eastern equine encephalitis virus

Summary

Summary: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.

Top Publications

  1. Brown T, Mitchell C, Nasci R, Smith G, Roehrig J. Detection of eastern equine encephalitis virus in infected mosquitoes using a monoclonal antibody-based antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;65:208-13 pubmed
    ..The conversion of this ELISA to a monoclonal antibody-based format should result in a readily standardizable and transferable assay that will permit laboratories lacking virus isolation facilities to conduct EEE virus surveillance...
  2. Ortiz D, Wozniak A, Tolson M, Turner P, Vaughan D. Isolation of EEE virus from Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus and Culiseta melanura in coastal South Carolina. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2003;19:33-8 pubmed
    ..taeniorhynchus (minimum infection rate [MIR] = 0.6/1,000) and a second of Culiseta melanura (MIR = 3.8/1,000). This report represents the first record of an EEE isolation from Oc. taeniorhynchus and Cs. melanura in South Carolina...
  3. Cohen S, Lewoczko K, Huddleston D, Moody E, Mukherjee S, Dunn J, et al. Host feeding patterns of potential vectors of eastern equine encephalitis virus at an epizootic focus in Tennessee. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;81:452-6 pubmed
    ..By incorporating this study with flight range, vector competence, and virus field isolation data, we assessed certain aspects of the enzootic and epizootic vectorial capacity of the mosquito species present at this outbreak site...
  4. Garen P, Tsai T, Powers J. Human eastern equine encephalitis: immunohistochemistry and ultrastructure. Mod Pathol. 1999;12:646-52 pubmed
    ..Ultrastructurally, rare mature viral particles were seen in extracellular spaces...
  5. Beckwith W, Sirpenski S, French R, Nelson R, Mayo D. Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus and West Nile virus from crows during increased arbovirus surveillance in Connecticut, 2000. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;66:422-6 pubmed
    ..Included in this report are the first known isolations of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) from crows and data on the geographic and temporal distribution of 1,092 WNV isolations from ..
  6. Deresiewicz R, Thaler S, Hsu L, Zamani A. Clinical and neuroradiographic manifestations of eastern equine encephalitis. N Engl J Med. 1997;336:1867-74 pubmed
    ..Recognition of the neuroradiographic manifestations of eastern equine encephalitis could hasten the diagnosis of the illness and speed the response to index cases...
  7. Reed D, Lackemeyer M, Garza N, Norris S, Gamble S, Sullivan L, et al. Severe encephalitis in cynomolgus macaques exposed to aerosolized Eastern equine encephalitis virus. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:441-50 pubmed
    ..Increases in serum levels of blood urea nitrogen, sodium, and alkaline phosphatase were also seen. The rapid onset and severity of neurological signs mirror what has been reported for human cases of disease caused by EEE...
  8. Linssen B, Kinney R, Aguilar P, Russell K, Watts D, Kaaden O, et al. Development of reverse transcription-PCR assays specific for detection of equine encephalitis viruses. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:1527-35 pubmed
    ..All of the nine tested VEE-positive sera showed the expected 194-bp amplicon of the VEE-specific RT-PCR-seminested PCR...
  9. Brault A, Powers A, Chavez C, Lopez R, Cachón M, Gutierrez L, et al. Genetic and antigenic diversity among eastern equine encephalitis viruses from North, Central, and South America. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999;61:579-86 pubmed
    b>Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), the sole species in the EEE antigenic complex, is divided into North and South American antigenic varieties based on hemagglutination inhibition tests...

More Information

Publications70

  1. Aguilar P, Adams A, Wang E, Kang W, Carrara A, Anishchenko M, et al. Structural and nonstructural protein genome regions of eastern equine encephalitis virus are determinants of interferon sensitivity and murine virulence. J Virol. 2008;82:4920-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) causes sporadic epidemics of human and equine disease in North America, but South American strains have seldom been associated with human neurologic disease or mortality, despite serological ..
  2. Day J, Stark L, Zhang J, Ramsey A, Scott T. Antibodies to arthropod-borne encephalitis viruses in small mammals from southern Florida. J Wildl Dis. 1996;32:431-6 pubmed
    ..Blood samples from 512 mammals were tested for virus. Isolations of one EVE virus and two unidentified arenaviruses were made from P. gossypinus and one EVE virus isolate was made from a S. hispidus...
