murray valley encephalitis virus


Summary: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).

Top Publications

  1. Lee E, Lobigs M. Mechanism of virulence attenuation of glycosaminoglycan-binding variants of Japanese encephalitis virus and Murray Valley encephalitis virus. J Virol. 2002;76:4901-11 pubmed
    ..Host cell adaptation of JEV and Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE) by serial passage in adenocarcinoma cells selected for variants characterized by (i) a small ..
  2. Kroeger M, McMinn P. Murray Valley encephalitis virus recombinant subviral particles protect mice from lethal challenge with virulent wild-type virus. Arch Virol. 2002;147:1155-72 pubmed
    We report on the development and characterisation of a recombinant Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE) envelope glycoprotein expression system that results in the secretion of subviral particles (SVPs) upon transfection of the murine ..
  3. Brown A, Bolisetty S, Whelan P, Smith D, Wheaton G. Reappearance of human cases due to Murray Valley encephalitis virus and Kunjin virus in central Australia after an absence of 26 years. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2002;26:39-44 pubmed
    ..This area may also act as a potential source for reintroduction of MVE into south-eastern Australia...
  4. Lancaster M, Hodgetts S, Mackenzie J, Urosevic N. Characterization of defective viral RNA produced during persistent infection of Vero cells with Murray Valley encephalitis virus. J Virol. 1998;72:2474-82 pubmed
    ..or defective interfering viral RNAs produced in Vero cells persistently infected with the flavivirus Murray Valley encephalitis virus. While these RNAs have not been detected in acutely infected Vero cells, their appearance coincided ..
  5. Mancini E, Assenberg R, Verma A, Walter T, Tuma R, Grimes J, et al. Structure of the Murray Valley encephalitis virus RNA helicase at 1.9 Angstrom resolution. Protein Sci. 2007;16:2294-300 pubmed publisher
    b>Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus endemic to Australia, is closely related to Japanese encephalitis virus and West Nile virus...
  6. Matthews V, Robertson T, Kendrick T, Abdo M, Papadimitriou J, McMinn P. Morphological features of Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection in the central nervous system of Swiss mice. Int J Exp Pathol. 2000;81:31-40 pubmed
    ..High mortality rates in the BH3479-infected population of mice correlated with the intense polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leucocyte inflammatory infiltrate in the CNS...
  7. Hurrelbrink R, Nestorowicz A, McMinn P. Characterization of infectious Murray Valley encephalitis virus derived from a stably cloned genome-length cDNA. J Gen Virol. 1999;80 ( Pt 12):3115-25 pubmed publisher
    An infectious cDNA clone of Murray Valley encephalitis virus prototype strain 1-51 (MVE-1-51) was constructed by stably inserting genome-length cDNA into the low-copy-number plasmid vector pMC18...
  8. Wallace M, Smith D, Broom A, Mackenzie J, Hall R, Shellam G, et al. Antibody-dependent enhancement of Murray Valley encephalitis virus virulence in mice. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:1723-8 pubmed
    ..immunization of mice with Japanese encephalitis virus (JE) antiserum on the outcome of infection with Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE)...
  9. Clark D, Lobigs M, Lee E, Howard M, Clark K, Blitvich B, et al. In situ reactions of monoclonal antibodies with a viable mutant of Murray Valley encephalitis virus reveal an absence of dimeric NS1 protein. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1175-83 pubmed publisher
    ..substitution has similar effects on other flaviviruses, it was introduced into an infectious clone of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV)...

More Information


  1. Ho S, Speldewinde P, Cook A. A Bayesian Belief Network for Murray Valley encephalitis virus risk assessment in Western Australia. Int J Health Geogr. 2016;15:6 pubmed publisher
    b>Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a clinically important virus in Australia responsible for a number of epidemics over the past century...
  2. Inglis T, Bradbury R, McInnes R, Frances S, Merritt A, Levy A, et al. Deployable Molecular Detection of Arboviruses in the Australian Outback. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016;95:633-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The most serious infections are caused by the neurotropic flaviviruses, Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) and the Kunjin subtype of West Nile virus...
