bovine viral diarrhea viruses


Summary: A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.

Top Publications

  1. Bendfeldt S, Grummer B, Greiser Wilke I. No caspase activation but overexpression of Bcl-2 in bovine cells infected with noncytopathic bovine virus diarrhoea virus. Vet Microbiol. 2003;96:313-26 pubmed
    ..It was shown that while Bax expression was not affected, the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was upregulated, presumably suppressing initiation of cell death and enabling persistent infection in vitro. ..
  2. Brock K. Strategies for the control and prevention of bovine viral diarrhea virus. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2004;20:171-80 pubmed
    ..Current knowledge and an understanding of the problem and the impact of BVDV-associated disease by the livestock industry will facilitate the organization and tremendous effort required to control BVDV successfully...
  3. Kameyama K, Sakoda Y, Tamai K, Nagai M, Akashi H, Kida H. Genetic recombination at different points in the Npro-coding region of bovine viral diarrhea viruses and the potentials to change their antigenicities and pathogenicities. Virus Res. 2006;116:78-84 pubmed
  4. Ståhl K, Kampa J, Baule C, Isaksson M, Moreno López J, Belak S, et al. Molecular epidemiology of bovine viral diarrhoea during the final phase of the Swedish BVD-eradication programme. Prev Vet Med. 2005;72:103-8; discussion 215-9 pubmed
  5. Baxi M, McRae D, Baxi S, Greiser Wilke I, Vilcek S, Amoako K, et al. A one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR for detection and typing of bovine viral diarrhea viruses. Vet Microbiol. 2006;116:37-44 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR) using SmartCycler technology and TaqMan probes was developed for detection and typing of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV)...
  6. Xue F, Zhu Y, Li J, Zhu L, Ren X, Feng J, et al. Genotyping of bovine viral diarrhea viruses from cattle in China between 2005 and 2008. Vet Microbiol. 2010;143:379-83 pubmed publisher
    Eighteen bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) from cattle in China between 2005 and 2008 were genetically typed by sequencing of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the viral genome and for selected isolates the N(pro) region...
  7. Brock K. The persistence of bovine viral diarrhea virus. Biologicals. 2003;31:133-5 pubmed
  8. Houe H. Economic impact of BVDV infection in dairies. Biologicals. 2003;31:137-43 pubmed
    ..However, selection of a control strategy should always rely on thorough epidemiological investigations conducted under the same conditions in which the programme is going to be applied...
  9. Buckwold V, Beer B, Donis R. Bovine viral diarrhea virus as a surrogate model of hepatitis C virus for the evaluation of antiviral agents. Antiviral Res. 2003;60:1-15 pubmed

More Information

Publications121 found, 100 shown here

  1. Nagai M, Hayashi M, Sugita S, Sakoda Y, Mori M, Murakami T, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of bovine viral diarrhea viruses using five different genetic regions. Virus Res. 2004;99:103-13 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that phylogenetic analysis of several genetic regions is useful for the further characterization of field BVDV isolates. ..
  2. Givens M, Riddell K, Zhang Y, Galik P, Walz P, Brodersen B, et al. Safety and efficacy of vaccination of seronegative bulls with modified-live, cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses. Theriogenology. 2009;71:975-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The vaccine did not cause prolonged testicular infection. Vaccination with this product prevented development of prolonged testicular infections after subsequent exposure to a field strain of BVDV. ..
  3. Peterhans E, Jungi T, Schweizer M. BVDV and innate immunity. Biologicals. 2003;31:107-12 pubmed
    ..Since interferon is also important in the activation of the adaptive immune response, suppression of this signal may be essential for the establishment of persistent infection and immunotolerance. ..
  4. Agapov E, Murray C, Frolov I, Qu L, Myers T, Rice C. Uncleaved NS2-3 is required for production of infectious bovine viral diarrhea virus. J Virol. 2004;78:2414-25 pubmed
    ..We determined that the expression of NS4A in cis with NS2-3 markedly increased its activity, while p7 could be supplied in trans. Based on these data, we propose a model for NS2-3 action in virion morphogenesis. ..
  5. Sandvik T. Selection and use of laboratory diagnostic assays in BVD control programmes. Prev Vet Med. 2005;72:3-16; discussion 215-9 pubmed
    ..Basic properties of these and other methods are reviewed, with emphasis on the need for diagnostic assays in control programmes for BVD...
