Summary: An order comprising four families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, non-segmented, negative-strand RNA genomes. The families are BORNAVIRIDAE; FILOVIRIDAE; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE.

Top Publications

  1. Ferron F, Longhi S, Henrissat B, Canard B. Viral RNA-polymerases -- a predicted 2'-O-ribose methyltransferase domain shared by all Mononegavirales. Trends Biochem Sci. 2002;27:222-4 pubmed
    The Mononegavirales virus group comprises several major human pathogens, including measles, rabies and Ebola viruses...
  2. Conzelmann K. Reverse genetics of mononegavirales. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2004;283:1-41 pubmed
    quot;Reverse genetics" or de novo synthesis of nonsegmented negative-sense RNA viruses (Mononegavirales) from cloned cDNA has become a reliable technique to study this group of medically important viruses...
  3. Cowton V, McGivern D, Fearns R. Unravelling the complexities of respiratory syncytial virus RNA synthesis. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1805-21 pubmed
    ..RSV is a member of the order Mononegavirales and, as such, has a genome consisting of a single strand of negative-sense RNA...
  4. Cleveland S, Davies J, McClure M. A bioinformatics approach to the structure, function, and evolution of the nucleoprotein of the order mononegavirales. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19275 pubmed publisher
    ..sequence conservation in relation to evolutionary function/structure of the nucleoprotein of the order Mononegavirales. In the combined analysis of 63 representative nucleoprotein (N) sequences from four viral families (..
  5. Karlin D, Belshaw R. Detecting remote sequence homology in disordered proteins: discovery of conserved motifs in the N-termini of Mononegavirales phosphoproteins. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31719 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we discovered that the P of related Mononegavirales contain similarly overlooked motifs in their N-termini, and that their C-termini share a previously unnoticed ..
  6. Mihindukulasuriya K, Nguyen N, Wu G, HUANG H, Da Rosa A, Popov V, et al. Nyamanini and midway viruses define a novel taxon of RNA viruses in the order Mononegavirales. J Virol. 2009;83:5109-16 pubmed publisher
    ..demonstrated that the closest relatives of NYNV and MIDWV are negative-stranded-RNA viruses in the order Mononegavirales. On the basis of their very limited sequence similarity to known viruses, we propose that NYMV and MIDWV ..
  7. Money V, McPhee H, Mosely J, Sanderson J, Yeo R. Surface features of a Mononegavirales matrix protein indicate sites of membrane interaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:4441-6 pubmed publisher
    ..syncytial virus (RSV), the prototype viral member of the Pneumovirinae (family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales), has been crystallized and the structure determined to a resolution of 1.6 A...
  8. Whelan S, Barr J, Wertz G. Transcription and replication of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2004;283:61-119 pubmed
    The nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses of the order Mononegavirales include a wide variety of human, animal, and plant pathogens...
  9. Martin A, Staeheli P, Schneider U. RNA polymerase II-controlled expression of antigenomic RNA enhances the rescue efficacies of two different members of the Mononegavirales independently of the site of viral genome replication. J Virol. 2006;80:5708-15 pubmed
    ..To improve the rescue system of Borna disease virus (BDV), a member of the Mononegavirales with a nuclear replication phase, we evaluated different RNA polymerase (Pol) promoters for viral cRNA ..

More Information


  1. Nakagawa K, Kobayashi Y, Ito N, Suzuki Y, Okada K, Makino M, et al. Molecular Function Analysis of Rabies Virus RNA Polymerase L Protein by Using an L Gene-Deficient Virus. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..on the establishment of an L gene-deficient, reporter gene-expressing virus in all species of the order Mononegavirales, also highlighting its applicability to a trans-complementation assay, which is useful for ..
  2. Jochmans D, Neyts J. The path towards effective antivirals against rabies. Vaccine. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..In particular important progress has been made on antivirals against other Mononegavirales (paramyxoviruses, filoviruses) which should be an impetus to test and optimize these molecules towards anti-..
  3. Chatterjee S, Basler C, Amarasinghe G, Leung D. Molecular Mechanisms of Innate Immune Inhibition by Non-Segmented Negative-Sense RNA Viruses. J Mol Biol. 2016;428:3467-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The order Mononegavirales is composed of viruses that possess single-stranded, non-segmented negative-sense (NNS) RNA genomes and are ..