  3. Fortuna P, Bielefeldt Ohmann H, Ovchinnikov D, Wolvetang E, Whitworth D. Cortical Neurons Derived From Equine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Are Susceptible to Neurotropic Flavivirus Infection and Replication: an in vitro model for equine neuropathic diseases. Stem Cells Dev. 2018;: pubmed publisher infection with flaviviruses that are known to be neurotropic in horses, including WNV and Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), and to compare these to non-pathogenic flaviviruses such as Fitzroy River virus (FRV) and ..
  4. Norton S, Cordery D, Abbenbroek B, Ryan A, Muscatello D. Towards public health surveillance of intensive care services in NSW, Australia. Public Health Res Pract. 2016;26: pubmed publisher
    ..of the surveillance included, for known hazards, seasonal and pandemic influenza, enterovirus 71, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli 0104:H4 and parechovirus...
  5. Cella E, Gabrielli I, Zehender G, Giovanetti M, Presti A, Lai A, et al. Phylogeny of Murray Valley encephalitis virus in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2016;9:385-389 pubmed publisher
    To study the genetic diversity of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) in Australia and Papua New Guinea. MVEV envelope gene sequences were aligned using Clustal X and manual editing was performed with Bioedit. ModelTest v. 3...
  6. Suen W, Uddin M, Wang W, Brown V, Adney D, Broad N, et al. Experimental West Nile Virus Infection in Rabbits: An Alternative Model for Studying Induction of Disease and Virus Control. Pathogens. 2015;4:529-58 pubmed publisher
    ..were experimentally infected with virulent WNV and Murray Valley encephalitis virus strains...
  7. Joy J, Mee N, Kuan W, Perlyn K, Wen T, Hill J. Biochemical characterisation of Murray Valley encephalitis virus proteinase. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:3149-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a member of the flavivirus group, a large family of single stranded RNA viruses, which cause serious disease in all regions of the world...
  8. Hurrelbrink R, McMinn P. Attenuation of Murray Valley encephalitis virus by site-directed mutagenesis of the hinge and putative receptor-binding regions of the envelope protein. J Virol. 2001;75:7692-702 pubmed
    ..of attenuation caused by mutations in these two regions, a full-length infectious cDNA clone of Murray Valley encephalitis virus prototype strain 1-51 (MVE-1-51) was employed to produce a panel of site-directed mutants with ..
  9. McMinn P, Dalgarno L, Weir R. A comparison of the spread of Murray Valley encephalitis viruses of high or low neuroinvasiveness in the tissues of Swiss mice after peripheral inoculation. Virology. 1996;220:414-23 pubmed
    A Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE) field isolate of high neuroinvasiveness (BH3479) and a neutralization escape variant of low neuroinvasiveness (BHv1) selected from BH3479 (which differ by a single amino acid at residue 277 in the ..
  10. Broom A, Lindsay M, Plant A, Wright A, Condon R, Mackenzie J. Epizootic activity of Murray Valley encephalitis virus in an aboriginal community in the southeast Kimberley region of Western Australia: results of cross-sectional and longitudinal serologic studies. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;67:319-23 pubmed
    ..Our longitudinal study showed that the risk of seroconversion was similar for each age group, not just the young...
  11. Silvia O, Pantelic L, Mackenzie J, Shellam G, Papadimitriou J, Urosevic N. Virus spread, tissue inflammation and antiviral response in brains of flavivirus susceptible and resistant mice acutely infected with Murray Valley encephalitis virus. Arch Virol. 2004;149:447-64 pubmed
    ..PRI- Flv(r) mice following infection with Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE) in parallel to studying a brain histopathology and induction of cellular genes involved in ..
  12. Burrow J, Whelan P, Kilburn C, Fisher D, Currie B, Smith D. Australian encephalitis in the Northern Territory: clinical and epidemiological features, 1987-1996. Aust N Z J Med. 1998;28:590-6 pubmed
    ..The last epidemic of Australian encephalitis occurred in 1974. Since then, cases have been reported from the Kimberley of Western Australia (WA)...
  13. Broom A, Wallace M, Mackenzie J, Smith D, Hall R. Immunisation with gamma globulin to murray valley encephalitis virus and with an inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine as prophylaxis against australian encephalitis: evaluation in a mouse model. J Med Virol. 2000;61:259-65 pubmed
  14. Piyasena T, Setoh Y, Hobson Peters J, Prow N, Bielefeldt Ohmann H, Khromykh A, et al. Differential Diagnosis of Flavivirus Infections in Horses Using Viral Envelope Protein Domain III Antigens in Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    In Australia, infection of horses with the West Nile virus (WNV) or Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) occasionally results in severe neurological disease that cannot be clinically differentiated...
