japanese encephalitis viruses


Summary: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.

Top Publications

  1. Khromykh A, Varnavski A, Sedlak P, Westaway E. Coupling between replication and packaging of flavivirus RNA: evidence derived from the use of DNA-based full-length cDNA clones of Kunjin virus. J Virol. 2001;75:4633-40 pubmed
    ..This mechanism may thus help alleviate the high-copy error rate of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. ..
  2. Mackenzie J, Barrett A, Deubel V. The Japanese encephalitis serological group of flaviviruses: a brief introduction to the group. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2002;267:1-10 pubmed
  3. Kaur R, Rauthan M, Vrati S. Immunogenicity in mice of a cationic microparticle-adsorbed plasmid DNA encoding Japanese encephalitis virus envelope protein. Vaccine. 2004;22:2776-82 pubmed
    ..No difference, however, was seen in JEV neutralization titers. The microparticle-adsorbed DNA induced a mixed Th1-Th2 kind of immune responses as opposed to Th1 type of immune responses elicited by the naked DNA. ..
  4. Appaiahgari M, Vrati S. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice of a formaldehyde-inactivated Indian strain of Japanese encephalitis virus grown in Vero cells. Vaccine. 2004;22:3669-75 pubmed
    ..Thus, for the vaccine production, inactivation of JEV with formalin at 22 degrees C would be a preferred method as it is faster and does not require cold room storage. ..
  5. Solomon T. New vaccines for Japanese encephalitis. Lancet Neurol. 2008;7:116-8 pubmed publisher
  6. Cardosa M, Wang S, Sum M, Tio P. Antibodies against prM protein distinguish between previous infection with dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses. BMC Microbiol. 2002;2:9 pubmed
    ..001. The use of flavivirus premembrane protein in seroepidemiological studies will be useful in determining what flaviviruses have circulated in a community...
  7. Weissenb ck H, Kolodziejek J, Url A, Lussy H, Rebel Bauder B, Nowotny N. Emergence of Usutu virus, an African mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus group, central Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:652-6 pubmed publisher
    ..If established in central Europe, this virus may have considerable effects on avian populations; whether USUV has the potential to cause severe human disease is unknown...
  8. Buckley A, Dawson A, Moss S, Hinsley S, Bellamy P, Gould E. Serological evidence of West Nile virus, Usutu virus and Sindbis virus infection of birds in the UK. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:2807-17 pubmed
    ..The potential health risk posed to humans and animals by these viruses circulating in the UK is discussed...
  9. Lanciotti R, Roehrig J, Deubel V, Smith J, Parker M, Steele K, et al. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. Science. 1999;286:2333-7 pubmed
    ..This North American WN virus was most closely related to a WN virus isolated from a dead goose in Israel in 1998. ..

More Information


  1. Hasegawa H, Yoshida M, Kobayashi Y, Fujita S. Antigenic analysis of Japanese encephalitis viruses in Asia by using monoclonal antibodies. Vaccine. 1995;13:1713-21 pubmed
    ..The KE093 strain isolated from Thailand in 1983 showed immunologically outstanding difference from other strains...
  2. Poidinger M, Hall R, Mackenzie J. Molecular characterization of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex of the flavivirus genus. Virology. 1996;218:417-21 pubmed
    ..In addition, the primary sequence data revealed a polymorphic region just downstream of the stop codon in the 3' end of the viral genomes...
  3. Meister T, Lussy H, Bakonyi T, Sikutová S, Rudolf I, Vogl W, et al. Serological evidence of continuing high Usutu virus (Flaviviridae) activity and establishment of herd immunity in wild birds in Austria. Vet Microbiol. 2008;127:237-48 pubmed
    ..Herd immunity is a possible explanation for the significant decrease in USUV-associated bird mortalities in Austria during the recent years. ..
  4. Wei Y, Lu P, Yu J, Li J, Liu Q, Zhang Q, et al. [Construcion of a chimeric Japanese encephalits virus/dengue virus-2]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2009;25:185-9 pubmed
    ..However, the chimeric virus could not be passaged in BHK-21 cell. The successful construction of the infectious clone JE/DEN-2 laid the basis for the further research of the DV vaccine. ..