  6. Kuhne S, Schroeder C, Holmquist G, Wolf G, Horner S, Brem G, et al. Detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus infected cattle--testing tissue samples derived from ear tagging using an Erns capture ELISA. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2005;52:272-7 pubmed
    ..Using cattle ear tags combining the ear tag application with sampling of a small ear tissue plug and testing those tissue samples with an ACE could be a reliable and economic way of BVDV testing...
  7. Bitsch V, Hansen K, Rønsholt L. Experiences from the Danish programme for eradication of bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD) 1994-1998 with special reference to legislation and causes of infection. Vet Microbiol. 2000;77:137-43 pubmed
    ..The results underline the need for legislation to be used in eradication programmes in areas with a high prevalence of infection and to be introduced right from the beginning in order to minimise the risk of infection for free herds...
  8. Graham D, German A, McLaren I, Fitzpatrick D. Testing of bulk tank milk from Northern Ireland dairy herds for viral RNA and antibody to bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Vet Rec. 2001;149:261-5 pubmed
    ..None of the group 3 herds was positive, but five group 4 herds were positive...
  9. Qu L, McMullan L, Rice C. Isolation and characterization of noncytopathic pestivirus mutants reveals a role for nonstructural protein NS4B in viral cytopathogenicity. J Virol. 2001;75:10651-62 pubmed
    ..Although the mechanism remains to be elucidated, these results demonstrate that mutations in NS4B can attenuate BVDV cytopathogenicity despite NS3 production. ..
  10. Viltro A, Alaots J, Pärn M, Must K. Natural changes in the spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) among Estonian cattle. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2002;49:263-9 pubmed
  11. Evermann J, Ridpath J. Clinical and epidemiologic observations of bovine viral diarrhea virus in the northwestern United States. Vet Microbiol. 2002;89:129-39 pubmed
    ..BVDV1b was intermediate, followed by BVDV2, which was associated more with early infections (45%) and less with late infections (55%) when compared with BVDV1a and BVDV1b...
  12. Gray E, Nettleton P. The ultrastructure of cell cultures infected with border disease and bovine virus diarrhoea viruses. J Gen Virol. 1987;68 ( Pt 9):2339-46 pubmed
    ..Virus replication took place totally within the cytoplasm in association with structures formed from modified endoplasmic reticulum...
  13. Becher P, Konig M, Paton D, Thiel H. Further characterization of border disease virus isolates: evidence for the presence of more than three species within the genus pestivirus. Virology. 1995;209:200-6 pubmed
    ..The data lead to the question whether the current nomenclature of pestivirus species according to the host origin and the induced diseases is still appropriate...
  14. Le S, Siddiqui A, Maizel J. A common structural core in the internal ribosome entry sites of picornavirus, hepatitis C virus, and pestivirus. Virus Genes. 1996;12:135-47 pubmed
    ..The conserved structural motif from these divergent sequences that looks like the common core region of group 1 introns is probably a crucial element involved in the IRES-dependent translation. ..
  15. Behrens S, Grassmann C, Thiel H, Meyers G, Tautz N. Characterization of an autonomous subgenomic pestivirus RNA replicon. J Virol. 1998;72:2364-72 pubmed
    ..The implications for other Flaviviridae and, in particular, the BVDV-related human hepatitis C virus are discussed. ..
  16. Myers T, Kolupaeva V, Mendez E, Baginski S, Frolov I, Hellen C, et al. Efficient translation initiation is required for replication of bovine viral diarrhea virus subgenomic replicons. J Virol. 2001;75:4226-38 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that a lack of stable RNA secondary structure(s), rather than a specific RNA sequence, immediately downstream of the initiator AUG is important for optimal translation initiation of pestivirus RNAs. ..
  17. Neill J, Ridpath J. Recombination with a cellular mRNA encoding a novel DnaJ protein results in biotype conversion in genotype 2 bovine viral diarrhea viruses. Virus Res. 2001;79:59-69 pubmed
    b>Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) exist as two biotypes, cytopathic and noncytopathic, based on their ability to produce cytopathology in cultured cells...
