tick borne encephalitis viruses


Summary: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.

Top Publications

  1. Wang J, Zhang H, Fu S, Wang H, Ni D, Nasci R, et al. Isolation of kyasanur forest disease virus from febrile patient, yunnan, china. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:326-8 pubmed
    ..Results of a 1987-1990 seroepidemiologic investigation in Yunnan Province had shown that residents of the Hengduan Mountain region had been infected with Nanjianyin virus. ..
  2. Grard G, Moureau G, Charrel R, Lemasson J, Gonzalez J, Gallian P, et al. Genetic characterization of tick-borne flaviviruses: new insights into evolution, pathogenetic determinants and taxonomy. Virology. 2007;361:80-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Ticks that feed on both categories of vertebrates may constitute the evolutionary bridge between the three distinct identified lineages...
  3. Pavlidou V, Geroy S, Diza E, Antoniadis A, Papa A. Epidemiological study of tick-borne encephalitis virus in northern Greece. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007;7:611-5 pubmed publisher
    ..8%). TBE was not confirmed by laboratory findings in any of the patients with CNS infection. Results of this study revealed that a flavivirus of the TBE serocomplex is circulating in Greece, yet is not a major public health problem...
  4. Lin D, Li L, Dick D, Shope R, Feldmann H, Barrett A, et al. Analysis of the complete genome of the tick-borne flavivirus Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus. Virology. 2003;313:81-90 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that OHF is a unique virus among the tick-borne flaviviruses and also provide insight to viral biodiversity and tropism...
  5. Rizzoli A, Hauffe H, Tagliapietra V, Neteler M, Rosà R. Forest structure and roe deer abundance predict tick-borne encephalitis risk in Italy. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4336 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe our approach will be useful in predicting TBE risk on a wider scale. ..
  6. Brackney D, Brown I, Nofchissey R, Fitzpatrick K, Ebel G. Homogeneity of Powassan virus populations in naturally infected Ixodes scapularis. Virology. 2010;402:366-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These same selective and stochastic mechanisms appear to drive minor sequence changes between ticks. Moreover, Powassan virus populations seem not to be structured as quasispecies in naturally infected adult deer ticks. ..
  7. Pogodina V, Bochkova N, Karan L, Trukhina A, Levina L, Malenko G, et al. [The Siberian and Far-Eastern subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus registered in Russia's Asian regions: genetic and antigen characteristics of the strains]. Vopr Virusol. 2004;49:20-5 pubmed
    ..Lethal TBE outcomes were registered in Siberia (Irkutsk Region and Krasnoyarsk Territory) and in Russia's European part (Yaroslavl Region)...
  8. Zeman P, Bene C. A tick-borne encephalitis ceiling in Central Europe has moved upwards during the last 30 years: possible impact of global warming?. Int J Med Microbiol. 2004;293 Suppl 37:48-54 pubmed
    ..Although the dependence of TBE on temperature is not a direct one and various factors could be involved, an impact of climate warming on the vertical disease distribution in Central Europe is evident. ..
  9. Turell M, Mores C, Lee J, Paragas J, Shermuhemedova D, Endy T, et al. Experimental transmission of Karshi and Langat (tick-borne encephalitis virus complex) viruses by Ornithodoros ticks (Acari: Argasidae). J Med Entomol. 2004;41:973-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Ornithodoros spp. should be considered as potential vectors and as possible long-term maintenance hosts for Karshi virus and other members of the tick-borne encephalitis virus complex...

More Information


  1. Kanai R, Kar K, Anthony K, Gould L, Ledizet M, Fikrig E, et al. Crystal structure of west nile virus envelope glycoprotein reveals viral surface epitopes. J Virol. 2006;80:11000-8 pubmed
    ..By revealing the details of the molecular landscape of the West Nile virus surface, our structure will assist the design of antiviral vaccines and therapeutics. ..
  2. Kaiser R. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Germany and clinical course of the disease. Int J Med Microbiol. 2002;291 Suppl 33:58-61 pubmed
    ..Prevention of TBE by post exposure prophylaxis with hyperimmunoglobulins is less effective and should therefore not be performed...