  3. Kondig J, Turell M, Lee J, O Guinn M, Wasieloski L. Genetic analysis of South American eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:408-16 pubmed
    ..On the basis of the sequences we determined for South American EEEVs and those for other viruses detected in the same area, we developed a series of primers for characterizing these viruses...
  4. Hassan H, Cupp E, Hill G, Katholi C, Klingler K, Unnasch T. Avian host preference by vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;69:641-7 pubmed
    ..When viewed collectively, these data suggest that these mosquitoes are selectively targeting particular avian species...
  5. Weaver S, Hagenbaugh A, Bellew L, Gousset L, Mallampalli V, Holland J, et al. Evolution of alphaviruses in the eastern equine encephalomyelitis complex. J Virol. 1994;68:158-69 pubmed
    ..Analysis of multiple strains isolated from an upstate New York transmission focus during the same years suggested that, in certain locations, EEE virus may be relatively isolated for short time periods...
  6. Cooper L, Scott T. Differential evolution of eastern equine encephalitis virus populations in response to host cell type. Genetics. 2001;157:1403-12 pubmed
  7. Howard J, Grayson M, White D, Oliver J. Evidence for multiple foci of eastern equine encephalitis virus (Togaviridae:Alphavirus) in central New York State. J Med Entomol. 1996;33:421-32 pubmed
    ..The role of infected Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) in the transfer of EEE virus between swamp and upland areas and among swamp complexes is advanced...
  8. Petrakova O, Volkova E, Gorchakov R, Paessler S, Kinney R, Frolov I. Noncytopathic replication of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus replicons in Mammalian cells. J Virol. 2005;79:7597-608 pubmed
  9. Villari P, Spielman A, Komar N, McDowell M, Timperi R. The economic burden imposed by a residual case of eastern encephalitis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1995;52:8-13 pubmed
    ..7 million and $1.4 million, depending on the extent of the treated region. The direct costs of an intervention are less than the $3 million imposed on one person suffering residual sequelae of EE...
  10. Dein F, Carpenter J, Clark G, Montali R, Crabbs C, Tsai T, et al. Mortality of captive whooping cranes caused by eastern equine encephalitis virus. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1986;189:1006-10 pubmed
    ..Of the 41 wild birds evaluated in the area, 3 (4%) had EEE virus-neutralizing antibody. Immature Culiseta melanura (the most probable mosquito vector) were found in scattered foci 5 km from the research center...
  11. Carrera M, Sagripanti J. Non-infectious plasmid engineered to simulate multiple viral threat agents. J Virol Methods. 2009;159:29-33 pubmed publisher
    ..virus, Rift Valley Fever virus, Machupo virus, Lassa virus, Yellow Fever virus, Ebola virus, Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus, Junin virus, Marburg virus, Dengue virus, and Crimean-Congo virus, all in a single construct...
  12. Sellers R, Maarouf A. Trajectory analysis of winds and eastern equine encephalitis in USA, 1980-5. Epidemiol Infect. 1990;104:329-43 pubmed
    Backward trajectories of winds were determined to identify possible sources of eastern equine encephalitis virus associated with isolation of virus from mosquitoes or birds or outbreaks in horses between 1980 and 1985 in Maryland, New ..
  13. Cupp E, Klingler K, Hassan H, Viguers L, Unnasch T. Transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in central Alabama. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;68:495-500 pubmed
    ..The lengthy period of mosquito infection with EEE virus, coupled with the diverse habits of the vectors and their proximity to a population center, indicate the importance of monitoring EEE virus activity in the Mid-South...
  14. Vogel P, Kell W, Fritz D, Parker M, Schoepp R. Early events in the pathogenesis of eastern equine encephalitis virus in mice. Am J Pathol. 2005;166:159-71 pubmed
  15. Garvin M, Ohajuruka O, Bell K, Ives S. Seroprevalence of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in birds and larval survey of Culiseta melanura Coquillett during an interepizootic period in central Ohio. J Vector Ecol. 2004;29:73-8 pubmed
    ..We suggest that dry conditions reduced the breeding and abundance of Cs. melanura in 2000 and possibly the transmission of EEE virus at KMWA...
  16. Aguilar P, Paessler S, Carrara A, Baron S, Poast J, Wang E, et al. Variation in interferon sensitivity and induction among strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus. J Virol. 2005;79:11300-10 pubmed
    b>Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) causes human encephalitis in North America (NA), but in South America (SA) it has rarely been associated with human disease, suggesting that SA strains are less virulent...