  5. Nothdurft H, Jelinek T, Marschang A, Maiwald H, Kapaun A, Loscher T. Adverse reactions to Japanese encephalitis vaccine in travellers. J Infect. 1996;32:119-22 pubmed
    ..We conclude that JEV should remain restricted to travellers with an increased risk of acquiring JE. ..
  6. Wang H, Li X, Liu L, Xu Y, Ye Q, Deng Y, et al. The Emerging Duck Flavivirus Is Not Pathogenic for Primates and Is Highly Sensitive to Mammalian Interferon Antiviral Signaling. J Virol. 2016;90:6538-6548 pubmed publisher
    ..The pathogenic flaviviruses include dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, and the nonpathogenic flaviviruses normally persist in a natural cycle and rarely cause disease in ..
  7. Al Qahtani A, Nazir N, Al Anazi M, Rubino S, Al Ahdal M. Zika virus: a new pandemic threat. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2016;10:201-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of the Flaviviridae family and is related to dengue, Chikungunya, West Nile, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. ZIKV was first discovered in Uganda in 1947...
  8. Gajanana A, Rajendran R, Thenmozhi V, Samuel P, Tsai T, Reuben R. Comparative evaluation of bioassay and ELISA for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus in field collected mosquitos. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1995;26:91-7 pubmed
    ..By excluding a large majority of pools with low OD (Mean + < 2 SD), which are likely to yield to only a small percentage of true positives, the cost, time and labor involved are greatly reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  9. Hamel R, Dejarnac O, Wichit S, Ekchariyawat P, Neyret A, Luplertlop N, et al. Biology of Zika Virus Infection in Human Skin Cells. J Virol. 2015;89:8880-96 pubmed publisher
    ..an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, that causes a mosquito-borne disease transmitted by the Aedes genus, with recent outbreaks in the ..
  10. Chan J, Choi G, Yip C, Cheng V, Yuen K. Zika fever and congenital Zika syndrome: An unexpected emerging arboviral disease. J Infect. 2016;72:507-24 pubmed publisher
    Unlike its mosquito-borne relatives, such as dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, which can cause severe human diseases, Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged from obscurity by its association with a suspected "congenital Zika ..
  11. Ogata A, Nagashima K, Yasui K, Matsuura T, Tashiro K. Sustained release dosage of thyrotropin-releasing hormone improves experimental Japanese encephalitis virus-induced parkinsonism in rats. J Neurol Sci. 1998;159:135-9 pubmed
  12. Tajima S, Nerome R, Nukui Y, Kato F, Takasaki T, Kurane I. A single mutation in the Japanese encephalitis virus E protein (S123R) increases its growth rate in mouse neuroblastoma cells and its pathogenicity in mice. Virology. 2010;396:298-304 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the position 123 in the E protein is responsible for determining the growth properties and pathogenicity of JEV. ..
  13. Hall R, Broom A, Hartnett A, Howard M, Mackenzie J. Immunodominant epitopes on the NS1 protein of MVE and KUN viruses serve as targets for a blocking ELISA to detect virus-specific antibodies in sentinel animal serum. J Virol Methods. 1995;51:201-10 pubmed
    ..These assays are now used routinely in our laboratory for testing chicken sera from sentinel flocks in the Kimberley and Pilbara regions of north Western Australia...
  14. Naiyer M, Cassidy S, Magrí A, Cowton V, Chen K, Mansour S, et al. KIR2DS2 recognizes conserved peptides derived from viral helicases in the context of HLA-C. Sci Immunol. 2017;2: pubmed publisher
    ..from the helicase motif 1b region of related flaviviruses, including dengue, Zika, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, to KIR2DS2...
  15. Gould E. Evolution of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex viruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2002;267:391-404 pubmed
  16. Fu S, Song S, Liu H, Li Y, Li X, Gao X, et al. ZIKA virus isolated from mosquitoes: a field and laboratory investigation in China, 2016. Sci China Life Sci. 2017;60:1364-1371 pubmed publisher
    ..ZIKVs) isolated from Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and Armigeres subbalbeatus, respectively; three Japanese encephalitis viruses (JEVs) isolated from Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus; two Banna viruses (BAVs) isolated from Culex ..