  4. Cui J, Wang L. Genomic Mining Reveals Deep Evolutionary Relationships between Bornaviruses and Bats. Viruses. 2015;7:5792-800 pubmed publisher
    Bats globally harbor viruses in order Mononegavirales, such as lyssaviruses and henipaviruses; however, little is known about their relationships with bornaviruses...
  5. Fearns R, Plemper R. Polymerases of paramyxoviruses and pneumoviruses. Virus Res. 2017;234:87-102 pubmed publisher
    The paramyxo- and pneumoviruses are members of the order Mononegavirales, a group of viruses with non-segmented, negative strand RNA genomes...
  6. Wan W, Kolesnikova L, Clarke M, Koehler A, Noda T, Becker S, et al. Structure and assembly of the Ebola virus nucleocapsid. Nature. 2017;551:394-397 pubmed publisher
    ..Filoviruses are within the order Mononegavirales, which also includes rabies virus, measles virus, and respiratory syncytial virus...
  7. Molouki A, Peeters B. Rescue of recombinant Newcastle disease virus: a short history of how it all started. Arch Virol. 2017;162:1845-1854 pubmed publisher 1999 using a reverse genetics approach similar to that reported for other recombinant viruses of the order Mononegavirales a few years before...
  8. Wiley M, Prieto K, Blasdell K, Cai Y, Campos Lawson C, Walker P, et al. Beatrice Hill Virus Represents a Novel Species in the Genus Tibrovirus (Mononegavirales: Rhabdoviridae). Genome Announc. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a new putative member of this genus, Beatrice Hill virus. Although relatively closely related to the three classified viruses, Beatrice Hill virus represents a novel Tibrovirus species. ..
  9. Bloyet L, Welsch J, Enchery F, Mathieu C, de Breyne S, Horvat B, et al. HSP90 Chaperoning in Addition to Phosphoprotein Required for Folding but Not for Supporting Enzymatic Activities of Measles and Nipah Virus L Polymerases. J Virol. 2016;90:6642-6656 pubmed publisher
    Nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA viruses, or members of the order Mononegavirales, share a conserved gene order and the use of elaborate transcription and replication machinery made up of at least four molecular partners...
  10. Marzano S, Nelson B, Ajayi Oyetunde O, Bradley C, Hughes T, Hartman G, et al. Identification of Diverse Mycoviruses through Metatranscriptomics Characterization of the Viromes of Five Major Fungal Plant Pathogens. J Virol. 2016;90:6846-6863 pubmed publisher
    ..15 distinct lineages: Barnaviridae, Benyviridae, Chrysoviridae, Endornaviridae, Fusariviridae, Hypoviridae, Mononegavirales, Narnaviridae, Ophioviridae, Ourmiavirus, Partitiviridae, Tombusviridae, Totiviridae, Tymoviridae, and ..
  11. Marzano S, Domier L. Novel mycoviruses discovered from metatranscriptomics survey of soybean phyllosphere phytobiomes. Virus Res. 2016;213:332-342 pubmed publisher
    ..Endornavirus, Mitovirus, Mycoflexivirus, Ourmiavirus, Totivirus, Victorivirus, family Tombusviridae, order Mononegavirales, and the recently proposed genus Gemycircularvirus...
  12. Pettersson J, Shi M, Bohlin J, Eldholm V, Brynildsrud O, Paulsen K, et al. Characterizing the virome of Ixodes ricinus ticks from northern Europe. Sci Rep. 2017;7:10870 pubmed publisher
    ..viral species, phylogenetically positioned within four different viral groups - bunyaviruses, luteoviruses, mononegavirales and partitiviruses - and sometimes characterized by extensive genetic diversity including a potentially novel ..
  13. Paesen G, Collet A, Sallamand C, Debart F, Vasseur J, Canard B, et al. X-ray structure and activities of an essential Mononegavirales L-protein domain. Nat Commun. 2015;6:8749 pubmed publisher
    ..CR-VI+ sequentially methylates caps at their 2'O and N7 positions, and also displays nucleotide triphosphatase activity. ..