  17. Molaei G, Oliver J, Andreadis T, Armstrong P, Howard J. Molecular identification of blood-meal sources in Culiseta melanura and Culiseta morsitans from an endemic focus of eastern equine encephalitis virus in New York. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75:1140-7 pubmed
    ..We report the first isolation of arboviruses from mosquito vectors concomitant with the identifications of their blood meal sources...
  18. Young D, Kramer L, Maffei J, Dusek R, Backenson P, Mores C, et al. Molecular epidemiology of eastern equine encephalitis virus, New York. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:454-60 pubmed publisher
    Perpetuation, overwintering, and extinction of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) in northern foci are poorly understood...
  19. Turell M, O Guinn M, Dohm D, Zyzak M, Watts D, Fernandez R, et al. Susceptibility of Peruvian mosquitoes to eastern equine encephalitis virus. J Med Entomol. 2008;45:720-5 pubmed
    ..near Iquitos, Peru, and used in experimental studies to evaluate their susceptibility to strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) that were isolated from mosquitoes captured within 20 km of Iquitos...
  20. Hull R, Nattanmai S, Kramer L, Bernard K, Tavakoli N. A duplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of St. Louis encephalitis and eastern equine encephalitis viruses. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008;62:272-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), for use in human and vector surveillance...
  21. Nasci R, Berry R, Restifo R, Parsons M, Smith G, Martin D. Eastern equine encephalitis virus in Ohio during 1991. J Med Entomol. 1993;30:217-22 pubmed
    ..It is unlikely that these species were involved in epizootic transmission. IgM antibody to EEE virus was detected in three bird species collected in the swamp...
  22. Arrigo N, Adams A, Watts D, Newman P, Weaver S. Cotton rats and house sparrows as hosts for North and South American strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1373-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus) is an arbovirus that causes severe disease in humans in North America and in equids throughout the Americas...
  23. Aguilar P, Weaver S, Basler C. Capsid protein of eastern equine encephalitis virus inhibits host cell gene expression. J Virol. 2007;81:3866-76 pubmed
    b>Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) causes sporadic but often severe cases of human and equine neurological disease in North America...
  24. Wages D, Ficken M, Guy J, Cummings T, Jennings S. Egg-production drop in turkeys associated with alphaviruses: eastern equine encephalitis virus and Highlands J virus. Avian Dis. 1993;37:1163-6 pubmed
    ..6% in selected houses over a 48-to-96-hour period. Eastern equine encephalitis virus was isolated from the second breeder flock, which experienced an egg-production drop of 44.5%...
  25. Hachiya M, Osborne M, Stinson C, Werner B. Human eastern equine encephalitis in Massachusetts: predictive indicators from mosquitoes collected at 10 long-term trap sites, 1979-2004. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:285-92 pubmed
    ..87, a specificity of 0.82, a positive predictive value of 0.14, and a negative predictive value of 0.995. Timely mosquito testing and infection rate calculation are critical for disease risk estimation and outbreak control efforts...
  26. Turell M, Beaman J, Neely G. Experimental transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus by strains of Aedes albopictus and A. taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 1994;31:287-90 pubmed
    ..albopictus and its opportunistic feeding behavior, indicate that Ae. albopictus could function as a bridge vector between the enzootic Culiseta melanura (Coq.)-avian cycle and susceptible mammalian hosts...
  27. Crans W, Caccamise D, McNelly J. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in relation to the avian community of a coastal cedar swamp. J Med Entomol. 1994;31:711-28 pubmed
    ..melanura by traditional laboratory techniques, indicating that the early season cycle is initiated by the recrudescence of latent virus in previously infected birds...
  28. Adams A, Aronson J, Tardif S, Patterson J, Brasky K, Geiger R, et al. Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) as a nonhuman primate model to assess the virulence of eastern equine encephalitis virus strains. J Virol. 2008;82:9035-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) produces the most severe human arboviral disease in North America (NA) and is a potential biological weapon...
  29. Crans W, McNelly J, Schulze T, Main A. Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus from Aedes sollicitans during an epizootic in southern New Jersey. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1986;2:68-72 pubmed
    b>Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEE) was isolated from the salt marsh mosquito, Aedes sollicitans, collected from coastal areas of New Jersey on 3 occasions during the late summer and fall of 1982...
