Summary: A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.

Top Publications

  1. Leary T, Desai S, Erker J, Mushahwar I. The sequence and genomic organization of a GB virus A variant isolated from captive tamarins. J Gen Virol. 1997;78 ( Pt 9):2307-13 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis of the polyprotein confirms previous results that GBV-Alab is a member of the Flaviviridae, distinct from GBV-B and HCV, though more closely related to GBV-A and GBV-C.
  2. Erker J, Desai S, Leary T, Chalmers M, Montes C, Mushahwar I. Genomic analysis of two GB virus A variants isolated from captive monkeys. J Gen Virol. 1998;79 ( Pt 1):41-5 pubmed
    ..Although the GBV-A variant polyproteins possess many motifs conserved between other members of the Flaviviridae, they do not encode a basic core-like protein...
  3. Charrel R, De Micco P, De Lamballerie X. Phylogenetic analysis of GB viruses A and C: evidence for cospeciation between virus isolates and their primate hosts. J Gen Virol. 1999;80 ( Pt 9):2329-35 pubmed
  4. Bretner M, Schalinski S, Haag A, Lang M, Schmitz H, Baier A, et al. Synthesis and evaluation of ATP-binding site directed potential inhibitors of nucleoside triphosphatases/helicases and polymerases of hepatitis C and other selected Flaviviridae viruses. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2004;15:35-42 pubmed
    ..The above derivatives were tested as inhibitors of nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase)/helicase activities of Flaviviridae: hepatitis C virus (HCV), West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and dengue virus (DENV) and ..
  5. Aleshin A, Shiryaev S, Strongin A, Liddington R. Structural evidence for regulation and specificity of flaviviral proteases and evolution of the Flaviviridae fold. Protein Sci. 2007;16:795-806 pubmed
    ..proteases with the more distantly related Hepatitis C virus, we provide insights into the evolution of the Flaviviridae fold. Our work should expedite the design of protease inhibitors to treat a range of flaviviral infections.
  6. Linnen J, Wages J, Zhang Keck Z, Fry K, Krawczynski K, Alter H, et al. Molecular cloning and disease association of hepatitis G virus: a transfusion-transmissible agent. Science. 1996;271:505-8 pubmed
    ..Persistent viremia was detected for up to 9 years in patients with hepatitis. The virus is transfusion-transmissible. It has a global distribution and is present within the volunteer blood donor population in the United States...
  7. Pilot Matias T, Carrick R, Coleman P, Leary T, Surowy T, Simons J, et al. Expression of the GB virus C E2 glycoprotein using the Semliki Forest virus vector system and its utility as a serologic marker. Virology. 1996;225:282-92 pubmed
    ..Thus, this system provided a rapid means to identify GBV-C E2 as a useful antigen for the study of GBV-C exposure. ..
  8. Leary T, Desai S, Yamaguchi J, Chalmers M, Schlauder G, Dawson G, et al. Species-specific variants of GB virus A in captive monkeys . J Virol. 1996;70:9028-30 pubmed
    ..Though sequences of isolates from each animal species are virtually identical at the nucleotide level (95%), isolates from different species are dramatically different (52 to 79% identical) and genetically cluster on this basis. ..
  9. Cheng Y, Zhang W, Li J, Li B, Zhao J, Gao R, et al. Serological and histological findings in infection and transmission of GBV-C/HGV to macaques. J Med Virol. 2000;60:28-33 pubmed
    ..It is possible that this virus is a mild and self-limited pathogenic agent to the hepatic cells of primates. ..

More Information

Publications151 found, 100 shown here

  1. Worobey M, Holmes E. Homologous recombination in GB virus C/hepatitis G virus. Mol Biol Evol. 2001;18:254-61 pubmed
    ..The wide-ranging implications of such nonclonal history for reconstructing the spread and timescale of GBV-C evolution are discussed. ..
  2. Ranjith Kumar C, Gajewski J, Gutshall L, Maley D, Sarisky R, Kao C. Terminal nucleotidyl transferase activity of recombinant Flaviviridae RNA-dependent RNA polymerases: implication for viral RNA synthesis. J Virol. 2001;75:8615-23 pubmed
  3. Sang R, Gichogo A, Gachoya J, Dunster M, Ofula V, Hunt A, et al. Isolation of a new flavivirus related to cell fusing agent virus (CFAV) from field-collected flood-water Aedes mosquitoes sampled from a dambo in central Kenya. Arch Virol. 2003;148:1085-93 pubmed
    ..insect virus that was isolated from a line of Aedes aegypti mosquito cells and has been assigned to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. We report here the first isolation of a CFA-like virus from field-collected mosquitoes...
