venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

Summary

Summary: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.

Top Publications

  1. Perkins S, O Brien L, Phillpotts R. Boosting with an adenovirus-based vaccine improves protective efficacy against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus following DNA vaccination. Vaccine. 2006;24:3440-5 pubmed
    There is a requirement for a vaccine that protects against the alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)...
  2. Powers A, Brault A, Kinney R, Weaver S. The use of chimeric Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses as an approach for the molecular identification of natural virulence determinants. J Virol. 2000;74:4258-63 pubmed
    ..These results implicate viral components in both the structural and nonstructural portions of the genome in contributing to the epizootic phenotype and indicate the potential for epidemic emergence from the IE enzootic VEE viruses. ..
  3. Bhomia M, Balakathiresan N, Sharma A, Gupta P, Biswas R, Maheshwari R. Analysis of microRNAs induced by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in mouse brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;395:11-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an RNA virus and is a member of the genus Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae...
  4. Konopka J, Thompson J, Whitmore A, Webb D, Johnston R. Acute infection with venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles catalyzes a systemic antiviral state and protects from lethal virus challenge. J Virol. 2009;83:12432-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, utilizing Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon particles (VRP) to limit infection to the initially infected cells in vivo, a rapid ..
  5. Lee J, Groebner J, Hadjipanayis A, Negley D, Schmaljohn A, Welkos S, et al. Multiagent vaccines vectored by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon elicits immune responses to Marburg virus and protection against anthrax and botulinum neurotoxin in mice. Vaccine. 2006;24:6886-92 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate the utility of combining individual VRP vaccines into multiagent formulations for eliciting protective immune responses to various types of diseases. ..
  6. Aguilar P, Robich R, Turell M, O Guinn M, Klein T, Huaman A, et al. Endemic eastern equine encephalitis in the Amazon region of Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:293-8 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that humans are exposed but do not develop apparent infection with EEEV because of poor infectivity and/or avirulence of South American strains. ..
  7. Thompson J, Whitmore A, Konopka J, Collier M, Richmond E, Davis N, et al. Mucosal and systemic adjuvant activity of alphavirus replicon particles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:3722-7 pubmed
    ..that mucosal immune responses are evident at multiple mucosal surfaces after parenteral delivery of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRP)...
  8. Weaver S, Pfeffer M, Marriott K, Kang W, Kinney R. Genetic evidence for the origins of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype IAB outbreaks. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999;60:441-8 pubmed
    ..These data support the hypothesis of a vaccine origin for many VEE outbreaks. However, continuous, cryptic circulation of IAB viruses cannot be ruled out as a source of epizootic emergence. ..
  9. Harrington P, Yount B, Johnston R, Davis N, Moe C, Baric R. Systemic, mucosal, and heterotypic immune induction in mice inoculated with Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicons expressing Norwalk virus-like particles. J Virol. 2002;76:730-42 pubmed
    ..Expression of NLV VLPs in mammalian cells offers a powerful approach for the design of novel NLV vaccines, either alone or in combination with current vaccination models. ..

More Information

Publications95

  1. Jackson A, Rossiter J. Apoptotic cell death is an important cause of neuronal injury in experimental Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection of mice. Acta Neuropathol. 1997;93:349-53 pubmed
    ..There is strong morphological and biochemical evidence of apoptotic cell death in this experimental model of VEE virus infection...
  2. Carrara A, Gonzales G, Ferro C, Tamayo M, Aronson J, Paessler S, et al. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection of spiny rats. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:663-9 pubmed
    Enzootic strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) circulate in forested habitats of Mexico, Central, and South America, and spiny rats (Proechimys spp.) are believed to be the principal reservoir hosts in several foci...
  3. Ortiz D, Weaver S. Susceptibility of Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) to infection with epizootic (subtype IC) and enzootic (subtype ID) Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses: evidence for epizootic strain adaptation. J Med Entomol. 2004;41:987-93 pubmed
    To test the hypothesis that adaptation to epizootic mosquito vectors mediates emergence of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) from enzootic progenitors, experimental infection studies were conducted to determine the ..
