Summary: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.

Top Publications

  1. Gould E, Solomon T. Pathogenic flaviviruses. Lancet. 2008;371:500-9 pubmed publisher
  2. Morales Betoulle M, Monzón Pineda M, Sosa S, Panella N, López M, Cordon Rosales C, et al. Culex flavivirus isolates from mosquitoes in Guatemala. J Med Entomol. 2008;45:1187-90 pubmed
    A new strain of Culex flavivirus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, CxFV), an insect virus first described in Japan, was isolated from adult Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in 2006 from Izabal Department on ..
  3. Tuplin A, Evans D, Buckley A, Jones I, Gould E, Gritsun T. Replication enhancer elements within the open reading frame of tick-borne encephalitis virus and their evolution within the Flavivirus genus. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:7034-48 pubmed publisher
    ..of a replication enhancer element (REE) within the capsid gene of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV, genus Flavivirus)...
  4. Puig Basagoiti F, Tilgner M, Forshey B, Philpott S, Espina N, Wentworth D, et al. Triaryl pyrazoline compound inhibits flavivirus RNA replication. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:1320-9 pubmed
    Triaryl pyrazoline {[5-(4-chloro-phenyl)-3-thiophen-2-yl-4,5-dihydro-pyrazol-1-yl]-phenyl-methanone} inhibits flavivirus infection in cell culture...
  5. Pripuzova N, Tereshkina N, Gmyl L, Dzhivanyan T, Rumyantsev A, Romanova L, et al. Safety evaluation of chimeric Langat/Dengue 4 flavivirus, a live vaccine candidate against tick-borne encephalitis. J Med Virol. 2009;81:1777-85 pubmed publisher
    The chimeric flavivirus LGT/DEN4 containing prM and E genes of naturally attenuated Langat virus with remaining sequence derived from low neuroinvasive Dengue 4 virus was previously produced and assessed as a candidate for live vaccine ..
  6. Tang Y, Diao Y, Yu C, Gao X, Chen L, Zhang D. Rapid detection of Tembusu virus by reverse-transcription, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). Transbound Emerg Dis. 2012;59:208-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, RT-LAMP with SYBR Green I dye was shown to be a sensitive, simple assay for the rapid diagnosis of TMUV infection in ducks. ..
  7. Saiyasombat R, Bolling B, Brault A, Bartholomay L, Blitvich B. Evidence of efficient transovarial transmission of Culex flavivirus by Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 2011;48:1031-8 pubmed
    This study determined the transovarial transmission (TOT) potential and tissue tropisms of Culex flavivirus (CxFV), an insect-specific flavivirus, in Culex pipiens (L.)...
  8. Liao M, Kielian M. Domain III from class II fusion proteins functions as a dominant-negative inhibitor of virus membrane fusion. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:111-20 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that exogenous domain III can function as a dominant-negative inhibitor of alphavirus and flavivirus membrane fusion and infection...
  9. King N, Getts D, Getts M, Rana S, Shrestha B, Kesson A. Immunopathology of flavivirus infections. Immunol Cell Biol. 2007;85:33-42 pubmed
    With the recent emergence of the flavivirus, West Nile virus (WNV), in particular, the New York strain of Lineage I WNV in North America in 1999, there has been a significant increase in activity in neurotropic flavivirus research...

More Information

Publications171 found, 100 shown here

  1. Kaufmann B, Chipman P, Holdaway H, Johnson S, Fremont D, Kuhn R, et al. Capturing a flavivirus pre-fusion intermediate. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000672 pubmed publisher
    ..structure of the complex was studied by cryo-electron microscopy and provides the first structural glimpse of a flavivirus fusion intermediate near physiological conditions...
  2. Li S, Zhang L, Wang Y, Wang S, Sun H, Su W, et al. An infectious full-length cDNA clone of duck Tembusu virus, a newly emerging flavivirus causing duck egg drop syndrome in China. Virus Res. 2013;171:238-41 pubmed publisher
    Duck Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a recently identified pathogenic flavivirus that causes severe egg drop and encephalitis in Chinese ducks and geese...
  3. Wang Y, Yuan X, Li Y, Yu K, Yang J, Xu H, et al. Rapid detection of newly isolated Tembusu-related Flavivirus by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay. Virol J. 2011;8:553 pubmed publisher
    ..isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of the new virus related to Tembusu-related Flavivirus. The RT-LAMP assay is very simple and rapid, and the amplification can be completed within 50 min under ..