  4. Belyaev A, Chong S, Novikov A, Kongpachith A, Masiarz F, Lim M, et al. Hepatitis G virus encodes protease activities which can effect processing of the virus putative nonstructural proteins. J Virol. 1998;72:868-72 pubmed
    ..NS4A of HGV was demonstrated to be a cofactor for NS3-mediated proteolysis, with a region critical for activity residing between Leu1561, and Ala1598...
  5. Berg T, Müller A, Platz K, Hohne M, Bechstein W, Hopf U, et al. Dynamics of GB virus C viremia early after orthotopic liver transplantation indicates extrahepatic tissues as the predominant site of GB virus C replication. Hepatology. 1999;29:245-9 pubmed
    ..However, one cannot exclude that host or viral factors exist that predispose GBV-C replication predominantly in the liver. ..
  6. Agnello V, Abel G, Elfahal M, Knight G, Zhang Q. Hepatitis C virus and other flaviviridae viruses enter cells via low density lipoprotein receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:12766-71 pubmed
    Endocytosis of the Flaviviridae viruses, hepatitis C virus, GB virus C/hepatitis G virus, and bovine viral diarrheal virus (BVDV) was shown to be mediated by low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors on cultured cells by several lines of ..
  7. Sbardellati A, Scarselli E, Verschoor E, De Tomassi A, Lazzaro D, Traboni C. Generation of infectious and transmissible virions from a GB virus B full-length consensus clone in tamarins. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:2437-48 pubmed
    ..Host humoral immune response to GBV-B antigens was also monitored. The progression of the disease was compared to that induced by intravenous injection of different amounts of the non-recombinant virus...
  8. Chandriani S, Skewes Cox P, Zhong W, Ganem D, Divers T, Van Blaricum A, et al. Identification of a previously undescribed divergent virus from the Flaviviridae family in an outbreak of equine serum hepatitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E1407-15 pubmed publisher
    ..5-kb sequence from a previously undescribed virus of the Flaviviridae family, which we designate "Theiler's disease-associated virus" (TDAV)...
  9. Steffens S, Thiel H, Behrens S. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of different members of the family Flaviviridae exhibit similar properties in vitro. J Gen Virol. 1999;80 ( Pt 10):2583-90 pubmed publisher
    ..is required for replication of the positive-strand RNA genome, is a key enzyme of members of the virus family Flaviviridae. By using heterologously expressed proteins, we demonstrate that the 77 kDa NS5B protein of two pestiviruses, ..
  10. Beames B, Chavez D, Lanford R. GB virus B as a model for hepatitis C virus. ILAR J. 2001;42:152-60 pubmed
    GB viruses A and B (GBV-A and GBV-B) are members of the Flaviviridae family and are isolated from tamarins injected with serum from a human hepatitis patient...
  11. Hope R, Murphy D, McLauchlan J. The domains required to direct core proteins of hepatitis C virus and GB virus-B to lipid droplets share common features with plant oleosin proteins. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:4261-70 pubmed
    ..These studies identify common features in disparate proteins that are required for lipid droplet localization. ..
  12. Thurner C, Witwer C, Hofacker I, Stadler P. Conserved RNA secondary structures in Flaviviridae genomes. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:1113-24 pubmed
    ..computational survey of evolutionarily conserved secondary structure motifs in the genomic RNAs of the family Flaviviridae: This virus family consists of the three genera Flavivirus, Pestivirus and Hepacivirus and the group of GB ..
  13. Welsch C, Albrecht M, Maydt J, Herrmann E, Welker M, Sarrazin C, et al. Structural and functional comparison of the non-structural protein 4B in flaviviridae. J Mol Graph Model. 2007;26:546-57 pubmed
    b>Flaviviridae are evolutionarily related viruses, comprising the hepatitis C virus (HCV), with the non-structural protein 4B (NS4B) as one of the least characterized proteins...
  14. Epstein J, Quan P, Briese T, Street C, Jabado O, Conlan S, et al. Identification of GBV-D, a novel GB-like flavivirus from old world frugivorous bats (Pteropus giganteus) in Bangladesh. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000972 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this first GBV-like flavivirus reported in bats constitutes a distinct species within the Flaviviridae family and is ancestral to the GBV-A and -C virus clades.