  3. Kaiser R. Tick-borne encephalitis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2008;22:561-75, x pubmed publisher
    ..No specific treatment for TBE is known. It can be successfully prevented by active immunization...
  4. Ebel G, Spielman A, Telford S. Phylogeny of North American Powassan virus. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:1657-65 pubmed
    ..The two POW lineages circulating in North America possess a pattern of genetic diversity suggesting that they comprise distinct subtypes that may perpetuate in separate enzootic cycles. ..
  5. Kunz C. Vaccination against TBE in Austria: the success story continues. Int J Med Microbiol. 2002;291 Suppl 33:56-7 pubmed
  6. Takashima I, Hayasaka D, Goto A, Kariwa H, Mizutani T. Epidemiology of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and phylogenetic analysis of TBE viruses in Japan and Far Eastern Russia. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2001;54:1-11 pubmed
    ..Practical application of the vaccine should be considered in Japan. ..
  7. Stiasny K, Koessl C, Heinz F. Involvement of lipids in different steps of the flavivirus fusion mechanism. J Virol. 2003;77:7856-62 pubmed
  8. Bressanelli S, Stiasny K, Allison S, Stura E, Duquerroy S, Lescar J, et al. Structure of a flavivirus envelope glycoprotein in its low-pH-induced membrane fusion conformation. EMBO J. 2004;23:728-38 pubmed
  9. Pattnaik P. Kyasanur forest disease: an epidemiological view in India. Rev Med Virol. 2006;16:151-65 pubmed
    ..The changing ecology of the prime focus of the KFD also warrants attention, as it may lead to establishment of the disease in newer localities, never reported before...
  10. Gritsun T, Lashkevich V, Gould E. Tick-borne encephalitis. Antiviral Res. 2003;57:129-46 pubmed
    ..This review also contains a brief history of vaccination against TBE including trials with live attenuated vaccine and modern tendencies in developing of vaccine virus strains...
  11. Hudson P, Rizzoli A, Rosa R, Chemini C, Jones L, Gould E. Tick-borne encephalitis virus in northern Italy: molecular analysis, relationships with density and seasonal dynamics of Ixodes ricinus. Med Vet Entomol. 2001;15:304-13 pubmed
    ..ricinus was observed. This study provides evidence to suggest that roe deer may have an important role to play in the maintenance of tick density and in the persistence of TBE virus. ..
  12. Waldenstrom J, Lundkvist A, Falk K, Garpmo U, Bergstrom S, Lindegren G, et al. Migrating birds and tickborne encephalitis virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1215-8 pubmed
    ..4% were infested with ticks. Four birds, each a different passerine species, carried tickborne encephalitis virus (TBEV)-infected ticks (Ixodes ricinus). Migrating birds may play a role in the geographic dispersal of TBEV-infected ticks...
  13. Sumilo D, Bormane A, Asokliene L, Vasilenko V, Golovljova I, Avsic Zupanc T, et al. Socio-economic factors in the differential upsurge of tick-borne encephalitis in Central and Eastern Europe. Rev Med Virol. 2008;18:81-95 pubmed publisher
    ..533 and 0.716, respectively)...
  14. Süss J, Schrader C, Abel U, Bormane A, Duks A, Kalnina V. Characterization of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) foci in Germany and Latvia (1997-2000). Int J Med Microbiol. 2002;291 Suppl 33:34-42 pubmed
    ..persulcatus two strains have been found, the central European virus subtype (prototype Neudoerfl) and the Siberian virus subtype (prototype Vasilchenko). Sequences of the Far Eastern subtype have not been detected yet...
  15. Allison S, Schalich J, Stiasny K, Mandl C, Heinz F. Mutational evidence for an internal fusion peptide in flavivirus envelope protein E. J Virol. 2001;75:4268-75 pubmed
    ..These data support the hypothesis that the cd loop may be directly involved in interactions with target membranes during fusion. ..
  16. Gritsun T, Desai A, Gould E. The degree of attenuation of tick-borne encephalitis virus depends on the cumulative effects of point mutations. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:1667-75 pubmed
    ..In terms of developing flavivirus vaccines, the impact of accumulating apparently minor mutations should be assessed in detail. ..