  14. Marzano S, Domier L. Reprint of "Novel mycoviruses discovered from metatranscriptomics survey of soybean phyllosphere phytobiomes". Virus Res. 2016;219:11-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Endornavirus, Mitovirus, Mycoflexivirus, Ourmiavirus, Totivirus, Victorivirus, family Tombusviridae, order Mononegavirales, and the recently proposed genus Gemycircularvirus...
  15. Fauver J, Grubaugh N, Krajacich B, Weger Lucarelli J, Lakin S, Fakoli L, et al. West African Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes harbor a taxonomically diverse virome including new insect-specific flaviviruses, mononegaviruses, and totiviruses. Virology. 2016;498:288-299 pubmed publisher
    ..The coding-complete sequences define new viruses in the order Mononegavirales, and the families Flaviviridae, and Totiviridae...
  16. Kozak R, He S, Kroeker A, de La Vega M, Audet J, Wong G, et al. Ferrets Infected with Bundibugyo Virus or Ebola Virus Recapitulate Important Aspects of Human Filovirus Disease. J Virol. 2016;90:9209-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Domestic ferrets are commonly used to study other RNA viruses, including members of the order Mononegavirales To investigate whether ferrets were susceptible to filovirus infections, ferrets were challenged with a ..
  17. Pagán I, Holmes E, Simon Loriere E. Level of gene expression is a major determinant of protein evolution in the viral order Mononegavirales. J Virol. 2012;86:5253-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The polar 3'-5' stepwise attenuation of transcription in the Mononegavirales, a group of single-strand negative-sense RNA viruses, provides a unique system to explore the determinants of ..
  18. Wang L, He H, Wang S, Chen X, Qiu D, Kondo H, et al. Evidence for a novel negative-stranded RNA mycovirus isolated from the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. Virology. 2018;518:232-240 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that FgNSRV-1 can be classified into the family Mymonaviridae, order Mononegavirales. Putative enveloped virion-like structures with filamentous morphology similar to SsNSRV-1 were observed in ..
  19. Postler T, Clawson A, Amarasinghe G, Basler C, Bavari S, Benko M, et al. Possibility and Challenges of Conversion of Current Virus Species Names to Linnaean Binomials. Syst Biol. 2017;66:463-473 pubmed publisher
    ..convert all currently official names of species included in the virus family Arenaviridae and the virus order Mononegavirales to Linnaean binomials, and to identify and address associated challenges and concerns...
  20. Pereira N, Cardone C, Lassoued S, Galloux M, Fix J, Assrir N, et al. New Insights into Structural Disorder in Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Phosphoprotein and Implications for Binding of Protein Partners. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:2120-2131 pubmed publisher
    Phosphoprotein is the main cofactor of the viral RNA polymerase of Mononegavirales It is involved in multiple interactions that are essential for the polymerase function...
  21. Bourg M, Nobach D, Herzog S, Lange Herbst H, Nesseler A, Hamann H, et al. Screening red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) for possible viral causes of encephalitis. Virol J. 2016;13:151 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, foxes are known to be highly susceptible for viruses of the order Mononegavirales. Analyses for the presence of anti-BoDV-1 antibodies, BoDV-1-RNA and antigen were performed on 225 blood and ..
  22. Nikolic J, Le Bars R, Lama Z, Scrima N, Lagaudrière Gesbert C, Gaudin Y, et al. Negri bodies are viral factories with properties of liquid organelles. Nat Commun. 2017;8:58 pubmed publisher
    Replication of Mononegavirales occurs in viral factories which form inclusions in the host-cell cytoplasm. For rabies virus, those inclusions are called Negri bodies (NBs)...
  23. Molina I, Esperante S, Marino Buslje C, Chemes L, de Prat Gay G. Cooperative RNA Recognition by a Viral Transcription Antiterminator. J Mol Biol. 2018;430:777-792 pubmed publisher
    RNA transcription of mononegavirales decreases gradually from the 3' leader promoter toward the 5' end of the genome, due to a decay in polymerase processivity...