  15. Le Sommer C, Barrows N, Bradrick S, Pearson J, Garcia Blanco M. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 promotes flaviviridae entry and replication. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1820 pubmed publisher
    ..propagation of DENV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) indicating that GRK2 requirement is conserved throughout the Flaviviridae. Finally, we found that GRK2 participates in multiple distinct steps of the flavivirus life cycle by promoting ..
  16. Sathar M, Soni P, Pegoraro R, Simmonds P, Smith D, Dhillon A, et al. A new variant of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV) from South Africa. Virus Res. 1999;64:151-60 pubmed
    ..None of the South African isolates grouped with group 3 variants described from Southeast Asia. Three variants of GBV-C/HGV exist in KwaZulu Natal: groups 1, 2 and a new variant, which is distinct from other African isolates. ..
  17. Smith D, Basaras M, Frost S, Haydon D, Cuceanu N, Prescott L, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of GBV-C/hepatitis G virus. J Gen Virol. 2000;81:769-80 pubmed
    ..The geographical distribution of virus variants is consistent with a long evolutionary history that may parallel that of pre-historic human migrations, implying that the long-term evolution of this RNA virus is extremely slow. ..
  18. Lanford R, Chavez D, Guerra B, Lau J, Hong Z, Brasky K, et al. Ribavirin induces error-prone replication of GB virus B in primary tamarin hepatocytes. J Virol. 2001;75:8074-81 pubmed
  19. Cook S, Holmes E. A multigene analysis of the phylogenetic relationships among the flaviviruses (Family: Flaviviridae) and the evolution of vector transmission. Arch Virol. 2006;151:309-25 pubmed
    The genus Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae) presently comprises around 70 single-strand positive-sense RNA viruses...
  20. Ojwang J, Ali S, Smee D, Morrey J, Shimasaki C, Sidwell R. Broad-spectrum inhibitor of viruses in the Flaviviridae family. Antiviral Res. 2005;68:49-55 pubmed
    The viruses in the Flaviviridae family have been associated with human and animal diseases...
  21. Stapleton J, Foung S, Muerhoff A, Bukh J, Simmonds P. The GB viruses: a review and proposed classification of GBV-A, GBV-C (HGV), and GBV-D in genus Pegivirus within the family Flaviviridae. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:233-46 pubmed publisher
    ..B.) with acute hepatitis into tamarins resulted in hepatitis. In 1995, two new members of the family Flaviviridae, named GBV-A and GBV-B, were identified in tamarins that developed hepatitis following inoculation with the ..
  22. Stephenson J. Defective adenoviruses as novel vaccines for the Flaviviridae. Clin Diagn Virol. 1998;10:187-94 pubmed
    ..as experimental flavivirus vaccines and comment on their use to prevent infections with other members of the Flaviviridae such as hepatitis C virus...
  23. Robertson B. Viral hepatitis and primates: historical and molecular analysis of human and nonhuman primate hepatitis A, B, and the GB-related viruses. J Viral Hepat. 2001;8:233-42 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes the historical and molecular information for each of these groups and highlights the impact of these nonhuman primate hepatitis viruses on our understanding of the evolution of each of these viruses. ..
  24. Calisher C, Gould E. Taxonomy of the virus family Flaviviridae. Adv Virus Res. 2003;59:1-19 pubmed
  25. Ivanyi Nagy R, Lavergne J, Gabus C, Ficheux D, Darlix J. RNA chaperoning and intrinsic disorder in the core proteins of Flaviviridae. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:712-25 pubmed
    ..We now examined the RNA chaperone activity and the disordered nature of core proteins from different Flaviviridae genera, namely that of HCV, GBV-B (GB virus B), WNV (West Nile virus) and BVDV (bovine viral diarrhoea virus)...
  26. Melvin S, Dawson G, Carrick R, Schlauder G, Heynen C, Mushahwar I. Biophysical characterization of GB virus C from human plasma. J Virol Methods. 1998;71:147-57 pubmed
    ..The treated material was non-filterable and the RNA had a density of > 1.5 gm/ml. ..