  17. Gritsun T, Frolova T, Zhankov A, Armesto M, Turner S, Frolova M, et al. Characterization of a siberian virus isolated from a patient with progressive chronic tick-borne encephalitis. J Virol. 2003;77:25-36 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that the patient from whom Za virus was isolated died due to increased pathogenicity of the latent virus following spontaneous mutagenesis...
  18. Skarpaas T, Sundøy A, Bruu A, Vene S, Pedersen J, Eng P, et al. [Tick-borne encephalitis in Norway]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002;122:30-2 pubmed
    ..The seroprevalence studies indicate that Tromøy may have a higher incidence of TBE than the rest of the two southern counties. Our results confirm that TBE occurs in the coastal area of southern Norway. ..
  19. Bender A, Schulte Altedorneburg G, Walther E, Pfister H. Severe tick borne encephalitis with simultaneous brain stem, bithalamic, and spinal cord involvement documented by MRI. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:135-7 pubmed
    ..They should therefore be identified early in order to be prepared for life threatening respiratory complications...
  20. Tavakoli N, Wang H, Dupuis M, Hull R, Ebel G, Gilmore E, et al. Fatal case of deer tick virus encephalitis. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2099-107 pubmed publisher
    ..This case demonstrates that deer tick virus can be a cause of fatal encephalitis...
  21. Norman R, Ross D, Laurenson M, Hudson P. The role of non-viraemic transmission on the persistence and dynamics of a tick borne virus--Louping ill in red grouse ( Lagopus lagopus scoticus) and mountain hares ( Lepus timidus). J Math Biol. 2004;48:119-34 pubmed
    ..More importantly, if the level of non-viraemic transmission is high enough the virus can persist in the absence of the viraemic host. This result has important implications for the control of tick borne diseases...
  22. Lotric Furlan S, Petrovec M, Avsic Zupanc T, Nicholson W, Sumner J, Childs J, et al. Prospective assessment of the etiology of acute febrile illness after a tick bite in Slovenia. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:503-10 pubmed
    ..5%] of 68; P<.0001). Tickborne viral and bacterial infections are an important cause of febrile illness in Slovenia. ..
  23. Romanova L, Gmyl A, Dzhivanian T, Bakhmutov D, Lukashev A, Gmyl L, et al. Microevolution of tick-borne encephalitis virus in course of host alternation. Virology. 2007;362:75-84 pubmed
    ..Host switch results in a change in the ratio of these variants in the population. Plaque purification of the tick-adapted virus resulted in the prompt emergence of new mutants with different virulence for mammals. ..
  24. Danielová V, Holubová J, Pejcoch M, Daniel M. Potential significance of transovarial transmission in the circulation of tick-borne encephalitis virus. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2002;49:323-5 pubmed
  25. Pogodina V, Karan L, Koliasnikova N, Levina L, Malenko G, Gamova E, et al. [Evolution of tick-borne encephalitis and a problem of evolution of its causative agent]. Vopr Virusol. 2007;52:16-21 pubmed
    ..4) original mixed TBEV strains including the gene sites of proteins E and NSI of two subtypes. There is new evidence that the Siberian subtype is able to induce focal TBE forms, leading to death...
  26. Kristiansen K. TBE in Denmark--in particular on Bornholm. Int J Med Microbiol. 2002;291 Suppl 33:62-3 pubmed
  27. Randolph S. Tick-borne encephalitis incidence in Central and Eastern Europe: consequences of political transition. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:209-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Many of these stem from the political transition with the end of Soviet rule. ..
  28. Lundkvist k -, Vene S, Golovljova I, Mavtchoutko V, Forsgren M, Kalnina V, et al. Characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus from Latvia: evidence for co-circulation of three distinct subtypes. J Med Virol. 2001;65:730-5 pubmed
  29. Mansfield K, Johnson N, Phipps L, Stephenson J, Fooks A, Solomon T. Tick-borne encephalitis virus - a review of an emerging zoonosis. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1781-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss the factors which may have influenced an apparent increase in the number of reported human cases each year, despite the availability of effective vaccines...