  4. Brabant M, Baux L, Casimir R, Briand J, Chaloin O, Porceddu M, et al. A flavivirus protein M-derived peptide directly permeabilizes mitochondrial membranes, triggers cell death and reduces human tumor growth in nude mice. Apoptosis. 2009;14:1190-203 pubmed publisher
    Dengue viruses belong to the Flavivirus family and are responsible for hemorrhagic fever in Human. Dengue virus infection triggers apoptosis especially through the expression of the small membrane (M) protein...
  5. Pastorino B, Nougairede A, Wurtz N, Gould E, de Lamballerie X. Role of host cell factors in flavivirus infection: Implications for pathogenesis and development of antiviral drugs. Antiviral Res. 2010;87:281-94 pubmed publisher
    The genus Flavivirus contains approximately 70 arthropod-borne enveloped RNA viruses many of which cause severe human and in some cases, animal disease...
  6. Dong H, Fink K, Zust R, Lim S, Qin C, Shi P. Flavivirus RNA methylation. J Gen Virol. 2014;95:763-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Many viruses have evolved various mechanisms to develop their own capping enzymes (e.g. flavivirus and coronavirus) or to 'steal' caps from host mRNAs (e.g. influenza virus)...
  7. Padmanabhan R, Mueller N, Reichert E, Yon C, Teramoto T, Kono Y, et al. Multiple enzyme activities of flavivirus proteins. Novartis Found Symp. 2006;277:74-84; discussion 84-6, 251-3 pubmed
    ..In addition, a cell-based DENV-2 replicon RNA encoding a luciferase reporter is also used to examine the role of cis-acting elements within the 3' UTR and the RKRK motif in viral replication. ..
  8. Funk A, Truong K, Nagasaki T, Torres S, Floden N, Balmori Melian E, et al. RNA structures required for production of subgenomic flavivirus RNA. J Virol. 2010;84:11407-17 pubmed publisher
    ..5 kb) derived from the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the genomic RNA (gRNA), which is required for flavivirus-induced cytopathicity and pathogenicity (G. P. Pijlman et al., Cell Host Microbe, 4: 579-591, 2008)...
  9. Prow N, May F, Westlake D, Hurrelbrink R, Biron R, Leung J, et al. Determinants of attenuation in the envelope protein of the flavivirus Alfuy. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:2286-96 pubmed publisher
    Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus endemic to Australia and Papua New Guinea...
  10. Villordo S, Gamarnik A. Genome cyclization as strategy for flavivirus RNA replication. Virus Res. 2009;139:230-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The circular conformation of flavivirus genomes was demonstrated to be essential for RNA amplification...
  11. Hayes E. Zika virus outside Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1347-50 pubmed publisher
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses...
  12. Sondgeroth K, Blitvich B, Blair C, Terwee J, Junge R, Sauther M, et al. Assessing flavivirus, lentivirus, and herpesvirus exposure in free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs in southwestern Madagascar. J Wildl Dis. 2007;43:40-7 pubmed
    ..Ten lemurs had antibodies against lentiviral antigens as determined by Western blot analysis. None of the lemurs had antibodies against HSV-1 using ELISA. ..
  13. Crockett R, Burkhalter K, Mead D, Kelly R, Brown J, Varnado W, et al. Culex flavivirus and West Nile virus in Culex quinquefasciatus populations in the southeastern United States. J Med Entomol. 2012;49:165-74 pubmed
    ..of this study were to describe the geographic distribution, prevalence, and seasonal infection rates of Culex flavivirus (CxFV) and West Nile virus (WNV) in Culex quinquefasciatus Say in the Southeastern United States, investigate ..
  14. Barker W, Mazumder R, Vasudevan S, Sagripanti J, Wu C. Sequence signatures in envelope protein may determine whether flaviviruses produce hemorrhagic or encephalitic syndromes. Virus Genes. 2009;39:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings should help predicting the disease potential of emerging and re-emerging flaviviruses and understanding the relationship between protein structure and disease outcome. ..
  15. Vaidya N, Wang F, Zou X, Wahl L. Transmission dynamics of the recently-identified BYD virus causing duck egg-drop syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35161 pubmed publisher
    Baiyangdian (BYD) virus is a recently-identified mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes severe disease in ducks, with extremely rapid transmission, up to 15% mortality within 10 days and 90% reduction in egg production on duck farms within ..
  16. Hoshino K, Isawa H, Tsuda Y, Sawabe K, Kobayashi M. Isolation and characterization of a new insect flavivirus from Aedes albopictus and Aedes flavopictus mosquitoes in Japan. Virology. 2009;391:119-29 pubmed publisher
    We isolated a new flavivirus from Aedes albopictus mosquito and a related species in Japan. The virus, designated Aedes flavivirus (AEFV), only replicated in a mosquito cell line and produced a mild cytopathic effect...