  27. Bukh J, Apgar C, Yanagi M. Toward a surrogate model for hepatitis C virus: An infectious molecular clone of the GB virus-B hepatitis agent. Virology. 1999;262:470-8 pubmed publisher
    GB virus-B (GBV-B) is a member of the Flaviviridae family of viruses. This RNA virus infects tamarins, but its natural host is not known...
  28. Tucker T, Smuts H, Eedes C, Knobel G, Eickhaus P, Robson S, et al. Evidence that the GBV-C/hepatitis G virus is primarily a lymphotropic virus. J Med Virol. 2000;61:52-8 pubmed
    ..This preliminary study concludes that GBV-C/HGV is a lymphotropic virus that replicates primarily in the spleen and bone marrow. ..
  29. Borowski P, Niebuhr A, Schmitz H, Hosmane R, Bretner M, Siwecka M, et al. NTPase/helicase of Flaviviridae: inhibitors and inhibition of the enzyme. Acta Biochim Pol. 2002;49:597-614 pubmed
    ..a NTPase/helicase were also detected in the carboxyl-terminal non-structural protein 3 (NS3) of members of the Flaviviridae family...
  30. Xiang J, Wunschmann S, Diekema D, Klinzman D, Patrick K, George S, et al. Effect of coinfection with GB virus C on survival among patients with HIV infection. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:707-14 pubmed
    ..GBV-C infection is common in people with HIV infection and is associated with significantly improved survival. ..
  31. Peduto A, Massa A, Di Mola A, de Caprariis P, La Colla P, Loddo R, et al. 2,3-Dihydro-1,2-Diphenyl-substituted 4H-Pyridinone derivatives as new anti Flaviviridae inhibitors. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2011;77:441-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the antiviral screening, several compounds showed to be fairly active against viruses belonging to the Flaviviridae family...
  32. Nugent E, Nugent A, Nugent R, Nugent K. Zika Virus: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Human Disease. Am J Med Sci. 2017;353:466-473 pubmed publisher
    The Zika virus is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA arbovirus in the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. This virus was initially isolated in Africa and is transmitted to nonhuman primates and humans by mosquitoes...
  33. Espósito D, Ballico de Moraes J, Antonio Lopes da Fonseca B. Review: Current priorities in the Zika response. Immunology. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    Zika virus (ZIKV), a single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, is an arbovirus (viruses transmitted by arthropods) transmitted to humans and non-human primates through the bites of infected female Aedes sp. mosquitoes...
  34. Sampietro M, Badalamenti S, Graziani G, Como G, Buccianti G, Corbetta N, et al. Hepatitis G virus infection in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 1997;51:348-52 pubmed
    ..A clinical picture of chronic hepatitis was not appreciable in patients with isolated HGV infection and the presence of HGV did not appear to modify the clinical course of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections. ..
  35. Rudolf I, Bakonyi T, Šebesta O, Mendel J, Peško J, Betášová L, et al. Co-circulation of Usutu virus and West Nile virus in a reed bed ecosystem. Parasit Vectors. 2015;8:520 pubmed publisher
    ..Europe, West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV), both belonging to the Japanese encephalitis virus group (Flaviviridae) have emerged in the last decennium...
  36. Simmonds P, Becher P, Bukh J, Gould E, Meyers G, Monath T, et al. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Flaviviridae. J Gen Virol. 2017;98:2-3 pubmed publisher
    The Flaviviridae is a family of small enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 9000-13?000 bases. Most infect mammals and birds. Many flaviviruses are host-specific and pathogenic, such as hepatitis C virus in the genus Hepacivirus...
  37. Sauleda S, Esteban J, Hernandez J, Reesink H, Castella D, Quer J, et al. Evaluation of RNA and E2 antibodies in prospectively followed recipients of hepatitis G virus-infected blood. Transfusion. 1999;39:633-8 pubmed
    ..None of the infected recipients had any evidence of liver disease. These results do not support the screening of donors to prevent transfusion-associated HGV infection. ..
  38. Kar P, Bedi P, Berry N, Chakravorty A, Gupta R, Saha R, et al. Hepatitis G virus (HGV) infection in voluntary and commercial blood donors in India. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2000;38:7-10 pubmed
    ..The prevalence of HGV in the general population in India was found to be 4% but significantly a higher frequency (46.6%; p<0.001) of HGV was observed in commercial blood donors. ..