  15. Johansen C, Susai V, Hall R, Mackenzie J, Clark D, May F, et al. Genetic and phenotypic differences between isolates of Murray Valley encephalitis virus in Western Australia, 1972-2003. Virus Genes. 2007;35:147-54 pubmed
    b>Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a medically important mosquito-borne flavivirus found in Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG)...
  16. Blitvich B, Scanlon D, Shiell B, Mackenzie J, Hall R. Identification and analysis of truncated and elongated species of the flavivirus NS1 protein. Virus Res. 1999;60:67-79 pubmed
    ..In this study, we determined the basis of structural heterogeneity of the NS1 protein of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE) by glycosylation analysis, pulse-chase experiments and terminal amino acid sequencing...
  17. Douglas M, Stephens D, Burrow J, Anstey N, Talbot K, Currie B. Murray Valley encephalitis in an adult traveller complicated by long-term flaccid paralysis: case report and review of the literature. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101:284-8 pubmed
    ..Our case highlights the potential severity of flavivirus-induced encephalitis and the importance of avoiding mosquito bites while travelling through endemic areas...
  18. Urosevic N, van Maanen M, Mansfield J, Mackenzie J, Shellam G. Molecular characterization of virus-specific RNA produced in the brains of flavivirus-susceptible and -resistant mice after challenge with Murray Valley encephalitis virus. J Gen Virol. 1997;78 ( Pt 1):23-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, we confirm that the resistance allele Flv(r) interferes with discrete steps in flavivirus replication, although the precise mechanism remains to be determined. ..
  19. Assenberg R, Ren J, Verma A, Walter T, Alderton D, Hurrelbrink R, et al. Crystal structure of the Murray Valley encephalitis virus NS5 methyltransferase domain in complex with cap analogues. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:2228-36 pubmed
    ..the high resolution crystal structure of the methyltransferase domain of the NS5 polypeptide from the Murray Valley encephalitis virus. This domain is unusual in having both the N7 and 2'-O methyltransferase activity required for Cap 1 ..
  20. Lobigs M, Larena M, Alsharifi M, Lee E, Pavy M. Live chimeric and inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccines differ in their cross-protective values against Murray Valley encephalitis virus. J Virol. 2009;83:2436-45 pubmed publisher
    The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serocomplex, which also includes Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), is a group of antigenically closely related, mosquito-borne flaviviruses that are responsible for severe encephalitic disease ..
  21. Yamshchikov V, Compans R. Generation of long flavivirus expression cassettes by in vivo recombination and transient dominant selection. Gene. 1994;149:193-201 pubmed
    ..The procedure described offers a possible approach for the assembly of infectious cDNA clones. ..
  22. Van Den Hurk A, Nisbet D, Foley P, Ritchie S, Mackenzie J, Beebe N. Isolation of arboviruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected from the Gulf Plains region of northwest Queensland, Australia. J Med Entomol. 2002;39:786-92 pubmed
    ..The isolate of RR from Ae. lineatopennis was the first reported from this species. The public health implications of these isolations in the Gulf Plains region are discussed briefly...
  23. Spencer J, Azoulas J, Broom A, Buick T, Currie B, Daniels P, et al. Murray Valley encephalitis virus surveillance and control initiatives in Australia. National Arbovirus Advisory Committee of the Communicable Diseases Network Australia. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2001;25:33-47 pubmed
    ..Recommendations for further enhancement of national surveillance for Murray Valley encephalitis are described. ..
  24. Broom A, Lindsay M, Johansen C, Wright A, Mackenzie J. Two possible mechanisms for survival and initiation of Murray Valley encephalitis virus activity in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1995;53:95-9 pubmed
    ..tremulus. Both mechanisms are discussed with respect to environmental conditions. ..
  25. Sangster M, Mackenzie J, Shellam G. Genetically determined resistance to flavivirus infection in wild Mus musculus domesticus and other taxonomic groups in the genus Mus. Arch Virol. 1998;143:697-715 pubmed
    ..Mice were screened for resistance relative to C3H/HeJ mice by intracerebral challenge with Murray Valley encephalitis virus or yellow fever virus, and breeding studies were undertaken to identify inherited resistance factors...