  30. Gardner C, Yin J, Burke C, Klimstra W, Ryman K. Type I interferon induction is correlated with attenuation of a South American eastern equine encephalitis virus strain in mice. Virology. 2009;390:338-47 pubmed publisher
    North American eastern equine encephalitis virus (NA-EEEV) strains cause high mortality in humans, whereas South American strains (SA-EEEV) are typically avirulent...
  31. Roy C, Reed D, Wilhelmsen C, Hartings J, Norris S, Steele K. Pathogenesis of aerosolized Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus infection in guinea pigs. Virol J. 2009;6:170 pubmed publisher
    ..were experimentally exposed to aerosols containing regionally-distinct strains (NJ1959 or ArgM) of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) at two exclusive particle size distributions...
  32. Garvin M, Tarvin K, Stark L, Woolfenden G, Fitzpatrick J, Day J. Arboviral infection in two species of wild jays (Aves: Corvidae): evidence for population impacts. J Med Entomol. 2004;41:215-25 pubmed
    ..Survival of adult blue jays seropositive to EEE was significantly lower than that of seronegative birds based on resight rates, but infection did not seem to affect survival of adult or juvenile Florida scrub-jays...
  33. Guy J, Barnes H, Smith L. Experimental infection of young broiler chickens with eastern equine encephalitis virus and Highlands J virus. Avian Dis. 1994;38:572-82 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that both EEE virus and HJ virus are pathogenic for young chickens...
  34. Schmitt S, Cooley T, Fitzgerald S, Bolin S, Lim A, Schaefer S, et al. An outbreak of Eastern equine encephalitis virus in free-ranging white-tailed deer in Michigan. J Wildl Dis. 2007;43:635-44 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report of multiple cases of EEE in free-ranging white-tailed deer, and highlights several issues of significance to wildlife managers and public health officials...
  35. Cupp E, Zhang D, Yue X, Cupp M, Guyer C, Sprenger T, et al. Identification of reptilian and amphibian blood meals from mosquitoes in an eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus focus in central Alabama. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;71:272-6 pubmed
    ..peccator and Ur. sapphirina occur with large, diverse reptilian, amphibian, and avian populations such as those at the Tuskegee site...
  36. Sellers R. Eastern equine encephalitis in Quebec and Connecticut, 1972: introduction by infected mosquitoes on the wind?. Can J Vet Res. 1989;53:76-9 pubmed
    ..The arrival on August 8, 1972 coincided with a cold front moving from the northwest through Connecticut. Culiseta melanura is regarded as the mosquito species most likely to have been involved in the transmission of infection...
  37. Guy J, Ficken M, Barnes H, Wages D, Smith L. Experimental infection of young turkeys with eastern equine encephalitis virus and highlands J virus. Avian Dis. 1993;37:389-95 pubmed
    ..The findings indicate that EEE virus and HJ virus are pathogenic for young turkeys...
  38. Sardelis M, Dohm D, Pagac B, Andre R, Turell M. Experimental transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus by Ochlerotatus j. japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 2002;39:480-4 pubmed
  39. Armstrong P, Andreadis T, Anderson J, Stull J, Mores C. Tracking eastern equine encephalitis virus perpetuation in the northeastern United States by phylogenetic analysis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79:291-6 pubmed
    Epidemics and epizootics of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) occur sporadically in temperate regions where transmission is seasonal from late summer to early fall...
  40. Strizki J, Repik P. Differential reactivity of immune sera from human vaccinees with field strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1995;53:564-70 pubmed
  41. Arrigo N, Adams A, Weaver S. Evolutionary patterns of eastern equine encephalitis virus in North versus South America suggest ecological differences and taxonomic revision. J Virol. 2010;84:1014-25 pubmed publisher
  42. Komar N, Dohm D, Turell M, Spielman A. Eastern equine encephalitis virus in birds: relative competence of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999;60:387-91 pubmed
    ..Although starlings are not originally native where EEE is enzootic, a starling can infect about three times as many mosquitoes as can a robin...
  43. Ficken M, Wages D, Guy J, Quinn J, Emory W. High mortality of domestic turkeys associated with Highlands J virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus infections. Avian Dis. 1993;37:585-90 pubmed
    ..In Flock 2, seroconversion to eastern equine encephalitis virus was observed in four of 10 serum samples 11 days after the onset of clinical signs...