  39. Pontali E, Pedemonte P, Bassetti M, Boni S, Bassetti D. Does HGV-HIV co-infection exist?. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2000;16:349-51 pubmed
    Hepatitis G virus (HGV) is a recently discovered virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Prevalence of HGV active infection (presence of HGV-RNA) in HIV-1-infected patients has been reported in various categories of patients...
  40. Caprari S, Metzler S, Lengauer T, Kalinina O. Sequence and Structure Analysis of Distantly-Related Viruses Reveals Extensive Gene Transfer between Viruses and Hosts and among Viruses. Viruses. 2015;7:5388-409 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, this pattern is displayed by the envelope glycoproteins from Flaviviridae and Bunyaviridae and helicases of superfamilies 1 and 2 that have homologs in cellular organisms...
  41. Wolf B, Diop F, Ferraris P, Wichit S, Busso C, Missé D, et al. Zika virus causes supernumerary foci with centriolar proteins and impaired spindle positioning. Open Biol. 2017;7: pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that infection with Flaviviridae can increase centrosome numbers and impair spindle positioning, thus potentially contributing to microcephaly ..
  42. Risse F, Dombrowski F, Ruf T, Dienes H, Sauerbruch T, Spengler U. Virus-like particles in a case of acute hepatitis with human GB virus-C viraemia. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2001;13:195-8 pubmed
    ..Thus virus-like particles and hepatic human GB virus-C RNA should be specifically looked for by electron microscopy and in situ hybridization, especially during the diagnostic work-up of patients with unexplained hepatitis. ..
  43. Goldsmith C, Ksiazek T, Rollin P, Comer J, Nicholson W, Peret T, et al. Cell culture and electron microscopy for identifying viruses in diseases of unknown cause. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:886-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These cases illustrate the importance of the techniques of cell culture and electron microscopy in pathogen identification and recognition of emerging diseases...
  44. Sadeghi M, Popov V, Guzman H, Phan T, Vasilakis N, Tesh R, et al. Genomes of viral isolates derived from different mosquitos species. Virus Res. 2017;242:49-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Banna and Parry's Lagoon viruses (Reoviridae), Bontang virus (Mesoniviridae), and Culex theileri flavivirus (Flaviviridae) were also characterized...
  45. Schönrich G, Raftery M. Exploring the Immunopathogenesis of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever in Mice with a Humanized Immune System. Front Immunol. 2017;8:1202 pubmed publisher
    ..members from at least four different virus families: Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae, and Flaviviridae, all enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses...
  46. Worman H. Molecular biological methods in diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases. Clin Chem. 1997;43:1476-86 pubmed
    ..Gene therapy and nucleic acid-based therapeutics are also realistic future treatment options for individuals with liver diseases. ..
  47. Simmonds P, Smith D. Structural constraints on RNA virus evolution. J Virol. 1999;73:5787-94 pubmed
    ..quot; This places a major restriction on the use of nucleotide or amino acid sequence comparisons to calculate times of divergence of other viruses evolving under the same structural constraints as GB viruses. ..
  48. Butler T, Spencer J, Cui J, Vickery K, Zou J, Kaldor J. Seroprevalence of markers for hepatitis B, C and G in male and female prisoners--NSW, 1996. Aust N Z J Public Health. 1999;23:377-84 pubmed
    ..Infection can be related to a number of risk factors, which appear similar for HBV and HCV, but distinct from HGV. ..
  49. Jusoh S, Helms V. Helical integrity and microsolvation of transmembrane domains from Flaviviridae envelope glycoproteins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1808:1040-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Simulations of helix monomers from other members of the Flaviviridae family suggest that these systems show similar behaviors...
  50. Guo Y, Wang Y, Cao L, Wang P, Qing J, Zheng Q, et al. A Conserved Inhibitory Mechanism of a Lycorine Derivative against Enterovirus and Hepatitis C Virus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016;60:913-24 pubmed publisher
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) (Picornaviridae family) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) (Flaviviridae family) are the causative agents of human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and hepatitis C, resulting in a severe pandemic involving millions of ..
  51. Barkhash A, Babenko V, Voevoda M, Romaschenko A. Association of IL28B and IL10 gene polymorphism with predisposition to tick-borne encephalitis in a Russian population. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2016;7:808-812 pubmed publisher
    ..associated with predisposition to chronic hepatitis C (caused by a structurally similar virus from the same Flaviviridae family) in a number of human populations...