  26. Colombage G, Hall R, Pavy M, Lobigs M. DNA-based and alphavirus-vectored immunisation with prM and E proteins elicits long-lived and protective immunity against the flavivirus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus. Virology. 1998;250:151-63 pubmed
    ..of DNA-based vaccination with plasmids encoding the membrane proteins prM and E of the flavivirus Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE) were investigated...
  27. Lee E, Lobigs M. Substitutions at the putative receptor-binding site of an encephalitic flavivirus alter virulence and host cell tropism and reveal a role for glycosaminoglycans in entry. J Virol. 2000;74:8867-75 pubmed
    ..One of us has shown earlier that host cell adaptation of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE) can result in the selection of attenuated variants altered at E protein residue Asp(390), which ..
  28. Suen W, Uddin M, Prow N, Bowen R, Hall R, Bielefeldt Ohmann H. Tissue-specific transcription profile of cytokine and chemokine genes associated with flavivirus control and non-lethal neuropathogenesis in rabbits. Virology. 2016;494:1-14 pubmed publisher
    ..behind virus control and non-lethal neuropathogenesis associated with West Nile virus (WNV) and Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) infections...
  29. McMinn P, Marshall I, Dalgarno L. Neurovirulence and neuroinvasiveness of Murray Valley encephalitis virus mutants selected by passage in a monkey kidney cell line. J Gen Virol. 1995;76 ( Pt 4):865-72 pubmed
    Variants of the prototype Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE-1-51) were selected by serial plaque purification and amplification in monkey kidney (Vero) cells...
  30. Johansen C, Nisbet D, Zborowski P, van den Hurk A, Ritchie S, Mackenzie J. Flavivirus isolations from mosquitoes collected from western Cape York Peninsula, Australia, 1999-2000. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2003;19:392-6 pubmed
    ..However, other flaviviruses comprising Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Kunjin virus, Alfuy virus, and Kokobera virus (KOK) were isolated...
  31. Blitvich B, Scanlon D, Shiell B, Mackenzie J, Pham K, Hall R. Determination of the intramolecular disulfide bond arrangement and biochemical identification of the glycosylation sites of the nonstructural protein NS1 of Murray Valley encephalitis virus. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:2251-6 pubmed
    ..In this study, we examined the intramolecular disulfide bond arrangement of NS1 of Murray Valley encephalitis virus and elucidated three of the six cysteine-pairing arrangements...
  32. Broom A, Lindsay M, Harrington S, Smith D. Investigation of the southern limits of Murray Valley encephalitis activity in Western Australia during the 2000 wet season. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2002;2:87-95 pubmed
    ..The results have implications for managing outbreaks of MVE virus in Western Australia and have enabled us to locate additional sentinel flocks as part of the MVE surveillance program for future years...
  33. Regner M, Lobigs M, Blanden R, Milburn P, Mullbacher A. Antiviral cytotoxic T cells cross-reactively recognize disparate peptide determinants from related viruses but ignore more similar self- and foreign determinants. J Immunol. 2001;166:3820-8 pubmed
    ..T (Tc) cells against the two immunodominant, H-2K(k)-restricted determinants from the FLAVIVIRUS: Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE), MVE(1785) (REHSGNEI) and MVE(1971) (DEGEGRVI)...
  34. Lobigs M, Lee E. Inefficient signalase cleavage promotes efficient nucleocapsid incorporation into budding flavivirus membranes. J Virol. 2004;78:178-86 pubmed
    ..form by budding through the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was investigated by using Murray Valley encephalitis virus as a model...
  35. Broom A. Sentinel Chicken Surveillance Program in Australia, July 2002 to June 2003. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2003;27:367-9 pubmed
    ..This is similar to the previous season. There were no reported cases of disease caused by either virus...
  36. Stich A, Gunther S, Drosten C, Emmerich P, Dwyer D, Hueston L, et al. Clinical and laboratory findings on the first imported case of Murray Valley encephalitis in Europe. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:e19-21 pubmed
    ..This emphasizes the need for continuous surveillance in areas of endemicity and appropriate protection when traveling through regions in which the MVE virus is endemic. ..