  18. Lindberg A, Niskanen R, Gustafsson H, Bengtsson B, Baule C, Belak S, et al. Prenatal diagnosis of persistent bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection by detection of viral RNA in fetal fluids. Vet J. 2002;164:151-5 pubmed
  19. Goens S. The evolution of bovine viral diarrhea: a review. Can Vet J. 2002;43:946-54 pubmed
  20. Colett M, Larson R, Gold C, Strick D, Anderson D, Purchio A. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus. Virology. 1988;165:191-9 pubmed
    ..A single major open reading frame extending the length of the molecule was found in the viral-sense (positive polarity) sequence. This open reading frame was capable of encoding 3988 amino acids, representing 449 kDa of protein...
  21. Meyers G, Tautz N, Becher P, Thiel H, Kümmerer B. Recovery of cytopathogenic and noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea viruses from cDNA constructs. J Virol. 1996;70:8606-13 pubmed
    ..These findings confirm the hypothesis that the recombination-induced alterations in the genomes of cytopathogenic BVDV are responsible for the induction of cell lysis. ..
  22. Lindberg A, Alenius S. Principles for eradication of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections in cattle populations. Vet Microbiol. 1999;64:197-222 pubmed
  23. Nuotio L, Juvonen M, Neuvonen E, Sihvonen L, Husu Kallio J. Prevalence and geographic distribution of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) infection in Finland 1993-1997. Vet Microbiol. 1999;64:231-5 pubmed
    ..A comprehensive control programme and a more specific, cooperatively funded eradication programme for dairy cattle were launched in 1994. These programmes most probably contributed to the decline in prevalence during 1994-1996...
  24. Valle P, Martin S, Tremblay R, Bateman K. Factors associated with being a bovine-virus diarrhoea (BVD) seropositive dairy herd in the Møre and Romsdal County of Norway. Prev Vet Med. 1999;40:165-77 pubmed
    ..Other animal traffic', including use of common animal housing in the summer months and exchange of calves between farmers were also risk factors. Collectively, these factors could explain 51% of the seropositive herds...
  25. Tautz N, Harada T, Kaiser A, Rinck G, Behrens S, Thiel H. Establishment and characterization of cytopathogenic and noncytopathogenic pestivirus replicons. J Virol. 1999;73:9422-32 pubmed
    ..These replicons will facilitate future studies aimed at the determination of the molecular basis for the cytopathogenicity of BVDV. ..
  26. Mainar Jaime R, Berzal Herranz B, Arias P, Rojo Vazquez F. Epidemiological pattern and risk factors associated with bovine viral-diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in a non-vaccinated dairy-cattle population from the Asturias region of Spain. Prev Vet Med. 2001;52:63-73 pubmed
    ..In addition, an increasing risk of abortion was not observed when cows were seropositive to both BVDV and Neospora caninum infections...
  27. Meyer C, von Freyburg M, Elbers K, Meyers G. Recovery of virulent and RNase-negative attenuated type 2 bovine viral diarrhea viruses from infectious cDNA clones. J Virol. 2002;76:8494-503 pubmed
    ..The plasmid pKANE40A represents the first infectious cDNA clone established for a type 2 BVDV and offers a variety of new approaches to analyze the mechanisms of BVDV-induced disease in cattle. ..
  28. Stahl K, Rivera H, Vågsholm I, Moreno Lopez J. Bulk milk testing for antibody seroprevalences to BVDV and BHV-1 in a rural region of Peru. Prev Vet Med. 2002;56:193-202 pubmed
    ..For BHV-1, this pattern was not found; a relatively high proportion of the herds was free from BHV-1 infection in each size category. This could indicate a low rate of reactivation of latent BHV-1 infection...
  29. Kabongo N, van Vuuren M. Detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in specimens from cattle in South Africa and possible association with clinical disease. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2004;75:90-3 pubmed
    ..Abortion, congenital malformations, haemorrhagic diarrhoea and poor growth were also included as criteria for selection of animals for specimen collection, but no BVD viruses were isolated from cattle manifesting these clinical signs. ..
  30. Bálint A, Baule C, Palfi V, Dencso L, Hornyák A, Belak S. A 45-nucleotide insertion in the NS2 gene is responsible for the cytopathogenicity of a bovine viral diarrhoea virus strain. Virus Genes. 2005;31:135-44 pubmed
    ..These findings provide a direct proof that the 45-nt insertion at position 4355 has a basic role in the cytopathogenic character of this BVDV strain. ..