  17. Offerdahl D, Dorward D, Hansen B, Bloom M. A three-dimensional comparison of tick-borne flavivirus infection in mammalian and tick cell lines. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47912 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we show for the first time 3D flavivirus infection in a vector cell line and the first ET of persistent flavivirus infection.
  18. Mehlhop E, Ansarah Sobrinho C, Johnson S, Engle M, Fremont D, Pierson T, et al. Complement protein C1q inhibits antibody-dependent enhancement of flavivirus infection in an IgG subclass-specific manner. Cell Host Microbe. 2007;2:417-26 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the complement component C1q restricts ADE by anti-flavivirus IgG antibodies in an IgG subclass-specific manner in cell culture and in mice...
  19. Vaughan K, Greenbaum J, Blythe M, Peters B, Sette A. Meta-analysis of all immune epitope data in the Flavivirus genus: inventory of current immune epitope data status in the context of virus immunity and immunopathology. Viral Immunol. 2010;23:259-84 pubmed publisher
    A meta-analysis was performed in order to inventory the immune epitope data related to viruses in the genus Flavivirus. Nearly 2000 epitopes were captured from over 130 individual Flavivirus-related references identified from PubMed and ..
  20. Oceguera L, Patiris P, Chiles R, Busch M, Tobler L, Hanson C. Flavivirus serology by Western blot analysis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:159-63 pubmed
    The spread of West Nile virus (WNV) across the United States into areas with endemic flavivirus activity has complicated serologic surveillance of seasonal virus activity and diagnosis of infected individuals...
  21. Widman D, Ishikawa T, Winkelmann E, Infante E, Bourne N, Mason P. RepliVAX WN, a single-cycle flavivirus vaccine to prevent West Nile disease, elicits durable protective immunity in hamsters. Vaccine. 2009;27:5550-3 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that RepliVAX is capable of inducing durable protective immunity after a single dose. ..
  22. Stiasny K, Fritz R, Pangerl K, Heinz F. Molecular mechanisms of flavivirus membrane fusion. Amino Acids. 2011;41:1159-63 pubmed publisher
    ..encephalitis virus as a model, we have defined individual steps of the molecular processes underlying the flavivirus fusion mechanisms...
  23. Danecek P, Lu W, Schein C. PCP consensus sequences of flaviviruses: correlating variance with vector competence and disease phenotype. J Mol Biol. 2010;396:550-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparing consensus sequences showed that substantial changes occur in only a few areas of the E protein. PCP consensus sequences can contribute to the design of multivalent vaccines. ..
  24. Parreira R, Cook S, Lopes A, de Matos A, de Almeida A, Piedade J, et al. Genetic characterization of an insect-specific flavivirus isolated from Culex theileri mosquitoes collected in southern Portugal. Virus Res. 2012;167:152-61 pubmed publisher
    We describe the full genetic characterization of an insect-specific flavivirus (ISF) from Culex theileri (Theobald) mosquitoes collected in Portugal...
  25. Ferreira D, Cook S, Lopes A, de Matos A, Esteves A, Abecasis A, et al. Characterization of an insect-specific flavivirus (OCFVPT) co-isolated from Ochlerotatus caspius collected in southern Portugal along with a putative new Negev-like virus. Virus Genes. 2013;47:532-45 pubmed publisher
    We describe the isolation and characterization of an insect-specific flavivirus (ISF) from Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) mosquitoes collected in southern Portugal. The RNA genome of this virus, tentatively designated OCFVPT, for O...
  26. Seligman S. Constancy and diversity in the flavivirus fusion peptide. Virol J. 2008;5:27 pubmed publisher
    ..The cell-fusing related agents may have substantial differences from other flaviviruses in their mechanism of viral entry into the host cell. ..
  27. Harrison S. The pH sensor for flavivirus membrane fusion. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:177-9 pubmed publisher
    ..2008) to identify a histidine at a key domain interface as the critical pH sensor; its protonation triggers the large-scale conformational rearrangement that induces fusion of viral and endosomal membranes. ..
  28. Blitvich B, Lin M, Dorman K, Soto V, Hovav E, Tucker B, et al. Genomic sequence and phylogenetic analysis of Culex flavivirus, an insect-specific flavivirus, isolated from Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iowa. J Med Entomol. 2009;46:934-41 pubmed
    ..individuals in 340 pools) was further tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using flavivirus universal primers. Of the 211 pools of Culex pipiens (L.) tested, 50 were positive...