  37. Whelan P, Jacups S, Melville L, Broom A, Currie B, Krause V, et al. Rainfall and vector mosquito numbers as risk indicators for mosquito-borne disease in central Australia. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2003;27:110-6 pubmed
    There have been 5 confirmed cases of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE) infection in the Alice Springs region during the high rainfall years of 1999/00 and 2000/01, compared with one case in the preceding 9 years...
  38. Kay B, Farrow R. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) dispersal: implications for the epidemiology of Japanese and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses in Australia. J Med Entomol. 2000;37:797-801 pubmed
    ..aerial carriage southward approximately 200 km from Papua New Guinea to Cape York peninsula is feasible, but that southern dispersal of Murray Valley encephalitis virus infected mosquitoes from tropical to temperate Australia is unlikely.
  39. Williams D, Daniels P, Lunt R, Wang L, Newberry K, Mackenzie J. Experimental infections of pigs with Japanese encephalitis virus and closely related Australian flaviviruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;65:379-87 pubmed
    ..Boosted levels of existing cross-neutralizing antibodies to JE virus suggested a role for this response in suppressing JE viremia. ..
  40. Mackenzie J, Broom A. Australian X disease, Murray Valley encephalitis and the French connection. Vet Microbiol. 1995;46:79-90 pubmed
    ..Since the first isolation of MVE and Kunjin viruses, considerable information has been accumulated on their ecology and epidemiology, some aspects of which are briefly described. ..
  41. Kienzle N, Boyes L. Murray Valley encephalitis: case report and review of neuroradiological features. Australas Radiol. 2003;47:61-3 pubmed
    ..Clinicians need to be aware of MVE in this era of ever-increasing travel. Our aim is to highlight these finding and further define the neuroradiological features...
  42. Hall R, Brand T, Lobigs M, Sangster M, Howard M, Mackenzie J. Protective immune responses to the E and NS1 proteins of Murray Valley encephalitis virus in hybrids of flavivirus-resistant mice. J Gen Virol. 1996;77 ( Pt 6):1287-94 pubmed
    ..However, depletion of CD8+ cells prior to virus challenge ablated the protection provided by VV-NS1 indicating some requirement for class I restricted cytotoxic T cells...
  43. Lee E, McLean K, Weir R, Dalgarno L. Stimulation of dengue virus replication in cultured Aedes albopictus (C6/36) mosquito cells by the antifungal imidazoles ketoconazole and miconazole. Virology. 2000;269:1-6 pubmed
    ..Enhanced yields were observed also for other flaviviruses, including dengue type 2 virus and Murray Valley encephalitis virus. Increased yields of dengue type 3 virus were not observed in African green monkey kidney (Vero) ..
  44. Einsiedel L, Kat E, Ravindran J, Slavotinek J, Gordon D. MR findings in Murray Valley encephalitis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2003;24:1379-82 pubmed
    ..These findings preceded serologic diagnosis and are similar to those of Japanese encephalitis. In the appropriate setting, thalamic T2 hyperintensity is suggestive of flavivirus infection. ..
  45. Licon Luna R, Lee E, Mullbacher A, Blanden R, Langman R, Lobigs M. Lack of both Fas ligand and perforin protects from flavivirus-mediated encephalitis in mice. J Virol. 2002;76:3202-11 pubmed
    ..Mice deficient in both cytotoxic effector functions were resistant to a low-dose peripheral infection with the neurotropic virus. ..
  46. Wong S, Smith D, Fallon M, Kermode A. Murray valley encephalitis mimicking herpes simplex encephalitis. J Clin Neurosci. 2005;12:822-4 pubmed
    ..If suspected, antibody testing of serum and CSF, and CSF for MVE-RNA if available, should be undertaken. This case also highlights the potential under-diagnosis of Murray Valley encephalitis...
  47. Van Der Weyden M. Researchers as guinea pigs. Med J Aust. 2003;178:52-3 pubmed
  48. McMinn P, Weir R, Dalgarno L. A mouse-attenuated envelope protein variant of Murray Valley encephalitis virus with altered fusion activity. J Gen Virol. 1996;77 ( Pt 9):2085-8 pubmed
    A neutralization escape variant of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE), of low neuroinvasiveness in mice and with low haemagglutination activity, had a reduced rate of replication in cultured cells during the early phase of infection ..