  17. Bartholomeusz A, Tomlinson E, Wright P, Birch C, Locarnini S, Weigold H, et al. Use of a flavivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase assay to investigate the antiviral activity of selected compounds. Antiviral Res. 1994;24:341-50 pubmed
    ..The synthesis of double-stranded replicative form RNA was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion in the presence of the polyoxometalate HPA-23 [(NH4)18(NaW21Sb9O86)17].14 H2O and several structurally related compounds...
  18. Adams S, Broom A, Sammels L, Hartnett A, Howard M, Coelen R, et al. Glycosylation and antigenic variation among Kunjin virus isolates. Virology. 1995;206:49-56 pubmed
    ..Further analysis revealed that passage history also had a significant influence on glycosylation...
  19. Lee E, Pavy M, Young N, Freeman C, Lobigs M. Antiviral effect of the heparan sulfate mimetic, PI-88, against dengue and encephalitic flaviviruses. Antiviral Res. 2006;69:31-8 pubmed
    ..In mouse models for DEN and flaviviral encephalitis, only PI-88 demonstrated a significant beneficial effect in disease outcome...
  20. Shivashankar Y, Satchidanandam V. Expression of the Japanese encephalitis virus NS3 and NS2b proteins as glutathione S-transferase fusions. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 1995;32:356-60 pubmed
    ..Both the fusion proteins could be purified to homogeneity in a single step using a glutathione agarose affinity matrix. ..
  21. Saito M, Taira K, Itokazu K, Mori N. Recent change of the antigenicity and genotype of Japanese encephalitis viruses distributed on Okinawa Island, Japan. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:737-46 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that the genotype and antigenicity of JEV on Okinawa Island have changed significantly over the past decade. ..
  22. Alam A, Ali S, Ahamad S, Malik M, Ishrat R. From ZikV genome to vaccine: in silico approach for the epitope-based peptide vaccine against Zika virus envelope glycoprotein. Immunology. 2016;149:386-399 pubmed publisher
    ..It is related to other pathogenic vector-borne flaviviruses including dengue, West Nile and Japanese encephalitis viruses, but produces a comparatively mild disease in humans...
  23. Lin Y, Wu S. Histidine at residue 99 and the transmembrane region of the precursor membrane prM protein are important for the prM-E heterodimeric complex formation of Japanese encephalitis virus. J Virol. 2005;79:8535-44 pubmed
  24. Cordova S, Smith D, Broom A, Lindsay M, Dowse G, Beers M. Murray Valley encephalitis in Western Australia in 2000, with evidence of southerly spread. Commun Dis Intell. 2000;24:368-72 pubmed
    ..To enable timely warnings to the public, and to institute mosquito control where feasible, continued surveillance in all Australian areas at risk is indicated...
  25. Khromykh A, Sedlak P, Guyatt K, Hall R, Westaway E. Efficient trans-complementation of the flavivirus kunjin NS5 protein but not of the NS1 protein requires its coexpression with other components of the viral replicase. J Virol. 1999;73:10272-80 pubmed
    ..The results are interpreted and discussed in relation to our proposed model of formation of the flavivirus RC largely based on previous ultrastructural and biochemical analyses of KUN replication. ..
  26. Westaway E, MacKenzie J, Kenney M, Jones M, Khromykh A. Ultrastructure of Kunjin virus-infected cells: colocalization of NS1 and NS3 with double-stranded RNA, and of NS2B with NS3, in virus-induced membrane structures. J Virol. 1997;71:6650-61 pubmed
    ..The collection of induced membranes may represent virus factories in which translation, RNA synthesis, and virus assembly occur. ..
  27. Ge F, Qiu Y, Yang Y, Chen P. [Influence of JEV E-HSP70 (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) fusion protein on immune response in BALB/c mice]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2005;45:441-5 pubmed
    ..So it also illustrates the effectiveness of hsp70 in eliciting a humoral and cellular response to an attached molecule in the absence of adjuvant and affirms the potential utility of hsp70 in vaccine development. ..
  28. Busquets N, Alba A, Allepuz A, Aranda C, Ignacio Nuñez J. Usutu virus sequences in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:861-3 pubmed publisher
  29. Brugger K, Rubel F. Simulation of climate-change scenarios to explain Usutu-virus dynamics in Austria. Prev Vet Med. 2009;88:24-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The latter depict that undetected major outbreaks before 2000 were unlikely, whereas it is likely that the USUV becomes endemic after 2040. ..