  24. Ghorbani A, Izadpanah K, Dietzgen R. Gene expression and population polymorphism of maize Iranian mosaic virus in Zea mays, and intracellular localization and interactions of viral N, P, and M proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. Virus Genes. 2018;54:290-296 pubmed publisher
    Maize Iranian mosaic virus (MIMV; Mononegavirales, Rhabdoviridae, Nucleorhabdovirus) infects maize and several other poaceous plants. MIMV encodes six proteins, i.e...
  25. Ryabov E. Invertebrate RNA virus diversity from a taxonomic point of view. J Invertebr Pathol. 2017;147:37-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Invertebrate RNA viruses are present in three out of four currently recognized orders of RNA viruses: Mononegavirales, Nidovirales, and Picornavirales, and 10 out of 37 RNA virus families that have yet to be assigned to an ..
  26. Renner M, Bertinelli M, Leyrat C, Paesen G, Saraiva de Oliveira L, Huiskonen J, et al. Nucleocapsid assembly in pneumoviruses is regulated by conformational switching of the N protein. elife. 2016;5:e12627 pubmed publisher
    ..Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), an emerging pathogen of this order of viruses (Mononegavirales) is one of the main causes of respiratory tract illness in children...
  27. Herrel M, Haag L, Nilsson J, Staeheli P, Schneider U. Reverse genetics identifies the product of open reading frame 4 as an essential particle assembly factor of Nyamanini virus. J Virol. 2013;87:8257-60 pubmed publisher
    ..ORF4-deficient NYMV readily established a persisting noncytolytic infection but failed to produce infectious viral particles, supporting the view that ORF4 represents an essential factor for NYMV particle assembly. ..
  28. Battisti A, Meng G, Winkler D, McGinnes L, Plevka P, Steven A, et al. Structure and assembly of a paramyxovirus matrix protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:13996-4000 pubmed publisher
    ..Structure and sequence conservation imply that other paramyxovirus matrix proteins function similarly...
  29. Lightner D, Redman R, Poulos B, Nunan L, Mari J, Hasson K. Risk of spread of penaeid shrimp viruses in the Americas by the international movement of live and frozen shrimp. Rev Sci Tech. 1997;16:146-60 pubmed
  30. Degiorgis M, Berg A, Hard Af Segerstad C, Morner T, Johansson M, Berg M. Borna disease in a free-ranging lynx (Lynx lynx). J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:3087-91 pubmed
    ..In situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the presence of Borna disease virus infection in the brain. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed case of Borna disease in a large felid. ..
  31. Cubitt B, Oldstone C, de La Torre J. Sequence and genome organization of Borna disease virus. J Virol. 1994;68:1382-96 pubmed
    ..Our results revealed that BDV has a genomic organization similar to that of other members of the Mononegavirales order. We have identified five main open reading frames (ORFs)...
  32. Afonso C, Amarasinghe G, Bányai K, Bào Y, Basler C, Bavari S, et al. Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2016. Arch Virol. 2016;161:2351-60 pubmed publisher
    In 2016, the order Mononegavirales was emended through the addition of two new families (Mymonaviridae and Sunviridae), the elevation of the paramyxoviral subfamily Pneumovirinae to family status (Pneumoviridae), the addition of five ..
  33. Ito Y. [Molecular evolution of paramyxoviruses]. Nihon Rinsho. 1997;55:2476-83 pubmed
    ..e., mammal and avian types; (6) phylogentic trees for mononegaviruses are constructed. ..
  34. Gerlier D, Lyles D. Interplay between innate immunity and negative-strand RNA viruses: towards a rational model. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2011;75:468-90, second page of table of contents pubmed publisher
    ..This holds particularly true for the nonsegmented negative-strand viruses (Mononegavirales), which paradoxically have been largely used to build presently available models...
  35. Murphy A, Moerdyk Schauwecker M, Mushegian A, Grdzelishvili V. Sequence-function analysis of the Sendai virus L protein domain VI. Virology. 2010;405:370-82 pubmed publisher
    The large (about 2200 amino acids) L polymerase protein of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses (order Mononegavirales) has six conserved sequence regions ("domains") postulated to constitute the specific enzymatic activities ..