  49. Whittle B, Lee E, Weir R, Verma N. Immune response to a Murray Valley encephalitis virus epitope expressed in the flagellin of an attenuated strain of Salmonella. J Med Microbiol. 1997;46:129-38 pubmed
    ..In the present study, a B-cell epitope of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE) was identified and expressed in a Salmonella strain to evaluate its potential to induce a ..
  50. Doggett S. Population health aspects of mosquito-borne disease in New South Wales. N S W Public Health Bull. 2004;15:193-9 pubmed
  51. McCormack J, Allworth A. Emerging viral infections in Australia. Med J Aust. 2002;177:45-9 pubmed
    ..Japanese encephalitis vaccine should be considered for people intending to reside in or visit endemic areas of southern or eastern Asia for more than 30 days. ..
  52. Broom A, Lindsay M, Wright A, Smith D, Mackenzie J. Epizootic activity of Murray Valley encephalitis and Kunjin viruses in an aboriginal community in the southeast Kimberley region of Western Australia: results of mosquito fauna and virus isolation studies. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;69:277-83 pubmed
    ..Activity of MVE virus could only be partially correlated with wet season rainfall and flooding, suggesting that a number of other factors must also be considered to accurately predict MVE virus activity at such communities...
  53. Fielding J, Kelly H. Ethics committees and guardianship legislation. Med J Aust. 2003;179:390; discussion 390 pubmed
  54. Lobigs M, Arthur C, Mullbacher A, Blanden R. The flavivirus nonstructural protein NS3 is a dominant source of cytotoxic T cell peptide determinants. Virology. 1994;202:195-201 pubmed
    Vaccinia virus recombinants encoding regions of the Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE) genome, which together cover the entire viral coding region, were employed to identify the MVE protein which is the dominant source of CD8+, ..
  55. McMinn P, Lee E, Hartley S, Roehrig J, Dalgarno L, Weir R. Murray valley encephalitis virus envelope protein antigenic variants with altered hemagglutination properties and reduced neuroinvasiveness in mice. Virology. 1995;211:10-20 pubmed
    Neutralization escape variants of Murray Valley encephalitis virus were selected using a type-specific, neutralizing, and passively protective anti-envelope protein (E) monoclonal antibody (4B6C-2) which defines epitope E-1c...
  56. Whittle B, Verma N. The immune response to a B-cell epitope delivered by Salmonella is enhanced by prior immunological experience. Vaccine. 1997;15:1737-40 pubmed
    ..In fact, prior exposure to Salmonella appears to enhance the response to the foreign antigen. ..
  57. Stocks C, Lobigs M. Signal peptidase cleavage at the flavivirus C-prM junction: dependence on the viral NS2B-3 protease for efficient processing requires determinants in C, the signal peptide, and prM. J Virol. 1998;72:2141-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, we used cDNA of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE) to examine features of the structural polyprotein which allow this regulation of a luminal ..
  58. Broom A, Whelan P. Sentinel Chicken Surveillance Program in Australia, July 2003 to June 2004. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2005;29:65-70 pubmed
    ..flocks located in four Australian states are used to provide an early warning of increased levels of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) and Kunjin virus (KUNV) activity in the region...
  59. Merritt A, Phillips D, Carney I, Whelan P. A presumptive case of fatal Murray Valley encephalitis acquired in Alice Springs. Commun Dis Intell. 1998;22:103-4 pubmed
  60. Hobson Peters J, Toye P, Sanchez M, Bossart K, Wang L, Clark D, et al. A glycosylated peptide in the West Nile virus envelope protein is immunogenic during equine infection. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:3063-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional sera collected from horses infected with Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), which is similarly glycosylated at position E154 and exhibits high sequence identity to WNV ..
  61. Blitvich B, Mackenzie J, Coelen R, Howard M, Hall R. A novel complex formed between the flavivirus E and NS1 proteins: analysis of its structure and function. Arch Virol. 1995;140:145-56 pubmed
    ..We have postulated that the E-NS1 complex, or at least a major portion of the complex, is a non-specific aggregation with no functional significance in the viral life cycle...
  62. Hall R, Broom A, Hartnett A, Howard M, Mackenzie J. Immunodominant epitopes on the NS1 protein of MVE and KUN viruses serve as targets for a blocking ELISA to detect virus-specific antibodies in sentinel animal serum. J Virol Methods. 1995;51:201-10 pubmed
    ..These assays are now used routinely in our laboratory for testing chicken sera from sentinel flocks in the Kimberley and Pilbara regions of north Western Australia...