  30. Van Der Vliet D, Simons de Fanti A, Murri S, Lapidus N, Goujon C, Zeller H, et al. [Long-term seroprotection against Japanese encephalitis using an inactivated vaccine (Jevax)]. Med Trop (Mars). 2010;70:155-7 pubmed
    ..No correlation was found between seroprotection and the interval between the booster injections. ..
  31. Westaway E, Khromykh A, MacKenzie J. Nascent flavivirus RNA colocalized in situ with double-stranded RNA in stable replication complexes. Virology. 1999;258:108-17 pubmed
  32. Nawa M. Effects of bafilomycin A1 on Japanese encephalitis virus in C6/36 mosquito cells. Arch Virol. 1998;143:1555-68 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that JE virus infection in C6/36 cells proceeded through the endocytic pathway involving intracellular acidic compartments which was affected by bafilomycin A1. ..
  33. Konishi E, Shoda M, Kondo T. Prevalence of antibody to Japanese encephalitis virus nonstructural 1 protein among racehorses in Japan: indication of natural infection and need for continuous vaccination. Vaccine. 2004;22:1097-103 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that horses in Japan are exposed to natural JEV infections, confirming the need for continuous vaccination for protecting horses from JE. ..
  34. Gaibani P, Pierro A, Cavrini F, Rossini G, Landini M, Sambri V. False-positive transcription-mediated amplification assay detection of West Nile virus in blood from a patient with viremia caused by an Usutu virus infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3338-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a false-positive result of a WNV transcription-mediated amplification assay (TMA) in a patient with viremia that was caused by Usutu virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus...
  35. Kimura T. [Characterization of binding and entry process of Japanese encephalitis virus infection to high-susceptibility and low-susceptibility cell lines]. Hokkaido Igaku Zasshi. 1994;69:857-65 pubmed
  36. Khromykh A, Kenney M, Westaway E. trans-Complementation of flavivirus RNA polymerase gene NS5 by using Kunjin virus replicon-expressing BHK cells. J Virol. 1998;72:7270-9 pubmed
  37. Cholewa M, Turnbull I, Legge G, Weigold H, Marcuccio S, Holan G, et al. Investigation of the uptake of drugs by individual cells using a scanning proton microprobe (SPM). Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 1996;42:69-76 pubmed
    ..The use of elemental analysis in single cells of cultured cell lines has shown to have distinct advantages over peripheral blood lymphocytes. ..
  38. Mahanta J, Boruah U, Sarmabordoloi J, Baruah H. Japanese encephalitis virus antibody among normal individuals of Dibrugarh area, upper Assam. J Commun Dis. 1996;28:181-4 pubmed
    ..The ratio of apparent to inapparent infection in this study was found to be 9.1 : 100, which is lower than reported in Assam earlier, but slightly higher than predicted for India as a whole...
  39. Kumar R. Viral encephalitis of public health significance in India: current status. Indian J Pediatr. 1999;66:73-83 pubmed
    ..The nervous tissue vaccine is no longer recommended because of unacceptable neurotoxicity. Three cell culture vaccines are presently available with about equal efficacy. ..
  40. MacKenzie J, Jones M, Westaway E. Markers for trans-Golgi membranes and the intermediate compartment localize to induced membranes with distinct replication functions in flavivirus-infected cells. J Virol. 1999;73:9555-67 pubmed
    ..This is the first report identifying trans-Golgi membranes and the intermediate compartment as the apparent sources of the flavivirus-induced membranes involved in events of replication. ..
  41. Li P, Zheng Q, Wang Q, Li Y, Wang E, Liu J, et al. Immune responses of recombinant adenoviruses expressing immunodominant epitopes against Japanese encephalitis virus. Vaccine. 2008;26:5802-7 pubmed publisher
    ..0)TCID50, even though the neutralizing antibody titers were lower than those in the group inoculated with inactivated vaccine. Our findings indicate that rAd-TEP might be an attractive candidate vaccines for preventing JEV infection. ..
  42. Jan L, Chen K, Lu C, Wu Y, Horng C. Complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Japanese encephalitis virus ling strain: the presence of a 25-nucleotide deletion in the 3'-nontranslated region. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1996;55:603-9 pubmed
    ..It is likely that the JEV sequence divergence between two human isolates or between two mosquito isolates is lower than that between a human isolate and a mosquito isolate. ..