  31. Lee D, Park S, Choi E, Lee C. Investigation of the prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in dairy cows in South Korea. Vet Rec. 2008;162:211-3 pubmed
    ..The proportion of seropositive cows increased with their parity, but there was no difference between the seroprevalence of BVDV among the cows in the two regions...
  32. Ersbøll A, Ersbøll B. Simulation of the K-function in the analysis of spatial clustering for non-randomly distributed locations--exemplified by bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in Denmark. Prev Vet Med. 2009;91:64-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The approach also overcomes edge effects and problems with complex shapes of the study region. An application to bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in Denmark is described. ..
  33. Rossmanith W, Deinhofer M, Janacek R, Trampler R, Wilhelm E. Voluntary and compulsory eradication of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Lower Austria. Vet Microbiol. 2010;142:143-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This signifies a marked improvement since 1998, when 46% of the 5024 tested dairy herds had a high level of BVDV antibodies in bulk tank milk. Total eradication of BVDV-infected herds will need a further 1 or 2 years. ..
  34. Bolin S, Grooms D. Origination and consequences of bovine viral diarrhea virus diversity. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2004;20:51-68 pubmed
    ..Current and the potential for future BVDV strain diversity should be considered when designing BVDV control programs both at the individual farm and national herd level. ..
  35. Wrathall A, Simmons H, Van Soom A. Evaluation of risks of viral transmission to recipients of bovine embryos arising from fertilisation with virus-infected semen. Theriogenology. 2006;65:247-74 pubmed
    ..However, it has never been demonstrated that such embryos have resulted in transmission of infection to recipients or offspring. ..
  36. Ferrer F, Zoth S, Calamante G, Taboga O. Induction of virus-neutralizing antibodies by immunization with Rachiplusia nu per os infected with a recombinant baculovirus expressing the E2 glycoprotein of bovine viral diarrhea virus. J Virol Methods. 2007;146:424-7 pubmed
    ..This report demonstrates the efficacy of per os infected larval extracts as a BVDV recombinant immunogen, which constitutes an easier and economic approach for producing recombinant antigens. ..
  37. Passler T, Walz P, Ditchkoff S, Walz H, Givens M, Brock K. Evaluation of hunter-harvested white-tailed deer for evidence of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in Alabama. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2008;20:79-82 pubmed
    ..Evidence of BVDV infection in free-ranging white-tailed deer should encourage further systematic investigation of the prevalence of BVDV in wildlife. ..
  38. Peters A, Thevasagayam S, Wiseman A, Salt J. Duration of immunity of a quadrivalent vaccine against respiratory diseases caused by BHV-1, PI3V, BVDV, and BRSV in experimentally infected calves. Prev Vet Med. 2004;66:63-77 pubmed
  39. Yesilbag K, Güngör B. Seroprevalence of bovine respiratory viruses in North-Western Turkey. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2008;40:55-60 pubmed
    ..0001). This study demonstrates that herd capacity is a very important risk factor for respiratory viruses and, on the other hand bovine adenoviruses and BRSV are the common reason of respiratory diseases in the region. ..
  40. Hessman B, Fulton R, Sjeklocha D, Murphy T, Ridpath J, Payton M. Evaluation of economic effects and the health and performance of the general cattle population after exposure to cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus in a starter feedlot. Am J Vet Res. 2009;70:73-85 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate economic effects and health and performance of the general cattle population after exposure to cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a feedlot...
  41. Hosoda S, Aoyama H, Goto Y, Salim M, Okamoto M, Hashimoto M, et al. Discovery of diphenylmethane analogs as anti-bovine diarrhea viral agents. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009;19:3157-61 pubmed publisher
    ..2-8.4 microM and >100 microM, respectively, in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells infected with BVDV. ..
  42. Boyd B, Lee T, Kruger E, Pinchuk L. Cytopathic and non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhoea virus biotypes affect fluid phase uptake and mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis in bovine monocytes. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2004;102:53-65 pubmed
    ..By influencing the early antigen uptake function of APC, BVDV might disrupt the function of monocytes as professional APC and contribute to the specific immunotolerance to BVDV. ..
  43. Tonelli M, Boido V, Colla P, Loddo R, Posocco P, Paneni M, et al. Pharmacophore modeling, resistant mutant isolation, docking, and MM-PBSA analysis: Combined experimental/computer-assisted approaches to identify new inhibitors of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Bioorg Med Chem. 2010;18:2304-2316 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the excellent agreement between in silico and in vitro data, this procedure is currently being employed in the design a new series of more selective and potent BVDV inhibitors. ..