  4. Paessler S, Fayzulin R, Anishchenko M, Greene I, Weaver S, Frolov I. Recombinant sindbis/Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus is highly attenuated and immunogenic. J Virol. 2003;77:9278-86 pubmed
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an important, naturally emerging zoonotic virus...
  5. Colpitts T, Moore A, Kolokoltsov A, Davey R. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection of mosquito cells requires acidification as well as mosquito homologs of the endocytic proteins Rab5 and Rab7. Virology. 2007;369:78-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a New World alphavirus that can cause fatal encephalitis in humans. It remains a naturally emerging disease as well as a highly developed biological weapon...
  6. Phillpotts R, Jones L, Howard S. Monoclonal antibody protects mice against infection and disease when given either before or up to 24 h after airborne challenge with virulent Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Vaccine. 2002;20:1497-504 pubmed
    Airborne infection with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a significant hazard for laboratory workers, who may not be immunised against VEEV infection as there is no vaccine currently available suitable for human use...
  7. Hunt A, Frederickson S, Hinkel C, Bowdish K, Roehrig J. A humanized murine monoclonal antibody protects mice either before or after challenge with virulent Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2467-76 pubmed
    ..Importantly, therapeutic administration of the humanized mAb to mice already infected with VEEV cured 90 % of mice treated with Hy4 IgG within 1 h of VEEV inoculation and 75 % of mice treated 24 h after virus infection...
  8. Kinney R, Tsuchiya K, Sneider J, Trent D. Genetic evidence that epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses may have evolved from enzootic VEE subtype I-D virus. Virology. 1992;191:569-80 pubmed
  9. Weaver S, Barrett A. Transmission cycles, host range, evolution and emergence of arboviral disease. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004;2:789-801 pubmed
    ..We discuss viruses of medical importance, including Venezuelan equine and Japanese encephalitis viruses, dengue viruses and West Nile viruses...
  10. Davis N, Caley I, Brown K, Betts M, Irlbeck D, McGrath K, et al. Vaccination of macaques against pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles. J Virol. 2000;74:371-8 pubmed
    Vaccine vectors derived from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) that expressed simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) immunogens were tested in rhesus macaques as part of the effort to design a safe and effective vaccine for human ..
  11. Bello F, Becerra V. Genetic variability and heterogeneity of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus vector Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) populations of the Colombian Atlantic coast, based on microsatellite loci. Genet Mol Res. 2009;8:1179-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus has been identified as an efficient vector of the epidemic-epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. We evaluated the genetic variability and heterogeneity of this mosquito in Colombian populations ..
  12. Ferro C, Boshell J, Moncayo A, Gonzalez M, Ahumada M, Kang W, et al. Natural enzootic vectors of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Magdalena Valley, Colombia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:49-54 pubmed
    To characterize the transmission cycle of enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) strains believed to represent an epizootic progenitor, we identified natural vectors in a sylvatic focus in the middle Magdalena Valley of ..
  13. White L, Wang J, Davis N, Johnston R. Role of alpha/beta interferon in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus pathogenesis: effect of an attenuating mutation in the 5' untranslated region. J Virol. 2001;75:3706-18 pubmed
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) is an important equine and human pathogen of the Americas. In the adult mouse model, cDNA-derived, virulent V3000 inoculated subcutaneously (s.c...
  14. Dupuy L, Locher C, Paidhungat M, Richards M, Lind C, Bakken R, et al. Directed molecular evolution improves the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus DNA vaccine. Vaccine. 2009;27:4152-60 pubmed publisher
    We employed directed molecular evolution to improve the cross-reactivity and immunogenicity of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) envelope glycoproteins...
  15. Perri S, Greer C, Thudium K, Doe B, Legg H, Liu H, et al. An alphavirus replicon particle chimera derived from venezuelan equine encephalitis and sindbis viruses is a potent gene-based vaccine delivery vector. J Virol. 2003;77:10394-403 pubmed
    ..replicon particle-based vaccine vectors derived from Sindbis virus (SIN), Semliki Forest virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) have been shown to induce robust antigen-specific cellular, humoral, and mucosal immune ..