  30. Skarpaas T, Ljøstad U, Sundøy A. First human cases of tickborne encephalitis, Norway. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:2241-3 pubmed
    ..From 1997 to 2003, from zero to two cases of human TBE have been diagnosed per year in Norway, for a total of eight cases. Clinical TBE cases in dogs are not reported in Norway...
  31. Hartemink N, Randolph S, Davis S, Heesterbeek J. The basic reproduction number for complex disease systems: defining R(0) for tick-borne infections. Am Nat. 2008;171:743-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This provides further support that transmission between cofeeding ticks is critically important for the establishment of tick-borne encephalitis...
  32. Mehla R, Kumar S, Yadav P, Barde P, Yergolkar P, Erickson B, et al. Recent ancestry of Kyasanur Forest disease virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1431-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent common ancestry of KFDVs from India and Saudi Arabia, despite their large geographic separation, indicates long-range movement of virus, possibly by birds...
  33. Kim S, Jeong Y, Yun S, Lee I, Han M, Ju Y. Molecular evidence for tick-borne encephalitis virus in ticks in South Korea. Med Vet Entomol. 2009;23:15-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis showed that the E genes of the TBEV isolates were clustered with the Western European subtype (98% identity). This study suggests that TBEVs may exist in Korea. ..
  34. Weber R, Pusterla N, Loy M, Leutenegger C, Schär G, Baumann D, et al. [Serologic and clinical evidence for endemic occurrences of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in North-Eastern Switzerland]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 2000;130:1462-70 pubmed
    ..burgdorferi or tick-borne encephalitis virus in Switzerland. However, the HGE agent was not identified in persons living in Switzerland. ..
  35. Niedrig M, Vaisviliene D, Teichmann A, Klockmann U, Biel S. Comparison of six different commercial IgG-ELISA kits for the detection of TBEV-antibodies. J Clin Virol. 2001;20:179-82 pubmed
    ..This study shows the necessity of further improvement of the existing TBEV test systems regarding both sensitivity and specificity. ..
  36. Han X, Aho M, Vene S, Peltomaa M, Vaheri A, Vapalahti O. Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Finland. J Med Virol. 2001;64:21-8 pubmed
    ..TBE virus RNA positive ticks were not found in I. ricinus panels consisting of 130 pools (726 ticks) from Helsinki city parks or 41 pools (197 ticks) from Võrmsi Island in Estonia. ..
  37. Padbidri V, Wairagkar N, Joshi G, Umarani U, Risbud A, Gaikwad D, et al. A serological survey of arboviral diseases among the human population of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2002;33:794-800 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in relation to important epidemiological parameters like age, sex and geographical location. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an extensive serosurvey of arthropod-borne viruses on these islands. ..
  38. Ternovoi V, Kurzhukov G, Sokolov Y, Ivanov G, Ivanisenko V, Loktev A, et al. Tick-borne encephalitis with hemorrhagic syndrome, Novosibirsk region, Russia, 1999. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:743-6 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis showed tick-borne encephalitis variants clustered with a Far Eastern subtype (homology 94.7%) but not with the Siberian subtype (82%)...
  39. Haglund M, Vene S, Forsgren M, Günther G, Johansson B, Niedrig M, et al. Characterisation of human tick-borne encephalitis virus from Sweden. J Med Virol. 2003;71:610-21 pubmed
    ..No apparent correlation was observed in comparison of clinical parameters with genetic data or geographic origin of the strains...
  40. Kaiser R, Holzmann H. Laboratory findings in tick-borne encephalitis--correlation with clinical outcome. Infection. 2000;28:78-84 pubmed
    ..At onset of disease the presence of a low concentration of neutralizing antibodies in serum and a high cell count in the CSF might indicate an unfavorable course of TBE. ..
  41. Hayasaka D, Ivanov L, Leonova G, Goto A, Yoshii K, Mizutani T, et al. Distribution and characterization of tick-borne encephalitis viruses from Siberia and far-eastern Asia. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:1319-28 pubmed
    ..The data presented in this study show that the 3'NCR is uniform among TBE viruses isolated from Siberia and far-eastern Asia and that the 3'NCR is essential for TBE virus growth in tick and/or rodent host cells. ..