  29. Farfan Ale J, Lorono Pino M, Garcia Rejon J, Soto V, Lin M, Staley M, et al. Detection of flaviviruses and orthobunyaviruses in mosquitoes in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico in 2008. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010;10:777-83 pubmed publisher
    ..A subset (n=20,124) of Culex quinquefasciatus collected throughout the year was further tested by RT-PCR using flavivirus-specific primers. Flavivirus RNA was present in this mosquito species year-round...
  30. Gritsun T, Gould E. Direct repeats in the 3' untranslated regions of mosquito-borne flaviviruses: possible implications for virus transmission. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:3297-305 pubmed
    ..long, were previously described in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the three major mosquito-borne flavivirus (MBFV) subgroups, represented by Japanese encephalitis virus, Yellow fever virus and Dengue virus...
  31. Johnson N, Wakeley P, Mansfield K, McCracken F, Haxton B, Phipps L, et al. Assessment of a novel real-time pan-flavivirus RT-polymerase chain reaction. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010;10:665-71 pubmed publisher
    ..such as tick-borne encephalitis virus, dengue virus, and Usutu virus has prompted us to design a novel pan-flavivirus RT-polymerase chain reaction for the purpose of surveillance for a range of flaviviruses...
  32. Bollati M, Milani M, Mastrangelo E, de Lamballerie X, Canard B, Bolognesi M. Crystal structure of a methyltransferase from a no-known-vector Flavivirus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;382:200-4 pubmed publisher
    ..7A resolution, the first structure of a methyltransferase of a Flavivirus with no known vector...
  33. Sanchez Seco M, Vazquez A, Collao X, Hernandez L, Aranda C, Ruiz S, et al. Surveillance of arboviruses in Spanish wetlands: detection of new flavi- and phleboviruses. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010;10:203-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Flaviviruses similar to cell-fusing agent, sequences of a flavivirus related to those transmitted by mosquitoes, and a phlebovirus similar to Naples and Toscana viruses were ..
  34. Jansson A, Jakobsson E, Johansson P, Lantez V, Coutard B, de Lamballerie X, et al. Structure of the methyltransferase domain from the Modoc virus, a flavivirus with no known vector. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2009;65:796-803 pubmed publisher
    The Modoc virus (MODV) is a flavivirus with no known vector (NKV). Evolutionary studies have shown that the viruses in the MODV group have evolved in association with mammals (bats, rodents) without transmission by an arthropod vector...
  35. Friebe P, Shi P, Harris E. The 5' and 3' downstream AUG region elements are required for mosquito-borne flavivirus RNA replication. J Virol. 2011;85:1900-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Using West Nile virus as a model, we demonstrate that 5'-3' DAR complementarity and HP-3'SL formation are essential for viral RNA replication. ..
  36. Newman C, Cerutti F, Anderson T, Hamer G, Walker E, Kitron U, et al. Culex flavivirus and West Nile virus mosquito coinfection and positive ecological association in Chicago, United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:1099-105 pubmed publisher
    Culex flavivirus (CxFV) is an insect-specific flavivirus globally distributed in mosquitoes of the genus Culex...
  37. Li M, Wong P, Ng L, Tan C. Oral susceptibility of Singapore Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) to Zika virus. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1792 pubmed publisher
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a little known flavivirus that caused a major outbreak in 2007, in the South-western Pacific Island of Yap. It causes dengue-like syndromes but with milder symptoms...
  38. Speroni S, De Colibus L, Mastrangelo E, Gould E, Coutard B, Forrester N, et al. Structure and biochemical analysis of Kokobera virus helicase. Proteins. 2008;70:1120-3 pubmed
  39. Dobler G. Zoonotic tick-borne flaviviruses. Vet Microbiol. 2010;140:221-8 pubmed publisher
    ..hemorrhagic fever, occurring in Saudi Arabia, Powassan encephalitis, which is known to be the only tick-borne flavivirus of human pathogenicity so far detected in North America and some other flaviviruses...
  40. Taucher C, Berger A, Mandl C. A trans-complementing recombination trap demonstrates a low propensity of flaviviruses for intermolecular recombination. J Virol. 2010;84:599-611 pubmed publisher
    ..Although recombination between flavivirus genomes has never been demonstrated experimentally, the potential risk of generating undesirable recombinants ..
  41. Tang Y, Diao Y, Yu C, Gao X, Ju X, Xue C, et al. Characterization of a Tembusu virus isolated from naturally infected house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in Northern China. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2013;60:152-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that house sparrows carrying the Tembusu virus may play an important role in transmitting the virus among other species...