  16. Perkins S, Williams A, O Brien L, Laws T, Phillpotts R. CpG used as an adjuvant for an adenovirus-based Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus vaccine increases the immune response to the vector, but not to the transgene product. Viral Immunol. 2008;21:451-7 pubmed publisher
    An adenovirus-based (ad-based) vaccine delivering antigens from the Alphavirus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a strategy that offers clinical potential...
  17. Barrera R, Ferro C, Navarro J, Freier J, Liria J, Salas R, et al. Contrasting sylvatic foci of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in northern South America. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;67:324-34 pubmed
  18. Martin S, Bakken R, Lind C, Garcia P, Jenkins E, Glass P, et al. Comparison of the immunological responses and efficacy of gamma-irradiated V3526 vaccine formulations against subcutaneous and aerosol challenge with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype IAB. Vaccine. 2010;28:1031-40 pubmed publisher
    We recently developed a gamma-irradiation method to inactivate V3526, a live-attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) vaccine candidate...
  19. Riemenschneider J, Garrison A, Geisbert J, Jahrling P, Hevey M, Negley D, et al. Comparison of individual and combination DNA vaccines for B. anthracis, Ebola virus, Marburg virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Vaccine. 2003;21:4071-80 pubmed
    ..pathogens that are known biowarfare agents, Bacillus anthracis, Ebola (EBOV), Marburg (MARV), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), can elicit protective immunity in relevant animal models...
  20. Charles P, Trgovcich J, Davis N, Johnston R. Immunopathogenesis and immune modulation of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus-induced disease in the mouse. Virology. 2001;284:190-202 pubmed
    ..However, in contrast to other neurovirulent alphaviruses, VEE was directly cytopathic for the cells of the CNS, even in the absence of an immune response...
  21. Ludwig G, Turell M, Vogel P, Kondig J, Kell W, Smith J, et al. Comparative neurovirulence of attenuated and non-attenuated strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in mice. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;64:49-55 pubmed
    ..c. inoculation of V3526 were consistently less severe and of shorter duration than those observed in TC-83-inoculated mice. Based on these results, V3526 is stable and appears to be significantly less neurovirulent in mice than TC-83...
  22. Petrakova O, Volkova E, Gorchakov R, Paessler S, Kinney R, Frolov I. Noncytopathic replication of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus replicons in Mammalian cells. J Virol. 2005;79:7597-608 pubmed
  23. Williamson C, Morris L, Maughan M, Ping L, Dryga S, Thomas R, et al. Characterization and selection of HIV-1 subtype C isolates for use in vaccine development. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2003;19:133-44 pubmed
    ..Genes identified in this study have been incorporated into the VEE VRP candidate vaccines targeted for clinical trial in South Africa. ..
  24. Mangiafico J, Rossi C, Ludwig G. Short report: Isolation and identification of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus from a human in Panama. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;67:112-3 pubmed
    ..The virus was isolated from the acute phase serum and identified as VEE, subtype ID virus by monoclonal antibodies, and was confirmed by cross plaque-reduction neutralization tests...
  25. Brault A, Powers A, Ortiz D, Estrada Franco J, Navarro Lopez R, Weaver S. Venezuelan equine encephalitis emergence: enhanced vector infection from a single amino acid substitution in the envelope glycoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11344-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings underscore the capacity of RNA viruses to alter their vector host range through minor genetic changes, resulting in the potential for disease emergence...
  26. Paessler S, Ni H, Petrakova O, Fayzulin R, Yun N, Anishchenko M, et al. Replication and clearance of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus from the brains of animals vaccinated with chimeric SIN/VEE viruses. J Virol. 2006;80:2784-96 pubmed
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an important, naturally emerging zoonotic pathogen...
  27. Brooke C, Deming D, Whitmore A, White L, Johnston R. T cells facilitate recovery from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus-induced encephalomyelitis in the absence of antibody. J Virol. 2010;84:4556-68 pubmed publisher
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a mosquito-borne RNA virus of the genus Alphavirus that is responsible for a significant disease burden in Central and South America through sporadic outbreaks into human and equid ..