  42. Brackney D, Nofchissey R, Fitzpatrick K, Brown I, Ebel G. Stable prevalence of Powassan virus in Ixodes scapularis in a northern Wisconsin focus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79:971-3 pubmed
    ..All isolated virus belonged to the DTV genotype of POWV. These findings suggest stable transmission of POWV in this focus over ten years and highlight the potential for this agent to emerge as a public health concern. ..
  43. Süss J. Epidemiology and ecology of TBE relevant to the production of effective vaccines. Vaccine. 2003;21 Suppl 1:S19-35 pubmed
    ..Therefore the review is a basis for travellers and inhabitants to get background information for their personal risk assessment...
  44. Jaaskelainen A, Tikkakoski T, Uzcategui N, Alekseev A, Vaheri A, Vapalahti O. Siberian subtype tickborne encephalitis virus, Finland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1568-71 pubmed
    ..Thus I. persulcatus and the Siberian TBEV are reported in a focus considerably northwest of their previously known range in eastern Europe and Siberia...
  45. Pogodina V. [Monitoring of tick-borne encephalitis virus populations and etiological structure of morbidity over 60 years]. Vopr Virusol. 2005;50:7-13 pubmed
    ..The chronic forms of TBE are mainly associated with the Siberian subtype. These three subtypes (European, Far Eastern, and Siberian) may cause the disease via unpasteurized milk...
  46. Ebel G, Kramer L. Short report: duration of tick attachment required for transmission of powassan virus by deer ticks. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;71:268-71 pubmed
  47. Stiasny K, Kössl C, Heinz F. Differences in the postfusion conformations of full-length and truncated class II fusion protein E of tick-borne encephalitis virus. J Virol. 2005;79:6511-5 pubmed
    ..These data provide experimental evidence to support the model of a fusion process that leads to the interaction of the stem-anchor region with the fusion peptide loop in the postfusion trimer. ..
  48. Pogodina V, Bochkova N, Karan L, Frolova M, Trukhina A, Malenko G, et al. [Comparative analysis of virulence of the Siberian and Far-East subtypes of the tick-born encephalitis virus]. Vopr Virusol. 2004;49:24-30 pubmed
    ..The viral RNA was found in the cortex, medulla oblongata, horn and in the cervical part of the spinal cord of those diseased of acute TBE. Sequences of genotyped strains were presented to Gen Bank, NCBI (AY363846-AY363865)...
  49. Gelpi E, Preusser M, Garzuly F, Holzmann H, Heinz F, Budka H. Visualization of Central European tick-borne encephalitis infection in fatal human cases. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2005;64:506-12 pubmed
  50. Stiasny K, Allison S, Schalich J, Heinz F. Membrane interactions of the tick-borne encephalitis virus fusion protein E at low pH. J Virol. 2002;76:3784-90 pubmed
    ..Its stability is apparently maintained by contacts between the ectodomains only and is not dependent on sequence elements in the stem-anchor region as previously assumed. ..
  51. Haglund M. Occurrence of TBE in areas previously considered being non-endemic: Scandinavian data generate an international study by the International Scientific Working Group for TBE (ISW-TBE). Int J Med Microbiol. 2002;291 Suppl 33:50-4 pubmed
    ..In Norway the first verified cases of TBE have now been found. The reason for this changing epidemiology of TBE is discussed...
  52. Kim S, Yun S, Han M, Lee I, Lee N, Jeong Y, et al. Isolation of tick-borne encephalitis viruses from wild rodents, South Korea. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8:7-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis showed that the E genes of the TBEV isolates were clustered with the Western subtype (98% identity). This study suggests the possible occurrence of tick-borne encephalitis in Korea...
  53. Leschnik M, Kirtz G, Thalhammer J. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in dogs. Int J Med Microbiol. 2002;291 Suppl 33:66-9 pubmed
    ..TBE is a seasonal disease, depending on climate related tick activity. Infected ticks are spreading the virus over central Europe with a tendency to expand to new endemic areas in western Europe. ..