  42. Charrel R, Zaki A, Fagbo S, De Lamballerie X. Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus is an emerging tick-borne flavivirus. J Infect. 2006;52:463-4 pubmed
  43. Maher Sturgess S, Forrester N, Wayper P, Gould E, Hall R, Barnard R, et al. Universal primers that amplify RNA from all three flavivirus subgroups. Virol J. 2008;5:16 pubmed publisher
    Species within the Flavivirus genus pose public health problems around the world...
  44. Faye O, Faye O, Dupressoir A, Weidmann M, Ndiaye M, Alpha Sall A. One-step RT-PCR for detection of Zika virus. J Clin Virol. 2008;43:96-101 pubmed publisher
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. Human infection induces an influenza-like syndrome that is associated with retro-orbital pain, oedema, lymphadenopathy, or diarrhea...
  45. Baronti C, Sire J, de Lamballerie X, Querat G. Nonstructural NS1 proteins of several mosquito-borne Flavivirus do not inhibit TLR3 signaling. Virology. 2010;404:319-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that NS1 proteins from distinct mosquito-borne flaviviruses do not inhibit TLR3 signaling. ..
  46. Cerutti F, Giacobini M, Mosca A, Grasso I, Rambozzi L, Rossi L, et al. Evidence of mosquito-transmitted flavivirus circulation in Piedmont, north-western Italy. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:99 pubmed publisher
    b>Flavivirus is a highly heterogeneous viral genus that includes important human pathogens and several viral strains with unknown zoonotic potential...
  47. Maeda A, Maeda J. Review of diagnostic plaque reduction neutralization tests for flavivirus infection. Vet J. 2013;195:33-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Flavivirus infections (including Japanese encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis and dengue fever/severe dengue) present a worldwide public health problem...
  48. Bessaud M, Pastorino B, Peyrefitte C, Rolland D, Grandadam M, Tolou H. Functional characterization of the NS2B/NS3 protease complex from seven viruses belonging to different groups inside the genus Flavivirus. Virus Res. 2006;120:79-90 pubmed
    The genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae, comprises more than 70 viruses. Many of them cause severe, potentially fatal, human diseases. Human vaccines are available for only three viruses and no effective antiviral drug is available...
  49. Manarolla G, Bakonyi T, Gallazzi D, Crosta L, Weissenbock H, Dorrestein G, et al. Usutu virus in wild birds in northern Italy. Vet Microbiol. 2010;141:159-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequencing of the amplification products revealed 99.8-100% nucleotide identity of the Italian USUV strains to those from other central European countries. ..
  50. Savini G, Monaco F, Terregino C, Di Gennaro A, Bano L, Pinoni C, et al. Usutu virus in Italy: an emergence or a silent infection?. Vet Microbiol. 2011;151:264-74 pubmed publisher
    ..According to this study two strains of USUVs are likely to have circulated in Italy between 2008 and 2009. They have developed strategies of adaptation and evolution to spread into new areas and to become established...
  51. Roiz D, Vazquez A, Rosa R, Muñoz J, Arnoldi D, Rosso F, et al. Blood meal analysis, flavivirus screening, and influence of meteorological variables on the dynamics of potential mosquito vectors of West Nile virus in northern Italy. J Vector Ecol. 2012;37:20-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we present the first contribution to understanding the transmission role of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes in Italy by identifying vertebrate hosts to species level. ..
  52. Liu P, Lu H, Li S, Moureau G, Deng Y, Wang Y, et al. Genomic and antigenic characterization of the newly emerging Chinese duck egg-drop syndrome flavivirus: genomic comparison with Tembusu and Sitiawan viruses. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:2158-70 pubmed publisher
    Duck egg-drop syndrome virus (DEDSV) is a newly emerging pathogenic flavivirus causing avian diseases in China. The infection occurs in laying ducks characterized by a severe drop in egg production with a fatality rate of 5-15?%...
  53. Farfan Ale J, Loro o Pino M, Garcia Rejon J, Hovav E, Powers A, Lin M, et al. Detection of RNA from a novel West Nile-like virus and high prevalence of an insect-specific flavivirus in mosquitoes in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:85-95 pubmed
    ..A subset of mosquitoes was also tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using WNV-, flavivirus-, alphavirus-, and orthobunyavirus-specific primers...
  54. Chatelain G, Debing Y, De Burghgraeve T, Zmurko J, Saudi M, Rozenski J, et al. In search of flavivirus inhibitors: evaluation of different tritylated nucleoside analogues. Eur J Med Chem. 2013;65:249-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding of these lipophilic structures being endowed with high antiviral activity for flaviviruses, should stimulate the interest for further structure-activity research. ..