  44. Rypuła K. The effects of experimental infection with bovine diarrhoea virus (BVDV) on lymphocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood of pigs. Pol J Vet Sci. 2003;6:189-93 pubmed
    ..Obtained results may indicate that infection with species-unspecific pestiviruses causes similar, but less significant, changes within lymphocyte subpopulations than infection with species-specific pestiviruses. ..
  45. Stuyver L, McBrayer T, Whitaker T, Tharnish P, Ramesh M, Lostia S, et al. Inhibition of the subgenomic hepatitis C virus replicon in huh-7 cells by 2'-deoxy-2'-fluorocytidine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:651-4 pubmed
    ..Dynamic profiling of cell growth in an antiviral assay showed that FdC caused cytostasis due to an S-phase arrest. These observations demonstrate that FdC treatment is affecting both a viral target and a cellular target. ..
  46. Grooms D. Reproductive consequences of infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2004;20:5-19 pubmed
    ..Development of vaccines and vaccine strategies capable of providing better protection against fetal infection would be of benefit. ..
  47. Lee S, Pharr G, Boyd B, Pinchuk L. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses modulate toll-like receptors, cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules genes expression in bovine peripheral blood monocytes. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008;31:403-18 pubmed
    We have used noncytopathic (ncp) and cytopathic (cp) Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses (BVDV) to determine the expression levels of TLR genes, type I IFN, pro-inflammatory and Th1/Th2 cytokine gene expression in bovine monocytes...
  48. Ansari I, Chen L, Liang D, Gil L, Zhong W, Donis R. Involvement of a bovine viral diarrhea virus NS5B locus in virion assembly. J Virol. 2004;78:9612-23 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these studies revealed an unexpected role of NS5B in infectious virion assembly. ..
  49. Tabarrini O, Manfroni G, Fravolini A, Cecchetti V, Sabatini S, De Clercq E, et al. Synthesis and anti-BVDV activity of acridones as new potential antiviral agents. J Med Chem. 2006;49:2621-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, the acridone scaffold, when appropriately functionalized, can yield compounds with selective activity against pestiviruses and related viruses such as the HCV. ..
  50. Lee S, Nanduri B, Pharr G, Stokes J, Pinchuk L. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection affects the expression of proteins related to professional antigen presentation in bovine monocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1794:14-22 pubmed publisher
  51. Collins M, Heaney J, Thomas C, Brownlie J. Infectivity of pestivirus following persistence of acute infection. Vet Microbiol. 2009;138:289-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that BVDV-infected, recovered and immune animals have the potential to remain infectious for BVDV-naïve cohorts for longer than previously demonstrated. ..
  52. Krametter R, Nielsen S, Loitsch A, Froetscher W, Benetka V, Moestl K, et al. Pestivirus exposure in free-living and captive deer in Austria. J Wildl Dis. 2004;40:791-5 pubmed
    ..Results of the virus neutralization tests of this sample provided strong evidence for the exposure to the BVDV-1 genotype. The spleen samples were negative for pestivirus-specific RNA...
  53. Antonis A, van der Poel W. [BVD-approach: prevention by Mr. L.R.M. Verberne]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2005;130:530 pubmed
  54. Scott H, Sorensen O, Wu J, Chow E, Manninen K, VanLeeuwen J. Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, Neospora caninum, Bovine leukemia virus, and Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection among dairy cattle and herds in Alberta and agroecological risk factors associated with seropositivi. Can Vet J. 2006;47:981-91 pubmed
    ..4% and 19.7%. Seroprevalence for MAP varied moderately by agroecological region, whereas that for NC, BLV, and BVDv1 and BVDv2 did not. For MAP, aridity and soil pH (correlated features of the region) were also important...
  55. Brooks J, Key D, Hattel A, Hovingh E, Peterson R, Shaw D, et al. Failure to detect bovine viral diarrhea virus in necropsied farm-raised white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Pennsylvania. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2007;19:298-300 pubmed
    ..Gross or histopathologic lesions suggestive of BVDV infection were not detected. Results of this study suggest that BVD is not a common cause of mortality in farm-raised white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania. ..