  36. Halpin K, Young P, Field H, Mackenzie J. Newly discovered viruses of flying foxes. Vet Microbiol. 1999;68:83-7 pubmed
    Flying foxes have been the focus of research into three newly described viruses from the order Mononegavirales, namely Hendra virus (HeV), Menangle virus and Australian Bat Lyssavirus (ABL)...
  37. Amarasinghe G, Bao Y, Basler C, Bavari S, Beer M, Bejerman N, et al. Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2017. Arch Virol. 2017;162:2493-2504 pubmed publisher
    In 2017, the order Mononegavirales was expanded by the inclusion of a total of 69 novel species...
  38. Bock J, Lundsgaard T, Pedersen P, Christensen L. Identification and partial characterization of Taastrup virus: a newly identified member species of the Mononegavirales. Virology. 2004;319:49-59 pubmed
    ..five potential open reading frames (ORFs) and a complex pattern of homologies to various members of the Mononegavirales suggests a genome organization with the following order of genes: 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5'...
  39. Cattaneo R. Biased (A-->I) hypermutation of animal RNA virus genomes. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1994;4:895-900 pubmed
    ..A cellular RNA-modifying enzyme probably introduces the clustered transitions and thus contributes to the evolution of RNA viruses. ..
  40. Bujnicki J, Rychlewski L. In silico identification, structure prediction and phylogenetic analysis of the 2'-O-ribose (cap 1) methyltransferase domain in the large structural protein of ssRNA negative-strand viruses. Protein Eng. 2002;15:101-8 pubmed
    ..e. the cap 1 MTase). Evolutionary relationships between these proteins are also discussed. ..
  41. Forsbach A, Nemorin J, Völp K, Samulowitz U, Montino C, Muller C, et al. Characterization of conserved viral leader RNA sequences that stimulate innate immunity through TLRs. Oligonucleotides. 2007;17:405-17 pubmed
    Viruses of the order Mononegavirales encompass life-threatening pathogens with single-stranded segmented or nonsegmented negative-strand RNA genomes...
  42. Koehler J, Smith J, Ripoll D, Spik K, Taylor S, Badger C, et al. A fusion-inhibiting peptide against Rift Valley fever virus inhibits multiple, diverse viruses. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2430 pubmed publisher
    ..These results could provide novel insights into conserved features among the three classes of viral fusion proteins and offer direction for the future development of broadly active fusion inhibitors. ..
  43. Conzelmann K. Transcriptional activation of alpha/beta interferon genes: interference by nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. J Virol. 2005;79:5241-8 pubmed
  44. Bourhis J, Canard B, Longhi S. Structural disorder within the replicative complex of measles virus: functional implications. Virology. 2006;344:94-110 pubmed
    Measles virus belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family within the Mononegavirales order. Its non-segmented, single stranded, negative sense RNA genome is encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (N) to form a helical nucleocapsid...
  45. Bukreyev A, Skiadopoulos M, Murphy B, Collins P. Nonsegmented negative-strand viruses as vaccine vectors. J Virol. 2006;80:10293-306 pubmed
  46. Lenard J. Host cell protein kinases in nonsegmented negative-strand virus (mononegavirales) infection. Pharmacol Ther. 1999;83:39-48 pubmed
    ..probably an essential step in the life cycle of every member of the nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus (mononegavirales [MNV]) group...
  47. Herrel M, Hoefs N, Staeheli P, Schneider U. Tick-borne Nyamanini virus replicates in the nucleus and exhibits unusual genome and matrix protein properties. J Virol. 2012;86:10739-47 pubmed publisher
    Tick-borne Nyamanini virus (NYMV) is the prototypic member of a recently discovered genus in the order Mononegavirales, designated Nyavirus. The NYMV genome codes for six distinct genes...
  48. Plumet S, Herschke F, Bourhis J, Valentin H, Longhi S, Gerlier D. Cytosolic 5'-triphosphate ended viral leader transcript of measles virus as activator of the RIG I-mediated interferon response. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e279 pubmed
    ..However, the biology of non-segmented negative strand RNA viruses, or Mononegavirales, is hardly compatible with the production of such dsRNA...
  49. Wang Y, Sawicki S, Sawicki D. Alphavirus nsP3 functions to form replication complexes transcribing negative-strand RNA. J Virol. 1994;68:6466-75 pubmed