  43. Ma S, Arakaki S, Makino Y, Fukunaga T. Molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus in Okinawa. Microbiol Immunol. 1996;40:847-55 pubmed
    ..A nucleotide substitution at the position 1920 in the E gene was identified in three isolates. This substitution generated an aspargine-proline-threonine sequence capable of serving as an attachment site of carbohydrate. ..
  44. Varnavski A, Young P, Khromykh A. Stable high-level expression of heterologous genes in vitro and in vivo by noncytopathic DNA-based Kunjin virus replicon vectors. J Virol. 2000;74:4394-403 pubmed
    ..The noncytopathic nature of DNA-based KUN replicon vectors combined with high-level and stability of HG expression in a broad range of host cells should prove them to be useful in a variety of applications in vitro and in vivo. ..
  45. Kanojia P. Bionomics of Culex epidesmus associated with Japanese encephalitis virus in India. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2003;19:151-4 pubmed
    ..Freshly laid egg rafts were found to be boat shaped and individual eggs were a white-cream color. The number of eggs per raft deposited by individual Cx. epidesmus varied from 118 to 288, with an average of 199 eggs per specimen. ..
  46. Shen J, Devery J, King N. Early induction of interferon-independent virus-specific ICAM-1 (CD54) expression by flavivirus in quiescent but not proliferating fibroblasts--implications for virus-host interactions. Virology. 1995;208:437-49 pubmed
  47. Westaway E, Khromykh A, Kenney M, MacKenzie J, Jones M. Proteins C and NS4B of the flavivirus Kunjin translocate independently into the nucleus. Virology. 1997;234:31-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Dual IF with antibodies to double-stranded RNA showed that cytoplasmic locations of C and NS4B were apparently associated in part with the sites of viral RNA synthesis which were resistant to solubilization by Triton X-100...
  48. Kimura T, Kimura Kuroda J, Nagashima K, Yasui K. Analysis of virus-cell binding characteristics on the determination of Japanese encephalitis virus susceptibility. Arch Virol. 1994;139:239-51 pubmed
  49. Dutta K, Ghosh D, Basu A. Curcumin protects neuronal cells from Japanese encephalitis virus-mediated cell death and also inhibits infective viral particle formation by dysregulation of ubiquitin-proteasome system. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2009;4:328-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We have also shown that curcumin, by inhibition of ubiquitin-proteasome system causes reduction in infective viral particle production from previously infected neuroblastoma cells...
  50. Khromykh A, Westaway E. RNA binding properties of core protein of the flavivirus Kunjin. Arch Virol. 1996;141:685-99 pubmed
    ..These small domains probably acted co-operatively in binding of mature C to KUN RNA probes. The KUN RNA-core protein binding reactions are similar to those reported with other viral coat or capsid proteins and viral RNAs. ..
  51. Khromykh A, Westaway E. Completion of Kunjin virus RNA sequence and recovery of an infectious RNA transcribed from stably cloned full-length cDNA. J Virol. 1994;68:4580-8 pubmed
    ..The KUN stably cloned cDNA will provide a useful basis for future studies in defining and characterizing functional roles of all the gene products. ..
  52. Buckley A, Dawson A, Gould E. Detection of seroconversion to West Nile virus, Usutu virus and Sindbis virus in UK sentinel chickens. Virol J. 2006;3:71 pubmed
    ..The proportion of seropositive chickens was higher for WNV than for Usutu virus or Sindbis virus. Attempts to isolate infectious virus or to detect viral RNA in the sera, failed. ..
  53. Murakami S, Takahashi Y, Yoshida S, Fuke I, Ohmae K, Mori C, et al. Highly sensitive detection of viral RNA genomes in blood specimens by an optimized reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. J Med Virol. 1994;43:175-81 pubmed
    ..1 ml of whole blood specimens. The effectiveness of this assay system is confirmed by diagnosis of human hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection. ..
  54. Urosevic N, Shellam G. Host genetic resistance to Japanese encephalitis group viruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2002;267:153-70 pubmed
  55. Fukuda R, Sasaki T, Kunugi H, Nanko S. No changes in paired viral antibody titers during the course of acute schizophrenia. Neuropsychobiology. 1999;40:57-62 pubmed
    ..and human herpesvirus type 6) and 6 other viruses (measles, rubella, mumps, influenza A and B and Japanese encephalitis viruses) in paired sera of 8 patients with acute onset or exacerbation of schizophrenia...