  52. Crawford S, Desselberger U. Lipid droplets form complexes with viroplasms and are crucial for rotavirus replication. Curr Opin Virol. 2016;19:11-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Lipid droplets are vital for the replication of rotaviruses as well as various members of the Flaviviridae family and several intracellular bacteria...
  53. Charrel R, Attoui H, De Micco P, De Lamballerie X. The complete coding sequence of a European isolate of GB-C/hepatitis G virus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;255:432-7 pubmed
    ..Although phylogenetic studies based on partial genomic sequences suggested a clusterization according to the geographical origin, analysis based on full-length polyprotein did not provide similar conclusions. ..
  54. Seipp S, Scheidel M, Hofmann W, Tox U, Theilmann L, Goeser T, et al. Hepatotropism of GB virus C (GBV-C): GBV-C replication in human hepatocytes and cells of human hepatoma cell lines. J Hepatol. 1999;30:570-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our results establish GBV-C as a hepatotropic virus infecting human cells of hepatic origin in vivo and in vitro. ..
  55. Fabrizi F, Lunghi G, Pozzi C, Colzani S, Tentori F, Del Vecchio L, et al. GBV-C/HGV infection in end-stage renal disease: a serological and virological survey. J Nephrol. 2000;13:68-74 pubmed
    ..In many patients exposed to GBV-C/HGV infection the virus was cleared. The clinical significance of GBV-C/HGV in ESRD remains controversial. Prospective studies with additional serological assays are in progress. ..
  56. Parana R, Lyra M. New hepatitis viruses. Braz J Infect Dis. 2000;4:214-6 pubmed
    ..TTV may also be transmitted by the fecal-oral route. It is abundant in liver tissue but, like HGV, pathogenicity has not been proven. ..
  57. Lobo F, Mota B, Pena S, Azevedo V, Macedo A, Tauch A, et al. Virus-host coevolution: common patterns of nucleotide motif usage in Flaviviridae and their hosts. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6282 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Flaviviridae family is composed of fast evolving RNA viruses that infects vertebrate (mammals and birds) and/or invertebrate ..
  58. Santos R, Hermance M, Gelman B, Thangamani S. Spinal Cord Ventral Horns and Lymphoid Organ Involvement in Powassan Virus Infection in a Mouse Model. Viruses. 2016;8: pubmed publisher
    Powassan virus (POWV) belongs to the family Flaviviridae and is a member of the tick-borne encephalitis serogroup...
  59. Villari P, Ribera G, Nobile C, Torre I, Ricciardi G. Antibodies to the E2 protein of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus: prevalence and risk factors in different populations in Italy. Infection. 2001;29:17-23 pubmed
    ..However, the observation that the length of residency in Italy is a significant risk factor may suggest that at least some GBV-C infections are contracted in Italy. ..
  60. Charley P, Wilusz J. Standing your ground to exoribonucleases: Function of Flavivirus long non-coding RNAs. Virus Res. 2016;212:70-7 pubmed publisher
    Members of the Flaviviridae (e.g., Dengue virus, West Nile virus, and Hepatitis C virus) contain a positive-sense RNA genome that encodes a large polyprotein...
  61. Woolley I, Valdez H, Walker C, Landay A, Zdunek D, Hess G, et al. Hepatitis G virus RNA is common in AIDS patients' plasma but is not associated with abnormal liver function tests or other clinical syndromes. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998;19:408-12 pubmed
    ..03). Hepatitis G virus, although common in AIDS patients, does not appear to alter the course of AIDS nor appear as a distinct hepatitis syndrome. ..
  62. Weissenbock H, Bakonyi T, Chvala S, Nowotny N. Experimental Usutu virus infection of suckling mice causes neuronal and glial cell apoptosis and demyelination. Acta Neuropathol. 2004;108:453-60 pubmed
    ..While neuronal apoptosis is a general aspect of flavivirus pathogenicity, demyelination seems to be a unique feature of USUV infection. ..
  63. Yu C, Hsu Y, Liao C, Lin Y. Flavivirus infection activates the XBP1 pathway of the unfolded protein response to cope with endoplasmic reticulum stress. J Virol. 2006;80:11868-80 pubmed
    ..Overall, flaviviruses trigger the XBP1 signaling pathway and take advantage of this cellular response to alleviate virus-induced cytotoxicity. ..