  56. Nobiron I, Thompson I, Brownlie J, Collins M. DNA vaccination against bovine viral diarrhoea virus induces humoral and cellular responses in cattle with evidence for protection against viral challenge. Vaccine. 2003;21:2082-92 pubmed
  57. Endsley J, Roth J, Ridpath J, Neill J. Maternal antibody blocks humoral but not T cell responses to BVDV. Biologicals. 2003;31:123-5 pubmed
    ..The data also demonstrated that seronegative calves with memory T and B cells specific for BVDV may be immune to challenge with virulent BVDV. ..
  58. Liang D, Sainz I, Ansari I, Gil L, Vassilev V, Donis R. The envelope glycoprotein E2 is a determinant of cell culture tropism in ruminant pestiviruses. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:1269-74 pubmed
    ..Control chimeric BVDV bearing a type II E2 demonstrated that the heterologous E2 does not impair replication in MDBK or lamb cells. These results establish a role for E2 in determining the tropism of a pestivirus in cell culture. ..
  59. Lackner T, Muller A, Pankraz A, Becher P, Thiel H, Gorbalenya A, et al. Temporal modulation of an autoprotease is crucial for replication and pathogenicity of an RNA virus. J Virol. 2004;78:10765-75 pubmed
    ..The biotype-specific modulation of NS2-3 autoprocessing indicates a crucial role of the NS2 autoprotease in the pathogenicity of BVDV...
  60. Jones L, Weber E. Homologous recombination in bovine pestiviruses. Phylogenetic and statistic evidence. Infect Genet Evol. 2004;4:335-43 pubmed
    ..This evidence demonstrates that homologous recombination contribute to the diversification of bovine pestiviruses in nature. Implications for virus evolution, taxonomy and phylogenetics are discussed. ..
  61. Powers J, Piper D, Li Y, Mayorga V, Anzola J, Chen J, et al. SAR and mode of action of novel non-nucleoside inhibitors of hepatitis C NS5b RNA polymerase. J Med Chem. 2006;49:1034-46 pubmed
    ..Structure-activity relationships and structural studies have identified the mechanism of action for compounds in this series, several of which possess drug-like properties, as unique, reversible, covalent inhibitors of HCV NS5b. ..
  62. Luzzago C, Frigerio M, Tolari F, Mazzei M, Salvadori C, Del Piero F, et al. Indirect immunohistochemistry on skin biopsy for the detection of persistently infected cattle with bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Italian dairy herds. New Microbiol. 2006;29:127-31 pubmed
    ..Agreement K value was 0.96. Immunohistochemical staining in positive animals was clearly detectable in the keratinocytes of the epidermis and adnexa. ..
  63. Mawhinney I, Watson C, Patel J. Seroprevalence of BVDV in cattle of different ages on 17 dairy farms in western England. Vet Rec. 2007;160:738-40 pubmed
  64. Müller Doblies D, Arquint A, Schaller P, Heegaard P, Hilbe M, Albini S, et al. Innate immune responses of calves during transient infection with a noncytopathic strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004;11:302-12 pubmed
    ..In the context of this study with BVDV, the level of Mx protein expression in WBC provided the most telling diagnostic window to monitor the host's ongoing innate immune response. ..
  65. Gallei A, Orlich M, Thiel H, Becher P. Noncytopathogenic pestivirus strains generated by nonhomologous RNA recombination: alterations in the NS4A/NS4B coding region. J Virol. 2005;79:14261-70 pubmed
    ..These findings thus led to the identification of two genomic loci which appear to be suited for the insertion of heterologous sequences into the genomes of pestiviruses and related viruses. ..
  66. al Afaleq A, Abu Elzein E, Al Khalyfah M. Severe malformations in calves associated with bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus infection in a dairy cattle herd. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2007;39:463-6 pubmed
    ..Further insight epidemiological studies to elucidate the BVD situation in Saudi Arabia is urgently needed. ..
  67. Loeffen W, Van Beuningen A, Quak S, Elbers A. Seroprevalence and risk factors for the presence of ruminant pestiviruses in the Dutch swine population. Vet Microbiol. 2009;136:240-5 pubmed publisher
  68. Schefers J, Collins J, Goyal S, Ames T. Detection, characterization, and control of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a large commercial dairy herd. Can Vet J. 2009;50:1075-9 pubmed
    ..Precolostral BVDV serum antibody was detected in 5.3% (12/226) of newborn calves before the test and removal of persistently infected (PI) animals and in 0.4% (2/450) of newborn calves after the removal of PI heifers. ..