  56. Hall R, Khromykh A, MacKenzie J, Scherret J, Khromykh T, Mackenzie J. Loss of dimerisation of the nonstructural protein NS1 of Kunjin virus delays viral replication and reduces virulence in mice, but still allows secretion of NS1. Virology. 1999;264:66-75 pubmed
    ..Taken together our results indicate that mutation from proline to leucine at residue 250 in KUN NS1 ablates dimer formation, slows virus replication, and reduces virulence in mice...
  57. Wang L, Fu S, Wang H, Liang X, Cheng J, Jing H, et al. Japanese encephalitis outbreak, Yuncheng, China, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1123-5 pubmed publisher
  58. Nawa M. Japanese encephalitis virus infection in Vero cells: the involvement of intracellular acidic vesicles in the early phase of viral infection was observed with the treatment of a specific vacuolar type H+-ATPase inhibitor, bafilomycin A1. Microbiol Immunol. 1997;41:537-43 pubmed
  59. Jan L, Chen K, Lu C, Horng C. Partial nucleotide sequence of Japanese encephalitis virus ling strain genome and comparison of the encoded structural proteins and nonstructural protein NS1 among Japanese encephalitis virus strains. Zhonghua Min Guo Wei Sheng Wu Ji Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1994;27:80-9 pubmed
    ..Also, JEV strains isolated in humans are more closely related to each other than to JEV strains of mosquito isolates. ..
  60. Guo W, Li L, Wu Z. [Analysis on the immuno-effects of two different Japanese encephalitis virus vaccines]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 1998;19:97-9 pubmed
    ..For live attenuated vaccine: one injection is given for basic immunization then booster dose be given in the second year and 4-5 years later. ..
  61. Khromykh A, Westaway E. Subgenomic replicons of the flavivirus Kunjin: construction and applications. J Virol. 1997;71:1497-505 pubmed
    ..The constructed KUN replicons should provide valuable tools to study flavivirus RNA replication as well as providing possible vectors for a long-lasting and noncytopathic RNA virus expression system. ..
  62. Rauscher S, Flamm C, Mandl C, Heinz F, Stadler P. Secondary structure of the 3'-noncoding region of flavivirus genomes: comparative analysis of base pairing probabilities. RNA. 1997;3:779-91 pubmed
    ..The availability of infectious clones for several flaviviruses will allow the assessment of these structural elements in processes of the viral life cycle, such as replication and assembly. ..
  63. Khromykh A, Sedlak P, Westaway E. trans-Complementation analysis of the flavivirus Kunjin ns5 gene reveals an essential role for translation of its N-terminal half in RNA replication. J Virol. 1999;73:9247-55 pubmed
  64. Johnson B, Kosoy O, Hunsperger E, Beltran M, Delorey M, Guirakhoo F, et al. Evaluation of chimeric Japanese encephalitis and dengue viruses for use in diagnostic plaque reduction neutralization tests. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:1052-9 pubmed publisher
    ..ChimeriVax-DENV and -JEV plaque phenotype and BSL2 requirements, combined with sensitive and specific reactivity, make them good substitutes for wt DENV and JEV in PRNT in public health diagnostic laboratories. ..
  65. Yun S, Choi Y, Yu X, Song J, Shin Y, Ju Y, et al. Engineering the Japanese encephalitis virus RNA genome for the expression of foreign genes of various sizes: implications for packaging capacity and RNA replication efficiency. J Neurovirol. 2007;13:522-35 pubmed
    ..These JEV-based virus/vector systems may provide useful tools for a variety of biological applications, including foreign gene expression, antiviral compound screening, and genetic immunization. ..
  66. Weaver S, Powers A, Brault A, Barrett A. Molecular epidemiological studies of veterinary arboviral encephalitides. Vet J. 1999;157:123-38 pubmed
  67. Saul A. Zooprophylaxis or zoopotentiation: the outcome of introducing animals on vector transmission is highly dependent on the mosquito mortality while searching. Malar J. 2003;2:32 pubmed
    ..However, as the number of animals increases, improved availability of blood meals may increase mosquito survival, thereby countering the impact of diverting feeds...