  54. Golovljova I, Vene S, Sjölander K, Vasilenko V, Plyusnin A, Lundkvist A. Characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus from Estonia. J Med Virol. 2004;74:580-8 pubmed
    ..In the 3'-NCR sequence of the Estonian strain Est2546, which belonged to the FE-TBEV subtype, a deletion from position 10461 to 10810 extending approximately 10 nucleotides into the core element, was detected...
  55. Daniel M, Danielova V, Kriz B, Jirsa A, Nozicka J. Shift of the tick Ixodes ricinus and tick-borne encephalitis to higher altitudes in central Europe. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2003;22:327-8 pubmed
  56. Allison S, Tao Y, O Riordain G, Mandl C, Harrison S, Heinz F. Two distinct size classes of immature and mature subviral particles from tick-borne encephalitis virus. J Virol. 2003;77:11357-66 pubmed
    ..These proteins thus appear to have the intrinsic ability to form alternative assembly products that could provide important clues about the role of lateral envelope protein interactions in flavivirus assembly. ..
  57. Süss J. [Increasing prevalence of early summer meningoencephalitis in Europe]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2005;130:1397-400 pubmed
    ..Epidemiological data with respect to the expansion of risk areas and its level of risk are available covering most European countries with TBE risk and can be made available for medical purposes when travelling...
  58. Randolph S, Rogers D. Fragile transmission cycles of tick-borne encephalitis virus may be disrupted by predicted climate change. Proc Biol Sci. 2000;267:1741-4 pubmed
    ..The observed marked increase in incidence of tick-borne encephalitis in most parts of Europe since 1993 may be due to non-biological causes, such as political and sociological changes...
  59. Floris R, Altobelli A, Boemo B, Mignozzi K, Cinco M. First detection of TBE virus sequences in Ixodes ricinus from Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy). New Microbiol. 2006;29:147-50 pubmed
    ..Using molecular methods, we demonstrate that the TBE virus carried by ticks from FVG is a western European strain. Sequence analysis of the 5' NCR showed 98.4% identity to the Neudoerfl strain. ..
  60. Danielová V, Rudenko N, Daniel M, Holubová J, Materna J, Golovchenko M, et al. Extension of Ixodes ricinus ticks and agents of tick-borne diseases to mountain areas in the Czech Republic. Int J Med Microbiol. 2006;296 Suppl 40:48-53 pubmed
    ..afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, and B. valaisiana. Some nymphs carried multiple Borrelia infections. The conditions of tick-borne agents' distribution and potential epidemiological consequences are discussed. ..
  61. Sumilo D, Asokliene L, Avsic Zupanc T, Bormane A, Vasilenko V, Lucenko I, et al. Behavioural responses to perceived risk of tick-borne encephalitis: vaccination and avoidance in the Baltics and Slovenia. Vaccine. 2008;26:2580-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that risk avoidance through changing human behaviour has driven incidence-dependent decreases in TBE infection, but targeted vaccination campaigns could provide more secure protection...
  62. Oehme R, Hartelt K, Backe H, Brockmann S, Kimmig P. Foci of tick-borne diseases in southwest Germany. Int J Med Microbiol. 2002;291 Suppl 33:22-9 pubmed
    ..Vaccination against TBE-virus should not only be recommended for high endemic areas but also for persons with a high individual risk. ..
  63. Ruzek D, Bell Sakyi L, Kopecky J, Grubhoffer L. Growth of tick-borne encephalitis virus (European subtype) in cell lines from vector and non-vector ticks. Virus Res. 2008;137:142-6 pubmed publisher
    ..ricinus cell lines produced 100-1000-fold higher virus yield than the non-vector cell lines. The lowest virus production was observed in O. moubata and R. appendiculatus cell lines. ..
  64. Süss J, Klaus C, Diller R, Schrader C, Wohanka N, Abel U. TBE incidence versus virus prevalence and increased prevalence of the TBE virus in Ixodes ricinus removed from humans. Int J Med Microbiol. 2006;296 Suppl 40:63-8 pubmed
    ..6% and in the district of Freyung-Grafenau with 18.3%. In recent studies on unfed I. ricinus (nymphs, adults), the average TBEV prevalence in ticks in Bavarian risk areas was between 0.5% and 2%...