  55. Chang T, Liao C, Lin Y. Flavivirus induces interferon-beta gene expression through a pathway involving RIG-I-dependent IRF-3 and PI3K-dependent NF-kappaB activation. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:157-71 pubmed
    ..acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), and a cellular kinase, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), are required for flavivirus-induced IRF-3 and NF-kappaB activation, respectively...
  56. Gritsun T, Gould E. The 3' untranslated regions of Kamiti River virus and Cell fusing agent virus originated by self-duplication. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2615-9 pubmed
    ..These data provide new insights into the evolution of the flavivirus 3'UTR.
  57. Calzolari M, Bonilauri P, Bellini R, Albieri A, Defilippo F, Maioli G, et al. Evidence of simultaneous circulation of West Nile and Usutu viruses in mosquitoes sampled in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy) in 2009. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14324 pubmed publisher
    ..and analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the presence of RNA belong to Flavivirus genus...
  58. Su J, Li S, Hu X, Yu X, Wang Y, Liu P, et al. Duck egg-drop syndrome caused by BYD virus, a new Tembusu-related flavivirus. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18106 pubmed publisher
    ..of the isolated virus revealed that it is closely related to Tembusu virus (a mosquito-borne Ntaya group flavivirus), with 87-91% nucleotide identity of the partial E (envelope) proteins to that of Tembusu virus and 72% of the ..
  59. Tyler S, Bolling B, Blair C, Brault A, Pabbaraju K, Armijos M, et al. Distribution and phylogenetic comparisons of a novel mosquito flavivirus sequence present in Culex tarsalis Mosquitoes from western Canada with viruses isolated in California and Colorado. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;85:162-8 pubmed publisher
    In a previous study, a new flavivirus genome sequence was identified in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes obtained in Alberta, Canada and was shown to be genetically related to but distinct from members of the insect-specific flaviviruses...
  60. Machado D, Mondini A, dos Santos Santana V, Yonamine P, Chiaravalloti Neto F, Zanotto P, et al. First identification of Culex flavivirus (Flaviviridae) in Brazil. Intervirology. 2012;55:475-83 pubmed publisher
    Culex flavivirus (CxFV) was first isolated in 2007 from Culex pipiens in Japan and then identified in several other countries. Characterization of the CxFV showed that all strains are related to the cell fusing agent virus...
  61. Kofler R, Hoenninger V, Thurner C, Mandl C. Functional analysis of the tick-borne encephalitis virus cyclization elements indicates major differences between mosquito-borne and tick-borne flaviviruses. J Virol. 2006;80:4099-113 pubmed
    ..The recognition of essential RNA elements and their differences between mosquito-borne and tick-borne flaviviruses has practical implications for the design of replicons in vaccine and vector development. ..
  62. Kuno G. Host range specificity of flaviviruses: correlation with in vitro replication. J Med Entomol. 2007;44:93-101 pubmed
    ..Thus, this assay provides useful, supplementary information regarding host range for those flaviviruses when their natural host range is unknown, ambiguous, or questionable. ..
  63. Ghosh D, Basu A. Present perspectives on flaviviral chemotherapy. Drug Discov Today. 2008;13:619-24 pubmed publisher
    ..It is important to assess the present status of flavivirus drug research and delve deep into the avenues of flavivirus drug discovery...
  64. Milani M, Mastrangelo E, Bollati M, Selisko B, Decroly E, Bouvet M, et al. Flaviviral methyltransferase/RNA interaction: structural basis for enzyme inhibition. Antiviral Res. 2009;83:28-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In this context, starting from the crystal structure of Wesselsbron flavivirus methyltransferase, we elaborated a mechanistic model describing protein/RNA interaction during N7 methyl ..
  65. Tamba M, Bonilauri P, Bellini R, Calzolari M, Albieri A, Sambri V, et al. Detection of Usutu virus within a West Nile virus surveillance program in Northern Italy. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:551-7 pubmed publisher
    Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex, recently related to neurological disease in immunosuppressed patients...
  66. Cook S, Moureau G, Kitchen A, Gould E, de Lamballerie X, Holmes E, et al. Molecular evolution of the insect-specific flaviviruses. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:223-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein we review all 'insect-specific' flavivirus sequences currently available and conduct phylogenetic analyses of both the 'insect-specific' flaviviruses and ..