  63. McMinn P, Carman P, Smith D. Early diagnosis of Murray Valley encephalitis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Pathology. 2000;32:49-51 pubmed
    A 4-year-old aboriginal boy developed encephalitis due to Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE) following an earlier infection with Kunjin virus (KUN)...
  64. Mackenzie J, Barrett A, Deubel V. The Japanese encephalitis serological group of flaviviruses: a brief introduction to the group. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2002;267:1-10 pubmed
  65. Andrews D, Matthews V, Sammels L, Carrello A, McMinn P. The severity of murray valley encephalitis in mice is linked to neutrophil infiltration and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in the central nervous system. J Virol. 1999;73:8781-90 pubmed
    ..of immunopathology in the central nervous system (CNS) during infection with a virulent strain of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE) in weanling Swiss mice following peripheral inoculation is presented...
  66. Lobigs M, Lee E, Ng M, Pavy M, Lobigs P. A flavivirus signal peptide balances the catalytic activity of two proteases and thereby facilitates virus morphogenesis. Virology. 2010;401:80-9 pubmed publisher
    ..approaches, that this sequential order of cleavages facilitates virus morphogenesis: (i) A Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) variant, in which both cleavages occurred efficiently and independently of each other, ..
  67. Lobigs M, Mullbacher A, Wang Y, Pavy M, Lee E. Role of type I and type II interferon responses in recovery from infection with an encephalitic flavivirus. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:567-72 pubmed
    ..of the interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta system, IFN-gamma and nitric oxide to recovery from infection with Murray Valley encephalitis virus, using a mouse model for flaviviral encephalitis where a small dose of virus was administered to 6-..
  68. Cordova S, Smith D, Broom A, Lindsay M, Dowse G, Beers M. Murray Valley encephalitis in Western Australia in 2000, with evidence of southerly spread. Commun Dis Intell. 2000;24:368-72 pubmed
    ..To enable timely warnings to the public, and to institute mosquito control where feasible, continued surveillance in all Australian areas at risk is indicated...
  69. Broom A, Whelan P, Azuolas J, Dwyer D, Hueston L, Mackenzie J, et al. Sentinel Chicken Surveillance Programme in Australia, 1 July 2001 to 30 June 2002. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2002;26:428-9 pubmed
    ..Two cases of Murray Valley encephalitis were reported from the north of Western Australia during the 2001/2002 wet season...
  70. Regner M, Mullbacher A, Blanden R, Lobigs M. Immunogenicity of two peptide determinants in the cytolytic T-cell response to flavivirus infection: inverse correlation between peptide affinity for MHC class I and T-cell precursor frequency. Viral Immunol. 2001;14:135-49 pubmed
    We used the CD8+ cytotoxic T (Tc) cell immune response against the flavivirus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE), restricted by the H-2Kk major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule, to investigate immunodominance...
  71. Regner M, Lobigs M, Blanden R, Mullbacher A. Effector cytolotic function but not IFN-gamma production in cytotoxic T cells triggered by virus-infected target cells in vitro. Scand J Immunol. 2001;54:366-74 pubmed
    ..We have used the Tc-cell response against the flavivirus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE), to investigate the requirements for inducing these two functions with regard to antigen-..
  72. Vlachakis D. Theoretical study of the Usutu virus helicase 3D structure, by means of computer-aided homology modelling. Theor Biol Med Model. 2009;6:9 pubmed publisher
    ..has been designed, using conventional homology modelling techniques and the known 3D-structure of the Murray Valley Encephalitis virus helicase, of the same viral family, as template...
  73. Studdert M, Azuolas J, Vasey J, Hall R, Ficorilli N, Huang J. Polymerase chain reaction tests for the identification of Ross River, Kunjin and Murray Valley encephalitis virus infections in horses. Aust Vet J. 2003;81:76-80 pubmed
    To develop and validate specific, sensitive and rapid diagnostic tests using RT-PCR for the detection of Ross River virus (RRV), Kunjin virus (KV) and Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) infections in horses.
  74. Silvia O, Shellam G, Urosevic N. Innate resistance to flavivirus infection in mice controlled by Flv is nitric oxide-independent. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:603-7 pubmed