  65. Gritsun T, Nuttall P, Gould E. Tick-borne flaviviruses. Adv Virus Res. 2003;61:317-71 pubmed
    ..This chapter contains a brief history of vaccination against TBE including the trials with live attenuated vaccine and reviews the modern trends in development of vaccine virus strains...
  66. Beasley D, Suderman M, Holbrook M, Barrett A. Nucleotide sequencing and serological evidence that the recently recognized deer tick virus is a genotype of Powassan virus. Virus Res. 2001;79:81-9 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these results, we suggest that DTV should be classified as a genotype of POW virus. ..
  67. Stiasny K, Allison S, Mandl C, Heinz F. Role of metastability and acidic pH in membrane fusion by tick-borne encephalitis virus. J Virol. 2001;75:7392-8 pubmed
  68. Stiasny K, Bressanelli S, Lepault J, Rey F, Heinz F. Characterization of a membrane-associated trimeric low-pH-induced Form of the class II viral fusion protein E from tick-borne encephalitis virus and its crystallization. J Virol. 2004;78:3178-83 pubmed
    ..sE trimers, solubilized with nonionic detergents, yielded three-dimensional crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis. ..
  69. Khoretonenko M, Vorovitch M, Zakharova L, Pashvykina G, Ovsyannikova N, Stephenson J, et al. Vaccinia virus recombinant expressing gene of tick-borne encephalitis virus non-structural NS1 protein elicits protective activity in mice. Immunol Lett. 2003;90:161-3 pubmed
    ..The recombinant expressed native dimeric form of the NS1 protein in infected cells and protected mice against lethal infection with TBEV...
  70. Kriz B, Benes C, Danielova V, Daniel M. Socio-economic conditions and other anthropogenic factors influencing tick-borne encephalitis incidence in the Czech Republic. Int J Med Microbiol. 2004;293 Suppl 37:63-8 pubmed
    ..In the industrial areas most polluted by SO2 in the past in northern Bohemia the sharp increase in TBE incidence seems to be connected with measures aiming to eliminate SO2 emissions from brown coal power stations...
  71. Jensen P, Skarphedinsson S, Semenov A. [Densities of the tick (Ixodes ricinus) and coexistence of the Louping ill virus and tick borne encephalitis on the island of Bornholm]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2004;166:2563-5 pubmed
  72. Leonova G, Kondratov I, Ternovoi V, Romanova E, Protopopova E, Chausov E, et al. Characterization of Powassan viruses from Far Eastern Russia. Arch Virol. 2009;154:811-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Presumably, Far Eastern POWV has common putative ancestor with LB strain POWV from North America, and the time of divergence of these POWVs is relatively short. We conclude that POWV has become endemic in Far Eastern Russia. ..
  73. Kuno G, Artsob H, Karabatsos N, Tsuchiya K, Chang G. Genomic sequencing of deer tick virus and phylogeny of powassan-related viruses of North America. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;65:671-6 pubmed
    ..By use of the combination of molecular definition of virus species within the genus Flavivirus and serological distinction in a 2-way cross-neutralization test, the lineage of DT virus is classified as a distinct genotype of POW virus. ..
  74. Laursen K, Knudsen J. Tick-borne encephalitis: a retrospective study of clinical cases in Bornholm, Denmark. Scand J Infect Dis. 2003;35:354-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the risk of being infected and developing TBE is still low among the population of Bornholm, but information about the disease and its sequelae is needed to form a basis for vaccination recommendations...
  75. Lesnicar G, Poljak M, Seme K, Lesnicar J. Pediatric tick-borne encephalitis in 371 cases from an endemic region in Slovenia, 1959 to 2000. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:612-7 pubmed
    ..None of the children with TBE died, and none had permanent sequelae. The results of our study indicate that pediatric TBE is relatively mild disease with favorable outcome. ..
  76. Sumilo D, Asokliene L, Bormane A, Vasilenko V, Golovljova I, Randolph S. Climate change cannot explain the upsurge of tick-borne encephalitis in the Baltics. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e500 pubmed
    ..For the first time, we analyse climate and TBE epidemiology at sufficiently fine spatial and temporal resolution to question this assumption...