  69. Givens M, Heath A, Carson R, Brock K, Edens M, Wenzel J, et al. Analytical sensitivity of assays used for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus in semen samples from the Southeastern United States. Vet Microbiol. 2003;96:145-55 pubmed
    ..All samples were negative by all assays for BVDV. The application of analytically sensitive assays reveals a very low prevalence (</=0.54%) of BVDV in semen from bulls in the Southeastern United States. ..
  70. Mockeliūniene V, Salomskas A, Mockeliūnas R, Petkevicius S. Prevalence and epidemiological features of bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection in Lithuania. Vet Microbiol. 2004;99:51-7 pubmed
    ..Sex of animal had no influence on the prevalence of BVDV. It was estimated that the annual incidence risk of infection with BVDV decreases with the animal age. ..
  71. Zimmer G, van Maanen C, De Goey I, Brinkhof J, Wentink G. The effect of maternal antibodies on the detection of bovine virus diarrhoea virus in peripheral blood samples. Vet Microbiol. 2004;100:145-9 pubmed
    ..However, the RT-PCR test gave positive results even in the presence of high maternal antibody titres, indicating the suitability of the RT-PCR test for use in eradication programmes. ..
  72. Liu L, Kampa J, Bel k S, Baule C. Virus recovery and full-length sequence analysis of atypical bovine pestivirus Th/04_KhonKaen. Vet Microbiol. 2009;138:62-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding provides conclusive classification of the Th/04_KhonKaen virus and confirms the standing of the "atypical" bovine pestiviruses as a novel pestivirus species...
  73. Glotov A, Glotova T, Sergeev A, Belkina T, Sergeev A. [Antiviral activity of different drugs in vitro against viruses of bovine infectious rhinotracheitis and bovine diarrhea]. Vopr Virusol. 2004;49:43-6 pubmed
    ..Eracond and anandid proved to be ineffective. ..
  74. Barros S, Ramos F, Paupério S, Thompson G, Fevereiro M. Phylogenetic analysis of Portuguese bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Virus Res. 2006;118:192-5 pubmed
    ..The results from this study demonstrate that BVDV-lb is the most prevalent genotype and also shows the presence of BVDV-2 in Portugal...
  75. Hoover S, Striker R. Thiopurines inhibit bovine viral diarrhea virus production in a thiopurine methyltransferase-dependent manner. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1000-9 pubmed publisher
    ..TPMT exists in several variants with varying levels of activity and since 6MMPr is a potent antiviral, the antiviral activity of AZA may be modulated by host genetics. ..
  76. Okamoto M, Sakai M, Goto Y, Salim M, Baba C, Goto K, et al. Anti-bovine viral diarrhoea virus and hepatitis C virus activity of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor SC-560. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2009;20:47-54 pubmed publisher
    ..More importantly, the compound proved to be a selective inhibitor of HCV replication. SC-560 and its derivative might have potential as novel antiviral agents against HCV. ..
  77. Stokstad M, Niskanen R, Lindberg A, Thoren P, Belak S, Alenius S, et al. Experimental infection of cows with bovine viral diarrhoea virus in early pregnancy - findings in serum and foetal fluids. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2003;50:424-9 pubmed
    ..Investigation of pregnant cows in order to discover a PI offspring before it is born could be a useful tool in control and eradication of BVDV. ..
  78. Mabruk M, Sheahan B, Atkins G. The effect of infection of hatched blastocyst bovine embryos with border disease and bovine viral diarrhea viruses. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2006;37:113-9 pubmed
    ..This study can be a good model for better understanding the effects of other teratogenic viruses such as Rubella virus in humans...
  79. Houe H, Lindberg A, Moennig V. Test strategies in bovine viral diarrhea virus control and eradication campaigns in Europe. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2006;18:427-36 pubmed
  80. Brewoo J, Haase C, Sharp P, Schultz R. Leukocyte profile of cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2007;115:369-74 pubmed
    ..No significant differences were found between the leukocyte profiles and the phagocytic activities of PI animals when compared to a group of healthy NPI animals. ..