  28. Hevey M, Negley D, Pushko P, Smith J, Schmaljohn A. Marburg virus vaccines based upon alphavirus replicons protect guinea pigs and nonhuman primates. Virology. 1998;251:28-37 pubmed
    ..Three monkeys vaccinated with replicons which expressed MBGV GP, and three others vaccinated with both replicons that expressed GP or NP, remained aviremic and were completely protected from disease...
  29. Moncayo A, Medina G, Kalvatchev Z, Brault A, Barrera R, Boshell J, et al. Genetic diversity and relationships among Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus field isolates from Colombia and Venezuela. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;65:738-46 pubmed
    ..The SSCP analysis appears to be a simple, fast, and relatively efficient method of screening VEE virus isolates to identify meaningful genetic variants...
  30. Malet H, Coutard B, Jamal S, Dutartre H, Papageorgiou N, Neuvonen M, et al. The crystal structures of Chikungunya and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus nsP3 macro domains define a conserved adenosine binding pocket. J Virol. 2009;83:6534-45 pubmed publisher
    ..structures of the macro domain from the Chikungunya virus (an "Old World" alphavirus) and the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (a "New World" alphavirus) were determined at resolutions of 1.65 and 2.30 A, respectively...
  31. Smith D, Aguilar P, Coffey L, Gromowski G, Wang E, Weaver S. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus transmission and effect on pathogenesis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1190-6 pubmed
    ..We compared the amount of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus collected from the saliva of Aedes taeniorhynchus to the amount injected into a mouse during blood ..
  32. Vilcarromero S, Laguna Torres V, Fernandez C, Gotuzzo E, Suarez L, Cespedes M, et al. Venezuelan equine encephalitis and upper gastrointestinal bleeding in child. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:323-5 pubmed
    ..In 2006, VEE virus subtype ID was isolated from a boy with severe febrile disease and gastrointestinal bleeding; the strain contained 2 mutations within the PE2 region...
  33. Geisbert T, Pushko P, Anderson K, Smith J, Davis K, Jahrling P. Evaluation in nonhuman primates of vaccines against Ebola virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:503-7 pubmed
    ..The following immunogens were used: RNA replicon particles derived from an attenuated strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) expressing EBOV glycoprotein and nucleoprotein; recombinant Vaccinia virus expressing EBOV ..
  34. Roehrig J, Bolin R. Monoclonal antibodies capable of distinguishing epizootic from enzootic varieties of subtype 1 Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses in a rapid indirect immunofluorescence assay. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:1887-90 pubmed
    ..Because VEE virus virulence has been associated in part with the E2 glycoprotein, this observed antigenic change in the 1E virus E2 glycoprotein may explain the apparent equine virulence of this unusual VEE 1E virus...
  35. Kolokoltsov A, Weaver S, Davey R. Efficient functional pseudotyping of oncoretroviral and lentiviral vectors by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus envelope proteins. J Virol. 2005;79:756-63 pubmed
    ..of murine oncoretroviral and lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with the envelope proteins of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)...
  36. Estrada Franco J, Navarro Lopez R, Freier J, Cordova D, Clements T, Moncayo A, et al. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, southern Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:2113-21 pubmed
    ..These data indicate long-term enzootic and endemic VEEV circulation in the region and continued risk for disease in equines and humans...
  37. Velders M, McElhiney S, Cassetti M, Eiben G, Higgins T, Kovacs G, et al. Eradication of established tumors by vaccination with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles delivering human papillomavirus 16 E7 RNA. Cancer Res. 2001;61:7861-7 pubmed
  38. Pratt W, Davis N, Johnston R, Smith J. Genetically engineered, live attenuated vaccines for Venezuelan equine encephalitis: testing in animal models. Vaccine. 2003;21:3854-62 pubmed
    The central objective of this research was to test molecularly defined, live attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) vaccine candidates that were produced through precise genetic manipulation of rationally selected viral ..