  64. Balinsky C, Schmeisser H, Wells A, Ganesan S, Jin T, Singh K, et al. IRAV (FLJ11286), an Interferon-Stimulated Gene with Antiviral Activity against Dengue Virus, Interacts with MOV10. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..b>IMPORTANCE Dengue virus, a member of the family Flaviviridae, can result in a life-threatening illness and has a significant impact on global health...
  65. Fukuhara T, Tamura T, Ono C, Shiokawa M, Mori H, Uemura K, et al. Host-derived apolipoproteins play comparable roles with viral secretory proteins Erns and NS1 in the infectious particle formation of Flaviviridae. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006475 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the Flaviviridae members, pestivirus and flavivirus possess a viral structural protein Erns or a non-structural protein 1 (NS1) ..
  66. Hammami S, Hassine T, Conte A, Amdouni J, De Massis F, Sghaier S, et al. West Nile disease in Tunisia: an overview of 60 years. Vet Ital. 2017;53:225-234 pubmed publisher
    ..member of the genus Flavivirus and belongs to the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) antigenic complex under the Flaviviridae family...
  67. Davidson I, Lachmi B, Weisman Y. Development of RT-PCR for turkey meningoencephalitis virus and partial sequence analysis of the NS5 gene. Virus Genes. 1998;16:211-24 pubmed
    ..is unknown, the first step in developing the RT-PCR relied on conserved sequences of viruses belonging to the Flaviviridae family, in which TMEV has been classified serologically...
  68. Pinho J, Zanotto P, Ferreira J, Sumita L, Carrilho F, Da Silva L, et al. High prevalence of GB virus C in Brazil and molecular evidence for intrafamilial transmission. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:1634-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these results together suggest that contagion mechanisms which facilitate intrafamilial transmission of GBV-C may partially explain the high prevalence of viremic carriers worldwide. ..
  69. Muller C. The hepatitis alphabet--hepatitis A-G and TTV. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1999;111:461-8 pubmed
    ..Newer hepatitis viruses such as hepatitis E virus (HEV), hepatitis GB-virus C/hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV), and transfusion-transmitted virus (TTV) are discussed and data concerning their disease-inducing capacity reviewed...
  70. Hartlage A, Cullen J, Kapoor A. The Strange, Expanding World of Animal Hepaciviruses. Annu Rev Virol. 2016;3:53-75 pubmed
    Hepaciviruses and pegiviruses constitute two closely related sister genera of the family Flaviviridae. In the past five years, the known phylogenetic diversity of the hepacivirus genera has absolutely exploded...
  71. Eppes C, Rac M, Dunn J, Versalovic J, Murray K, Suter M, et al. Testing for Zika virus infection in pregnancy: key concepts to deal with an emerging epidemic. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017;216:209-225 pubmed publisher
    Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne (Aedes genus) arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family...
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    Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family. Studies reveal that peptides secreted by amphibians have many functions, such as antiviral and antimicrobial activities...
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    ..The majority of long term carriers of the virus appear to have no liver, biochemical or histological abnormalities. ..
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    ..Due to the lack of risk factors for HGV/GBV-C infection of blood, other efficient transmission routes must exist. It must be assumed that HGV/GBV-C transmission may be linked to sexual activity. ..
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    ..of a cell culture antigen production algorithm for nine arboviruses from the three main arbovirus families, Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, and Bunyaviridae, is described here...
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    ..In conclusion, more than half of HCV-infected Swedish blood donors in this study were positive for either GBV-C/HGV RNA or anti-E2. GBV-C/HGV viremia and seropositivity were mutually exclusive. ..
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    ..The novel method provides the potential for automated, simple, rapid and accurate routine detection of GBV-C/HGV RNA in diagnostic virological laboratories. ..
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    ..It is proposed that the nomenclature for genotypes 1-3 remains as per previous publications, and that the Southeast Asian isolates be known as genotype 4, and the South African isolates as genotype 5. ..
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    ..their N-alkyl derivatives were synthesized and tested for antihelicase activity against enzymes of selected Flaviviridae including hepatitis C virus (HCV), West Nile virus (WNV), Dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (..
  80. Wichit S, Hamel R, Bernard E, Talignani L, Diop F, Ferraris P, et al. Imipramine Inhibits Chikungunya Virus Replication in Human Skin Fibroblasts through Interference with Intracellular Cholesterol Trafficking. Sci Rep. 2017;7:3145 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, imipramine also strongly inhibited the replication of several Flaviviridae family members, including Zika, West Nile and Dengue virus...
