severe hemorrhagic fever, with high mortality rates in humans...
  45. Liu J, Dai S, Wang M, Hu Z, Wang H, Deng F. Virus like particle-based vaccines against emerging infectious disease viruses. Virol Sin. 2016;31:279-87 pubmed publisher
    ..agents discussed include RNA viruses from different virus families, such as the Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Caliciviridae, Coronaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Togaviridae families.
  46. Wijesinghe K, Stahelin R. Investigation of the Lipid Binding Properties of the Marburg Virus Matrix Protein VP40. J Virol. 2015;90:3074-85 pubmed publisher
    Marburg virus (MARV), which belongs to the virus family Filoviridae, causes hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates that is often fatal...
  47. Han Z, Bart S, Ruthel G, Vande Burgt N, Haines K, Volk S, et al. Ebola virus mediated infectivity is restricted in canine and feline cells. Vet Microbiol. 2016;182:102-7 pubmed publisher
    Ebolaviruses and marburgviruses belong to the Filoviridae family and often cause severe, fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates...
  48. Kobinger G, Weiner D, Yu Q, Wilson J. Filovirus-pseudotyped lentiviral vector can efficiently and stably transduce airway epithelia in vivo. Nat Biotechnol. 2001;19:225-30 pubmed
    ..This shows the potential of pseudotyping in expanding the utility of lentiviral vectors. Pseudotyped lentiviral vectors may hold promise for the treatment of CF. ..
  49. Murray J, Mavrakis M, McDonald N, Yilla M, Sheng J, Bellini W, et al. Rab9 GTPase is required for replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, filoviruses, and measles virus. J Virol. 2005;79:11742-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Rab9 is an important cellular target for inhibiting diverse viruses and help to define a late-endosome-to-plasma-membrane vesicular transport pathway important in viral assembly...
  50. Domingo Carrasco C, Gascón Bustrenga J. [Dengue and other hemorrhagic viral fevers]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2005;23:615-26 pubmed
    ..Even today many factors related to origin, pathogenesis, treatment and control of these diseases remain uncertain...
  51. Huang I, Bailey C, Weyer J, Radoshitzky S, Becker M, Chiang J, et al. Distinct patterns of IFITM-mediated restriction of filoviruses, SARS coronavirus, and influenza A virus. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1001258 pubmed publisher
    ..They further show that IFITM proteins differentially restrict the entry of a broad range of enveloped viruses, and modulate cellular tropism independently of viral receptor expression. ..
  52. Rennert P. Novel roles for TIM-1 in immunity and infection. Immunol Lett. 2011;141:28-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Of considerable interest are the novel findings that TIM-1 mediates virus entry and virulence. ..
  53. Bhattacharyya S, Mulherkar N, Chandran K. Endocytic pathways involved in filovirus entry: advances, implications and future directions. Viruses. 2012;4:3647-64 pubmed
    ..This review addresses the current knowledge on cellular endocytic pathways implicated in filovirus entry, highlights the consensus as well as controversies, and discusses important remaining questions. ..
  54. Rigaudeau S, Bricaire F, Bossi P. [Haemorrhagic fever viruses, possible bioterrorist use]. Presse Med. 2005;34:169-76 pubmed
    ..These viruses belong to one of the following families: filoviridae, arenaviridae, bunyaviridae, and flaviviridae...
  55. Pegoraro G, Bavari S, Panchal R. Shedding light on filovirus infection with high-content imaging. Viruses. 2012;4:1354-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we discuss possible novel applications of HCI in the context of filovirus research with particular emphasis on the identification of possible cellular biomarkers of virus infection...
  56. Taylor D, Dittmar K, Ballinger M, Bruenn J. Evolutionary maintenance of filovirus-like genes in bat genomes. BMC Evol Biol. 2011;11:336 pubmed publisher
    ..That is, there appears to be, or have been, functionally maintained copies of such genes in mammals. "Living fossils" of filoviruses appear to be selectively maintained in a diverse mammalian genus (Myotis). ..
  57. Zhai J, Palacios G, Towner J, Jabado O, Kapoor V, Venter M, et al. Rapid molecular strategy for filovirus detection and characterization. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:224-6 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic assignment is achieved by automated web-based sequence analysis of amplification products. ..
  58. Ogawa H, Miyamoto H, Ebihara H, Ito K, Morikawa S, Feldmann H, et al. Detection of all known filovirus species by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using a primer set specific for the viral nucleoprotein gene. J Virol Methods. 2011;171:310-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This assay will be a useful method for diagnostics and epidemiological studies of filovirus infections. ..
  59. Akpovwa H. Chloroquine could be used for the treatment of filoviral infections and other viral infections that emerge or emerged from viruses requiring an acidic pH for infectivity. Cell Biochem Funct. 2016;34:191-6 pubmed publisher
    Viruses from the Filoviridae family, as many other virus families, require an acidic pH for successful infection and are therefore susceptible to the actions of 4-aminoquinolines, such as chloroquine...
  60. Jouvenet N, Neil S, Zhadina M, Zang T, Kratovac Z, Lee Y, et al. Broad-spectrum inhibition of retroviral and filoviral particle release by tetherin. J Virol. 2009;83:1837-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, tetherin is potentially active against many enveloped viruses and likely to be an important component of the antiviral innate immune defense. ..
  61. Panning M, Laue T, Olschlager S, Eickmann M, Becker S, Raith S, et al. Diagnostic reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction kit for filoviruses based on the strain collections of all European biosafety level 4 laboratories. J Infect Dis. 2007;196 Suppl 2:S199-204 pubmed
    ..The assay facilitates reliable detection or exclusion screening of filovirus infections. ..
  62. Warren T, Wells J, Panchal R, Stuthman K, Garza N, Van Tongeren S, et al. Protection against filovirus diseases by a novel broad-spectrum nucleoside analogue BCX4430. Nature. 2014;508:402-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide additional pharmacological characterizations supporting the potential development of BCX4430 as a countermeasure against human filovirus diseases and other viral diseases representing major public health threats. ..
  63. Jasenosky L, Kawaoka Y. Filovirus budding. Virus Res. 2004;106:181-8 pubmed
    Family Filoviridae, which includes Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV), is a growing threat to human and non-human primate populations in central Africa...
  64. Booth T, Rabb M, Beniac D. How do filovirus filaments bend without breaking?. Trends Microbiol. 2013;21:583-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We review how the structure of filoviruses and paramyxoviruses permits this morphological flexibility in comparison to rhabdoviruses that have short, bullet-shaped virions with relatively rigid envelopes. ..
  65. Salvador B, Sexton N, Carrion R, Nunneley J, Patterson J, Steffen I, et al. Filoviruses utilize glycosaminoglycans for their attachment to target cells. J Virol. 2013;87:3295-304 pubmed publisher
  66. Krishnan A, Miller E, Herbert A, Ng M, Ndungo E, Whelan S, et al. Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1)/NPC1-like1 chimeras define sequences critical for NPC1's function as a flovirus entry receptor. Viruses. 2012;4:2471-84 pubmed publisher
  67. Herrel M, Hoefs N, Staeheli P, Schneider U. Tick-borne Nyamanini virus replicates in the nucleus and exhibits unusual genome and matrix protein properties. J Virol. 2012;86:10739-47 pubmed publisher
    ..two distinct proteins serve a matrix protein function in NYMV as previously described for members of the family Filoviridae. We further found that NYMV replicates in the nucleus of infected cells like members of the family Bornaviridae...