  39. Lee J, Hadjipanayis A, Welkos S. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus-vectored vaccines protect mice against anthrax spore challenge. Infect Immun. 2003;71:1491-6 pubmed
    ..Mice were unprotected from challenge after inoculation with the carboxy-terminal 63-kDa PA vaccine. These results suggest that these VEE-vectored vaccines may be suitable as candidate vaccines against anthrax...
  40. Ortiz D, Anishchenko M, Weaver S. Susceptibility of Psorophora confinnis (Diptera: Culicidae) to infection with epizootic (subtype IC) and enzootic (subtype ID) Venezuelan Equine encephalitis viruses. J Med Entomol. 2005;42:857-63 pubmed
    To test the hypothesis that adaptation to epizootic mosquito vectors mediates the emergence of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, VEEV) from enzootic progenitors, the susceptibility of the ..
  41. Hu W, Chau D, Wu J, Jager S, Nagata L. Humanization and mammalian expression of a murine monoclonal antibody against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Vaccine. 2007;25:3210-4 pubmed
    The murine monoclonal antibody 1A4A1 can strongly neutralize Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and is a good candidate for development of humanized antibody...
  42. Julander J, Bowen R, Rao J, Day C, Shafer K, Smee D, et al. Treatment of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection with (-)-carbodine. Antiviral Res. 2008;80:309-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) may cause encephalitis in humans, for which no FDA-approved antiviral treatment is available. Carbocyclic cytosine (carbodine) has broad-spectrum activity but toxicity has limited its utility...
  43. Atasheva S, Garmashova N, Frolov I, Frolova E. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus capsid protein inhibits nuclear import in Mammalian but not in mosquito cells. J Virol. 2008;82:4028-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) represents a continuous public health threat in the United States. It has the ability to cause fatal disease in humans and in horses and other domestic animals...
  44. Wang E, Bowen R, Medina G, Powers A, Kang W, Chandler L, et al. Virulence and viremia characteristics of 1992 epizootic subtype IC Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses and closely related enzootic subtype ID strains. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;65:64-9 pubmed
    ..Enzootic ID virus infection protected all horses from challenge with epizootic strain P676, supporting the hypothesis that epizootics bypass regions of enzootic transmission due to natural immunization of equines by enzootic VEE viruses...
  45. Smith D, Carrara A, Aguilar P, Weaver S. Evaluation of methods to assess transmission potential of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus by mosquitoes and estimation of mosquito saliva titers. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;73:33-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we compared three traditional artificial transmission methods using Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and Aedes albopictus and Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus mosquitoes...
  46. Salas R, Garcia C, Liria J, Barrera R, Navarro J, Medina G, et al. Ecological studies of enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in north-central Venezuela, 1997-1998. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;64:84-92 pubmed
    ..Sequences of 1,677 nucleotides from the P62 gene of 2 virus isolates indicated that they represent a subtype ID lineage that is distinct from all others characterized previously, and are unrelated to epizootic VEE emergence...
  47. Hart M, Caswell Stephan K, Bakken R, Tammariello R, Pratt W, Davis N, et al. Improved mucosal protection against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus is induced by the molecularly defined, live-attenuated V3526 vaccine candidate. Vaccine. 2000;18:3067-75 pubmed
    ..The ability of V3526 to induce protection in mice warrants its consideration for further testing as a potential vaccine candidate for human use...
  48. Anishchenko M, Paessler S, Greene I, Aguilar P, Carrara A, Weaver S. Generation and characterization of closely related epizootic and enzootic infectious cDNA clones for studying interferon sensitivity and emergence mechanisms of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. J Virol. 2004;78:1-8 pubmed
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a reemerging pathogen and a continuing threat to humans and equines in the Americas...
  49. Duggan J, Coates D, Ulaeto D. Isolation of single-chain antibody fragments against Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus from two different immune sources. Viral Immunol. 2001;14:263-73 pubmed
    ..The data presented in this article suggest that although scFvs may be useful tools for the detection of viruses, there are serious limitations with the use of phage display as a tool for the isolation of specific antibodies...