  67. May F, Lobigs M, Lee E, Gendle D, Mackenzie J, Broom A, et al. Biological, antigenic and phylogenetic characterization of the flavivirus Alfuy. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:329-37 pubmed
    Alfuy virus (ALFV) is classified as a subtype of the flavivirus Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV); however, despite preliminary reports of antigenic and ecological similarities with MVEV, ALFV has not been associated with human ..
  68. Mastrangelo E, Bollati M, Milani M, Selisko B, Peyrane F, Canard B, et al. Structural bases for substrate recognition and activity in Meaban virus nucleoside-2'-O-methyltransferase. Protein Sci. 2007;16:1133-45 pubmed
    ..We have expressed and purified two constructs of Meaban virus (MV; genus Flavivirus) NS5 protein MTase domain (residues 1-265 and 1-293, respectively)...
  69. Bakonyi T, Erdélyi K, Ursu K, Ferenczi E, Csörgo T, Lussy H, et al. Emergence of Usutu virus in Hungary. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:3870-4 pubmed
    In 2001, Usutu virus (USUV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus serogroup related to West Nile virus and previously restricted to sub-Saharan Africa, emerged in wild and zoo birds in and around Vienna, Austria...
  70. Seligman S, Gould E. Safety concerns with regard to live attenuated flavivirus vaccines. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:794-5 pubmed publisher
  71. Grard G, Moureau G, Charrel R, Holmes E, Gould E, de Lamballerie X. Genomics and evolution of Aedes-borne flaviviruses. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:87-94 pubmed publisher
    We analysed the complete coding sequences of all recognized species of Aedes-borne flavivirus, including previously uncharacterized viruses within the yellow fever virus (YFV), Spondweni virus (SPOV) and dengue virus (DENV) groups...
  72. Ciota A, Lovelace A, Ngo K, Le A, Maffei J, Franke M, et al. Cell-specific adaptation of two flaviviruses following serial passage in mosquito cell culture. Virology. 2007;357:165-74 pubmed publisher
    West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was introduced into the U.S. in the New York City area in 1999...
  73. Gritsun T, Gould E. Origin and evolution of 3'UTR of flaviviruses: long direct repeats as a basis for the formation of secondary structures and their significance for virus transmission. Adv Virus Res. 2007;69:203-48 pubmed
    ..Previously, alignments of the 3'UTRs have been constructed for three of the four recognized flavivirus groups, namely mosquito-borne, tick-borne, and nonclassified flaviviruses (MBFV, TBFV, and NCFV, respectively)...
  74. Chvala S, Bakonyi T, Bukovsky C, Meister T, Brugger K, Rubel F, et al. Monitoring of Usutu virus activity and spread by using dead bird surveillance in Austria, 2003-2005. Vet Microbiol. 2007;122:237-45 pubmed
    ..In addition, the proportion of birds with low amounts of virus in their tissues increased continuously, which may indicate developing herd immunity. ..
  75. Danecek P, Schein C. Flavitrack analysis of the structure and function of West Nile non-structural proteins. Int J Bioinform Res Appl. 2010;6:134-46 pubmed
    ..These methods will aid in the design of vaccines and specific therapies against FV. ..
  76. Jourdain E, Olsen B, Lundkvist A, Hubalek Z, Sikutová S, Waldenstrom J, et al. Surveillance for West Nile virus in wild birds from northern Europe. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:77-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure to a cross-reactive Flavivirus was suspected for short-distance migrants of the Turdidae family, but no cross-neutralization with tick-borne ..
  77. Kolodziejek J, Pachler K, Bin H, Mendelson E, Shulman L, Orshan L, et al. Barkedji virus, a novel mosquito-borne flavivirus identified in Culex perexiguus mosquitoes, Israel, 2011. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:2449-57 pubmed publisher
    Barkedji virus, named after the area of its first identification in Senegal, is a newly discovered flavivirus (FV), for which we propose the abbreviation BJV...
  78. Stiasny K, Heinz F. Flavivirus membrane fusion. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2755-66 pubmed
    b>Flavivirus membrane fusion is mediated by a class II viral fusion protein, the major envelope protein E, and the fusion process is extremely fast and efficient...
  79. Stiasny K, Kiermayr S, Holzmann H, Heinz F. Cryptic properties of a cluster of dominant flavivirus cross-reactive antigenic sites. J Virol. 2006;80:9557-68 pubmed
    ..Infection with or immunization against any of these viruses induces a subset of antibodies that are broadly flavivirus cross-reactive but do not exhibit significant cross-neutralization...