  68. Hamaue N, Ogata A, Terado M, Ohno K, Kikuchi S, Sasaki H, et al. Brain catecholamine alterations and pathological features with aging in Parkinson disease model rat induced by Japanese encephalitis virus. Neurochem Res. 2006;31:1451-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that DA decrease and pathological changes in JEV-infected model rats persist for a long time, at least up to 180 days, and this model will be useful for the evaluation of new anti-parkinsonian agents. ..
  69. Khromykh A, Varnavski A, Westaway E. Encapsidation of the flavivirus kunjin replicon RNA by using a complementation system providing Kunjin virus structural proteins in trans. J Virol. 1998;72:5967-77 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it could facilitate the development of a noninfectious vaccine delivery system based on encapsidation of a noncytopathic flavivirus replicon expressing heterologous genes. ..
  70. Momose H, Imai J, Hamaguchi I, Kawamura M, Mizukami T, Naito S, et al. Induction of indistinguishable gene expression patterns in rats by Vero cell-derived and mouse brain-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccines. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2010;63:25-30 pubmed
    ..Body weights and blood biochemical findings were also similar after administration of the two vaccines. Our results suggest that the two JE vaccines are likely to have equivalent characteristics with regard to reactivity in rats. ..
  71. Khromykh A, Meka H, Guyatt K, Westaway E. Essential role of cyclization sequences in flavivirus RNA replication. J Virol. 2001;75:6719-28 pubmed
  72. Lanciotti R. Molecular amplification assays for the detection of flaviviruses. Adv Virus Res. 2003;61:67-99 pubmed
    ..The various assay formats will be described and their utility discussed. ..
  73. Sohn Y, Park M, Rho H, Chandler L, Shope R, Tsai T. Primary and booster immune responses to SA14-14-2 Japanese encephalitis vaccine in Korean infants. Vaccine. 1999;17:2259-64 pubmed
    ..Live attenuated SA14-14-2 JE vaccine is a promising alternative to the only commercially available JE vaccine for national childhood immunization programs in Asia...
  74. Garcia Garcia J, Takashima I, Kariwa H, Hashimoto N. Kinetics and cross-reactivity of the virus-specific antibody-forming cells in mice during primary and secondary infection with Japanese encephalitis virus and related flaviviruses. J Virol Methods. 1994;48:31-41 pubmed
    ..After JE virus-infected mice were cross-primed with another flavivirus, the IgG-forming cell response resembled the secondary response to both viruses but had higher affinity to JE virus than to the cross-priming virus. ..
  75. Geevarghese G, Prasanna N, Jacob P, Hanumaiah -, Bhat H. Isolation of Batai virus from sentinel domestic pig from Kolar district in Karnataka State, India. Acta Virol. 1994;38:239-40 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of the isolation of Batai virus from a mammal. ..
  76. Konishi E, Pincus S, Paoletti E, Shope R, Wason P. Avipox virus-vectored Japanese encephalitis virus vaccines: use as vaccine candidates in combination with purified subunit immunogens. Vaccine. 1994;12:633-8 pubmed
    ..Mice immunized with a mixture of recombinant virus (vCP107) plus EPs had neutralizing antibody titres higher than mice immunized with the recombinant virus or EPs alone. ..
  77. Mullbacher A, Lobigs M, Lee E. Immunobiology of mosquito-borne encephalitic flaviviruses. Adv Virus Res. 2003;60:87-120 pubmed
  78. Proutski V, Gould E, Holmes E. Secondary structure of the 3' untranslated region of flaviviruses: similarities and differences. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997;25:1194-202 pubmed
    ..These alternative folding patterns may have roles in the regulation of transcription and translation initiation and in the switch between them. ..
  79. Kitchener S, Baade L, Brennan L. When should travelers from nonendemic areas for flaviviruses receive booster vaccination for Japanese encephalitis?. J Travel Med. 2003;10:50-1 pubmed
  80. Hall R, Scherret J, Sedlak P, Poidinger M, Mackenzie J. Isolation of homologous arbovirus cultures from heterologous mixtures using limit dilution and virus-specific enzyme immunoassays. J Virol Methods. 1999;83:189-92 pubmed
    ..This procedure is particularly useful for isolating virus populations from heterogeneous mixtures that fail to develop discrete plaques in infected cell monolayers. ..
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