  50. Martin S, Bakken R, Lind C, Reed D, Price J, Koeller C, et al. Telemetric analysis to detect febrile responses in mice following vaccination with a live-attenuated virus vaccine. Vaccine. 2009;27:6814-23 pubmed publisher
    ..in inbred and outbred mouse strains following administration of the live-attenuated vaccine for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), V3526...
  51. Balasuriya U, Heidner H, Davis N, Wagner H, Hullinger P, Hedges J, et al. Alphavirus replicon particles expressing the two major envelope proteins of equine arteritis virus induce high level protection against challenge with virulent virus in vaccinated horses. Vaccine. 2002;20:1609-17 pubmed
    ..These data confirm that replicons that co-express the G(L) and M envelope proteins effectively, induce EAV neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity in horses...
  52. Brault A, Powers A, Weaver S. Vector infection determinants of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus reside within the E2 envelope glycoprotein. J Virol. 2002;76:6387-92 pubmed
  53. Gonzalez Salazar D, Estrada Franco J, Carrara A, Aronson J, Weaver S. Equine amplification and virulence of subtype IE Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses isolated during the 1993 and 1996 Mexican epizootics. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:161-8 pubmed
  54. Volkova E, Frolova E, Darwin J, Forrester N, Weaver S, Frolov I. IRES-dependent replication of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus makes it highly attenuated and incapable of replicating in mosquito cells. Virology. 2008;377:160-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In spite of efficient replication in cultured vertebrate cells, the genetically modified VEEV demonstrated a highly attenuated phenotype in newborn mice, and yet induced protective immunity against VEEV infection...
  55. Mendez W, Liria J, Navarro J, Garcia C, Freier J, Salas R, et al. Spatial dispersion of adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a sylvatic focus of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. J Med Entomol. 2001;38:813-21 pubmed
    We studied the spatial localization of mosquitoes in sylvatic focus of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in western Venezuela to identify mosquito species potentially involved in the hypothesized transport of viruses out of enzootic ..
  56. Watts D, Lavera V, Callahan J, Rossi C, Oberste M, Roehrig J, et al. Venezuelan equine encephalitis and Oropouche virus infections among Peruvian army troops in the Amazon region of Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1997;56:661-7 pubmed
    ..These data indicated that VEE ID virus was one of the causes of illness among Peruvians soldiers and that this was the first association of this VEE subtype with human disease in Peru...
  57. Bernard K, Klimstra W, Johnston R. Mutations in the E2 glycoprotein of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus confer heparan sulfate interaction, low morbidity, and rapid clearance from blood of mice. Virology. 2000;276:93-103 pubmed
    The arbovirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE), causes disease in humans and equines during periodic outbreaks...
  58. Nelson E, Prieto D, Alexander T, Pushko P, Lofts L, Rayner J, et al. Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicon immunization overcomes intrinsic tolerance and elicits effective anti-tumor immunity to the 'self' tumor-associated antigen, neu in a rat mammary tumor model. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2003;82:169-83 pubmed
    ..These data support the continued development and potential clinical application of this alphaviral replicon vector system and the use of appropriately designed target antigen sequences for anti-tumor immunotherapy...
  59. Schäfer A, Whitmore A, Konopka J, Johnston R. Replicon particles of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus as a reductionist murine model for encephalitis. J Virol. 2009;83:4275-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon particles (VRP) were used to model the initial phase of VEE-induced encephalitis in the mouse brain...
  60. Wang E, Paessler S, Aguilar P, Smith D, Coffey L, Kang W, et al. A novel, rapid assay for detection and differentiation of serotype-specific antibodies to Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex alphaviruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;72:805-10 pubmed
    ..It could also be used to determine the epidemic potential of a VEE virus following an intentional introduction for bioterrorism...
  61. Brault A, Powers A, Holmes E, Woelk C, Weaver S. Positively charged amino acid substitutions in the e2 envelope glycoprotein are associated with the emergence of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. J Virol. 2002;76:1718-30 pubmed
    ..Maximum-likelihood analysis indicated that one change at E2 position 213 has been influenced by positive selection and convergent evolution of the epizootic phenotype...