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    ..We describe the design and testing of PCR primers derived from conserved sequences within the 5'-UTR of the GBV-C genome. These primers were shown to be as effective as the helicase-derived primers in detecting GBV-C RNA in human sera. ..
  82. Lefrere J, Loiseau P, Maury J, Lasserre J, Mariotti M, Ravera N, et al. Natural history of GBV-C/hepatitis G virus infection through the follow-up of GBV-C/hepatitis G virus-infected blood donors and recipients studied by RNA polymerase chain reaction and anti-E2 serology. Blood. 1997;90:3776-80 pubmed
    ..7 months. The persistent infection rate was 100% in this donor cohort. Once acquired, the infection to GBV-C/HGV generally tends to persist in immunocompetent patients. ..
  83. Fernandez J, Valtuille R, Hidalgo A, del Pino N, Lef L, Rendo P. Hepatitis G virus infection in hemodialysis patients and its relationship with hepatitis C virus infection. Am J Nephrol. 2000;20:380-4 pubmed
    ..01 for I and III). We conclude that HGV infection was frequent in our HD patients, related to transfusions and independent of HCV prevalence, and that HGV infection itself was not a cause of ALAT elevation suggesting chronic hepatitis. ..
  84. Shimizu T, Moriyama M, Arakawa Y. Detection of HGV RNA in digestive organs. Intervirology. 2001;44:14-20 pubmed
    ..6 and 93.6%, respectively. These results suggest that HGV proliferates in the appendix and is carried by the portal blood flow to the liver, and may cause a hepatitis reaction in the liver. ..
  85. Weissenbock H, Kolodziejek J, Fragner K, Kuhn R, Pfeffer M, Nowotny N. Usutu virus activity in Austria, 2001-2002. Microbes Infect. 2003;5:1132-6 pubmed
    Usutu virus (USUV), a member of the mosquito-borne clade within the Flaviviridae family, was responsible for avian mortality in Austria in 2001. In 2002, the virus continued to kill birds, predominantly blackbirds...
  86. Choi K, Rossmann M. RNA-dependent RNA polymerases from Flaviviridae. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2009;19:746-51 pubmed publisher
    Viral genome replication in Flaviviridae is carried out by a virally encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)...
  87. Morris G, Barichello T, Stubbs B, Köhler C, Carvalho A, Maes M. Zika Virus as an Emerging Neuropathogen: Mechanisms of Neurovirulence and Neuro-Immune Interactions. Mol Neurobiol. 2018;55:4160-4184 pubmed publisher
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the genus Flaviviridae, which causes a febrile illness and has spread from across the Pacific to the Americas in a short timeframe...
  88. Shi S, Lai M. Hepatitis C viral RNA: challenges and promises. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2001;58:1276-95 pubmed
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide...
  89. Zhang N, Chen H, Koch V, Schmitz H, Liao C, Bretner M, et al. Ring-expanded ("fat") nucleoside and nucleotide analogues exhibit potent in vitro activity against flaviviridae NTPases/helicases, including those of the West Nile virus, hepatitis C virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus. J Med Chem. 2003;46:4149-64 pubmed
    ..ring systems (30b, 30c, 32, and 34), have been synthesized as potential inhibitors of NTPases/helicases of Flaviviridae, including the West Nile virus (WNV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)...
  90. Paul D, Bartenschlager R. Flaviviridae Replication Organelles: Oh, What a Tangled Web We Weave. Annu Rev Virol. 2015;2:289-310 pubmed publisher
    ..review common concepts and distinct differences in replication organelle morphology and biogenesis within the Flaviviridae family, exemplified by dengue virus and hepatitis C virus...
  91. Lu G, Fu C, Huang J, Xu H, Wu P, Ping X, et al. Molecular characterization of a genetically divergent equine pegivirus strain identified in China. Arch Virol. 2018;163:249-252 pubmed publisher
    ..EPgV) is a newly discovered equine virus, which is taxonomically classified in the Pegivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family...
  92. Gutierrez R, Dawson G, Mushahwar I. ELISA for detection of antibody to the E2 protein of GB virus C. J Virol Methods. 1997;69:1-6 pubmed
    ..A population of 100 volunteer blood donors was tested to assess the specificity of this assay. Individuals reactive for antibody to GBV-C E2 can be considered to have been exposed to GB virus C. ..