  80. Lobigs M, Pavy M, Hall R, Lobigs P, Cooper P, Komiya T, et al. An inactivated Vero cell-grown Japanese encephalitis vaccine formulated with Advax, a novel inulin-based adjuvant, induces protective neutralizing antibody against homologous and heterologous flaviviruses. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:1407-17 pubmed publisher
    ..There is also an ongoing lack of human vaccines against other JEV serocomplex flaviviruses, such as MVEV, making this adjuvanted, cell culture-grown JEV vaccine a promising candidate to address both needs with one vaccine. ..
  81. Calzolari M, Bonilauri P, Bellini R, Caimi M, Defilippo F, Maioli G, et al. Arboviral survey of mosquitoes in two northern Italian regions in 2007 and 2008. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010;10:875-84 pubmed publisher
    ..caspius mosquitoes and Batai virus in a pool of Anopheles maculipennis mosquitoes, and (3) the presence of flavivirus RNAs in pools of Oc...
  82. Le Breton M, Meyniel Schicklin L, Deloire A, Coutard B, Canard B, de Lamballerie X, et al. Flavivirus NS3 and NS5 proteins interaction network: a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screen. BMC Microbiol. 2011;11:234 pubmed publisher
    The genus Flavivirus encompasses more than 50 distinct species of arthropod-borne viruses, including several major human pathogens, such as West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus and the four serotypes of dengue ..
  83. Courtney S, Di H, Stockman B, Liu H, Scherbik S, Brinton M. Identification of novel host cell binding partners of Oas1b, the protein conferring resistance to flavivirus-induced disease in mice. J Virol. 2012;86:7953-63 pubmed publisher
    Oas1b was previously identified as the product of the Flv(r) allele that confers flavivirus-specific resistance to virus-induced disease in mice by an uncharacterized, RNase L-independent mechanism...
  84. Uchil P, Kumar A, Satchidanandam V. Nuclear localization of flavivirus RNA synthesis in infected cells. J Virol. 2006;80:5451-64 pubmed publisher
    ..these data suggest an absolute requirement for both of the replicase proteins for nucleus-localized synthesis of flavivirus RNA...
  85. Pierson T, Diamond M. Molecular mechanisms of antibody-mediated neutralisation of flavivirus infection. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2008;10:e12 pubmed publisher
    ..in our understanding of the structural biology of flaviviruses, coupled with the use of small-animal models of flavivirus infection, have promoted significant advances in our appreciation of the factors that govern antibody ..
  86. Lelli R, Savini G, Teodori L, Filipponi G, Di Gennaro A, Leone A, et al. Serological evidence of USUTU virus occurrence in north-eastern Italy. Zoonoses Public Health. 2008;55:361-7 pubmed publisher
    In the recent years, USUTU virus (USUV), a flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus complex, has been reported in Central Europe...
  87. Tigabu B, Juelich T, Bertrand J, Holbrook M. Clinical evaluation of highly pathogenic tick-borne flavivirus infection in the mouse model. J Med Virol. 2009;81:1261-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate marked differences in the clinical signs, pathology, and immune response of mice infected with either OHFV or RSSEV and further validate the use of this mouse model system to evaluate human disease. ..
  88. Duffy M, Chen T, Hancock W, Powers A, Kool J, Lanciotti R, et al. Zika virus outbreak on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2536-43 pubmed publisher
    ..No previous outbreaks and only 14 cases of Zika virus disease have been previously documented...
  89. Khasnatinov M, Ustanikova K, Frolova T, Pogodina V, Bochkova N, Levina L, et al. Non-hemagglutinating flaviviruses: molecular mechanisms for the emergence of new strains via adaptation to European ticks. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7295 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research will reveal if these emerging Siberian TBEV strains continue to disperse westwards across Europe by adaptation to the indigenous tick species and if they are associated with severe forms of TBE. ..
  90. Kent R, Crabtree M, Miller B. Transmission of West Nile virus by Culex quinquefasciatus say infected with Culex Flavivirus Izabal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e671 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to determine whether or not prior infection with Culex flavivirus (CxFV) Izabal altered the vector competence of Cx...
  91. Bollati M, Milani M, Mastrangelo E, Ricagno S, Tedeschi G, Nonnis S, et al. Recognition of RNA cap in the Wesselsbron virus NS5 methyltransferase domain: implications for RNA-capping mechanisms in Flavivirus. J Mol Biol. 2009;385:140-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In the genus Flavivirus, N7-methyltransferase and 2'O-methyltransferase activities have been recently associated with the N-terminal ..
  92. Widman D, Frolov I, Mason P. Third-generation flavivirus vaccines based on single-cycle, encapsidation-defective viruses. Adv Virus Res. 2008;72:77-126 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Flavivirus diseases are particularly important in tropical regions where arthropod vectors are abundant...