  62. Aguilar P, Greene I, Coffey L, Medina G, Moncayo A, Anishchenko M, et al. Endemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in northern Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:880-8 pubmed
    Since Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) was isolated in Peru in 1942, >70 isolates have been obtained from mosquitoes, humans, and sylvatic mammals primarily in the Amazon region...
  63. Simmons J, White L, Morrison T, Montgomery S, Whitmore A, Johnston R, et al. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus disrupts STAT1 signaling by distinct mechanisms independent of host shutoff. J Virol. 2009;83:10571-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an important human and veterinary pathogen causing sporadic epizootic outbreaks of potentially fatal encephalitis...
  64. Elvin S, Bennett A, Phillpotts R. Role for mucosal immune responses and cell-mediated immune functions in protection from airborne challenge with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. J Med Virol. 2002;67:384-93 pubmed
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) replicates in lymphoid tissues following peripheral inoculation and a high titre viraemia develops...
  65. Fine D, Roberts B, Teehee M, Terpening S, Kelly C, Raetz J, et al. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus vaccine candidate (V3526) safety, immunogenicity and efficacy in horses. Vaccine. 2007;25:1868-76 pubmed
    ..V3526, is a live-attenuated virus derived by site-directed mutagenesis from a virulent clone of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) IA/B Trinidad donkey (TrD) strain, intended for human use in protection against Venezuelan ..
  66. Moncayo A, Lanzaro G, Kang W, Orozco A, Ulloa A, Arredondo Jiménez J, et al. Vector competence of eastern and western forms of Psorophora columbiae (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes for enzootic and epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;78:413-21 pubmed
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) continues to circulate enzootically in Mexico with the potential to re-emerge and cause disease in equines and humans in North America...
  67. Garmashova N, Atasheva S, Kang W, Weaver S, Frolova E, Frolov I. Analysis of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus capsid protein function in the inhibition of cellular transcription. J Virol. 2007;81:13552-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings can be used in designing a new generation of live, attenuated, recombinant vaccines against the New World alphaviruses...
  68. Quiroz E, Aguilar P, Cisneros J, Tesh R, Weaver S. Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Panama: fatal endemic disease and genetic diversity of etiologic viral strains. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:e472 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings underscore endemic VEE as an important but usually neglected arboviral disease of Latin America...
  69. Paredes A, Alwell Warda K, Weaver S, Chiu W, Watowich S. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus structure and its divergence from old world alphaviruses. J Virol. 2001;75:9532-7 pubmed
    ..However, VEE virus has pronounced differences in its nucleocapsid structure relative to nucleocapsid structures repeatedly observed in Old World alphaviruses...
  70. Chen L, Ewing D, Subramanian H, Block K, Rayner J, Alterson K, et al. A heterologous DNA prime-Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particle boost dengue vaccine regimen affords complete protection from virus challenge in cynomolgus macaques. J Virol. 2007;81:11634-9 pubmed
    ..66 and 0.75 day, respectively, compared to 6.33 days for the control group of animals...
  71. Caceda E, Kochel T. Application of modified shell vial culture procedure for arbovirus detection. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1034 pubmed
    ..Additionally, MSVC detected DEN virus in five of seven DEN-3 RT-PCR positive, SCC negative patients' sera...
  72. Carrara A, Coffey L, Aguilar P, Moncayo A, Da Rosa A, Nunes M, et al. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection of cotton rats. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1158-65 pubmed
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an emerging pathogen of equids and humans, but infection of its rodent reservoir hosts has received little study...
  73. Rosas C, Paessler S, Ni H, Osterrieder N. Protection of mice by equine herpesvirus type 1 based experimental vaccine against lethal Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in the absence of neutralizing antibodies. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;78:83-92 pubmed
    ..type 1 (EHV-1) was generated as an alternative for safe and efficient prophylaxis against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) infection...