  81. Kampa J, Alenius S, Emanuelson U, Chanlun A, Aiumlamai S. Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections in dairy herds: self clearance and the detection of seroconversions against a new atypical pestivirus. Vet J. 2009;182:223-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This study showed a significantly decreasing prevalence for both BHV-1 and BVDV due to a self-clearance process. Further studies are needed to find out how the atypical BVDV strain entered the cattle population. ..
  82. Vilcek S, Mojžišová J, Bajová V, Paulik S, Strojny L, Durkovic B, et al. A survey for BVDV antibodies in cattle farms in Slovakia and genetic typing of BVDV isolates from imported animals. Acta Vet Hung. 2003;51:229-36 pubmed
    ..Genetic typing of two isolates from imported animals performed by RT-PCR (324/326 primers from 5'-UTR), sequencing of PCR products and computer-assisted phylogenetic analysis revealed that they belong to BVDV-1 h group. ..
  83. Van Aerschot A, Schepers G, Busson R, Rozenski J, Neyts J, De Clercq E, et al. Ribavirin derivatives with a hexitol moiety: synthesis and antiviral evaluation. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2003;14:23-30 pubmed
  84. Young N, Thomas C, Collins M, Brownlie J. Real-time RT-PCR detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus in whole blood using an external RNA reference. J Virol Methods. 2006;138:218-22 pubmed
  85. Gregg K, Riddell K, Chen S, Galik P, Xiang T, Guerra T, et al. Risk and prevention of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) transmission through embryo production via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using oocytes from persistently infected donors. Theriogenology. 2010;74:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification and removal of high-risk batches of oocytes would minimize the risk of BVDV transmission through SCNT embryo production...
  86. Stahl K, Bjorkman C, Emanuelson U, Rivera H, Zelada A, Moreno Lopez J. A prospective study of the effect of Neospora caninum and BVDV infections on bovine abortions in a dairy herd in Arequipa, Peru. Prev Vet Med. 2006;75:177-88 pubmed
    ..Evidence of BVDV circulating (or not) among the young stock was not associated with abortions, but few cows in this herd were susceptible to incident infection. ..
  87. Brass V, Pal Z, Sapay N, Deleage G, Blum H, Penin F, et al. Conserved determinants for membrane association of nonstructural protein 5A from hepatitis C virus and related viruses. J Virol. 2007;81:2745-57 pubmed
    ..This observation points to conserved roles of the N-terminal amphipathic alpha helices of NS5A in replication complex formation...
  88. Yamane D, Zahoor M, Mohamed Y, Azab W, Kato K, Tohya Y, et al. Microarray analysis reveals distinct signaling pathways transcriptionally activated by infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in different cell types. Virus Res. 2009;142:188-99 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights unexpected diversity in the response of different cell types to BVDV infection. ..
  89. Pacheco J, Lager I. [Indirect method ELISA for the detection of antibodies against bovine diarrhea virus in bovine serum]. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2003;35:19-23 pubmed
    ..With a diagnostic sensitivity of 98.31% and a diagnostic specificity of 100%, this ELISA-BVDV shows good sensitivity, specificity and repeatability. It is easy to transfer, economical, and easy to perform. ..
  90. Hofmann M. Construction of an infectious chimeric classical swine fever virus containing the 5'UTR of bovine viral diarrhea virus, and its application as a universal internal positive control in real-time RT-PCR. J Virol Methods. 2003;114:77-90 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is considered a universal internal positive control for RT-PCR assays to exclude loss of RNA during extraction, or failure of amplification due to inhibitory substances present in the sample...
  91. Endsley J, Ridpath J, Neill J, Sandbulte M, Roth J. Induction of T lymphocytes specific for bovine viral diarrhea virus in calves with maternal antibody. Viral Immunol. 2004;17:13-23 pubmed
    ..A manuscript presented separately demonstrates that the calves with T lymphocytes specific for BVDV in this study were also protected from virulent BVDV genotype 2 challenge after maternal antibody became undetectable. ..
  92. Toplak I, Sandvik T, Barlic Maganja D, Grom J, Paton D. Genetic typing of bovine viral diarrhoea virus: most Slovenian isolates are of genotypes 1d and 1f. Vet Microbiol. 2004;99:175-85 pubmed
    ..Extended sequencing of the N(pro) and part of the C gene of virus isolates with identical 5'-UTR sequences allowed differentiation between isolates obtained at different times from one herd. ..