  74. Kolokoltsov A, Wang E, Colpitts T, Weaver S, Davey R. Pseudotyped viruses permit rapid detection of neutralizing antibodies in human and equine serum against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75:702-9 pubmed
    ..b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) causes acute febrile illness in humans and has high mortality in equines...
  75. Deardorff E, Forrester N, Travassos Da Rosa A, Estrada Franco J, Navarro Lopez R, Tesh R, et al. Experimental infection of potential reservoir hosts with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:519-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The outbreak was attributed to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) subtype IE, not previously associated with equine disease and death...
  76. O Brien L, Perkins S, Williams A, Eastaugh L, Phelps A, Wu J, et al. Alpha interferon as an adenovirus-vectored vaccine adjuvant and antiviral in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:874-82 pubmed publisher
    ..are no widely available vaccines or antiviral drugs capable of protecting against infection with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), although an adenovirus vector expressing VEEV structural proteins protects mice from ..
  77. Ortiz D, Kang W, Weaver S. Susceptibility of Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to infection with epidemic (subtype IC) and enzootic (subtypes ID, IIIC, IIID) Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex alphaviruses. J Med Entomol. 2008;45:1117-25 pubmed
    ..The occurrence of enzootic VEE complex viruses circulating endemically in Iquitos suggests the possibility of a dengue-like transmission cycle among humans in tropical cities...
  78. Coffey L, Vasilakis N, Brault A, Powers A, Tripet F, Weaver S. Arbovirus evolution in vivo is constrained by host alternation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6970-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we tested it using an in vivo system with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), an emerging alphavirus of the Americas...
  79. Smith D, Arrigo N, Leal G, Muehlberger L, Weaver S. Infection and dissemination of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in the epidemic mosquito vector, Aedes taeniorhynchus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:176-87 pubmed
    The mosquito Aedes taeniorhynchus is an important epidemic vector of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), but detailed studies of its infection are lacking...
  80. Steele K, Seth P, Catlin Lebaron K, Schoneboom B, Husain M, Grieder F, et al. Tunicamycin enhances neuroinvasion and encephalitis in mice infected with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Vet Pathol. 2006;43:904-13 pubmed
    ..The exact mechanism of tunicamycin-enhanced neuroinvasion by VEE viruses requires further study...
  81. O Brien L, Underwood Fowler C, Goodchild S, Phelps A, Phillpotts R. Development of a novel monoclonal antibody with reactivity to a wide range of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus strains. Virol J. 2009;6:206 pubmed publisher
    ..There is currently a requirement for antiviral therapies capable of protecting against infection with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), as a licensed vaccine is not available for general human use...
  82. Anishchenko M, Bowen R, Paessler S, Austgen L, Greene I, Weaver S. Venezuelan encephalitis emergence mediated by a phylogenetically predicted viral mutation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:4994-9 pubmed
    ..We studied the emergence of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), an alphavirus pathogen of people and equines that has had severe health and economic ..
  83. Lamb K, Lokesh G, Sherman M, Watowich S. Structure of a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus assembly intermediate isolated from infected cells. Virology. 2010;406:261-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a prototypical enveloped ssRNA virus of the family Togaviridae...
  84. Lee J, Dyas B, Nystrom S, Lind C, Smith J, Ulrich R. Immune protection against staphylococcal enterotoxin-induced toxic shock by vaccination with a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon. J Infect Dis. 2002;185:1192-6 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the VEE replicon is a practical and convenient model system for evaluating efficacy of vaccines for the control of bacterial diseases...
  85. Cassetti M, McElhiney S, Shahabi V, Pullen J, Le Poole I, Eiben G, et al. Antitumor efficacy of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles encoding mutated HPV16 E6 and E7 genes. Vaccine. 2004;22:520-7 pubmed
    ..These promising results support the continued development of mutant E6 and E7 VRP as safe and effective candidates for clinical evaluation against HPV-associated disease...
  86. Deardorff E, Weaver S. Vector competence of Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus for equine-virulent subtype IE strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;82:1047-52 pubmed publisher
    The mosquito Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus is a proven vector of enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) subtype IE in Central America...