  44. Paessler S, Aguilar P, Anishchenko M, Wang H, Aronson J, Campbell G, et al. The hamster as an animal model for eastern equine encephalitis--and its use in studies of virus entrance into the brain. J Infect Dis. 2004;189:2072-6 pubmed
    b>Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) produces the most severe human arboviral diseases in the United States, with mortality rates of 30%-70%...
  45. Lambert A, Martin D, Lanciotti R. Detection of North American eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses by nucleic acid amplification assays. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:379-85 pubmed
    ..The sensitivity, specificity, and rapidity of nucleic acid amplification demonstrate the usefulness of NASBA, standard RT-PCR, and TaqMan assays, in both research and diagnostic settings, to detect North American EEE and WEE viral RNAs...
  46. O Guinn M, Lee J, Kondig J, Fernandez R, Carbajal F. Field detection of eastern equine encephalitis virus in the Amazon Basin region of Peru using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction adapted for field identification of arthropod-borne pathogens. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;70:164-71 pubmed
    ..and reliability of a mobile, rapid, field-expedient RT-PCR diagnostic system aimed at detecting eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) in Culex (Melanoconion) pedroi mosquitoes...
  47. Aguilar P, Robich R, Turell M, O Guinn M, Klein T, Huaman A, et al. Endemic eastern equine encephalitis in the Amazon region of Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:293-8 pubmed
    b>Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) causes severe neurologic disease in North America, but only two fatal human cases have been documented in South America...
  48. Papin J, Vahrson W, Hines Boykin R, Dittmer D. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of viral transcription. Methods Mol Biol. 2005;292:449-80 pubmed
    ..Because these arrays are RT-PCR-based, they are inherently more sensitive and robust than current hybridization-based approaches and are ideally suited to query viral gene expression in models of pathogenesis. ..
  49. Gregory C, Latimer K, Niagro F, Campagnoli R, Steffens W, Ritchie B. Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus RNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues using DNA in situ hybridization. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1996;8:151-5 pubmed
  50. Walton T, Jochim M, Barber T, Thompson L. Cross-protective immunity between equine encephalomyelitis viruses in equids. Am J Vet Res. 1989;50:1442-6 pubmed
    ..Demonstration of cross-protective immunity between EEE or WEE virus and VEE virus in equids confirmed field observations made during the VEE epizootic in Texas in 1971...
  51. Nasci R, Gottfried K, Burkhalter K, Ryan J, Emmerich E, Dave K. Sensitivity of the VecTest antigen assay for eastern equine encephalitis and western equine encephalitis viruses. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2003;19:440-4 pubmed
    VecTest assays for detecting eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEE) and western equine encephalitis virus (WEE) antigen in mosquito pools were evaluated to determine their sensitivity and specificity by using a range of EEE, WEE, St...
  52. Spalding M, Frederick P, McGill H, Bouton S, Richey L, Schumacher I, et al. Histologic, neurologic, and immunologic effects of methylmercury in captive great egrets. J Wildl Dis. 2000;36:423-35 pubmed
    ..Thus caution should be used in applying lowest observed effect levels between captive and wild studies. ..
  53. Basile A, Biggerstaff B, Kosoy O, Junna S, Panella N, Powers A, et al. Removal of species constraints in antibody detection. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:56-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Agent-specific adaptations of this simple format should facilitate expanded surveillance and diagnostic capabilities regarding pathogens of human and veterinary importance. ..
  54. Sotomayor E, Josephson S. Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus in A549 and MRC-5 cell cultures. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;29:193-5 pubmed
    ..This report demonstrates the possibility of recovery of EEE virus in cell culture without the necessity of bioamplification or maintaining unusual cell lines. ..
  55. Kang X, Li Y, Liu H, Lin F, Cai X, Sun T, et al. A duplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay for detecting western equine and eastern equine encephalitis viruses. Virol J. 2010;7:284 pubmed publisher
    In order to establish an accurate, ready-to-use assay for simultaneous detection of Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), we developed one duplex TaqMan real-time reverse transcriptase ..
  56. Holmes M, Townsend H, Kohler A, Hussey S, Breathnach C, Barnett C, et al. Immune responses to commercial equine vaccines against equine herpesvirus-1, equine influenza virus, eastern equine encephalomyelitis, and tetanus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2006;111:67-80 pubmed
    ..Differences in vaccine performance may have resulted from differences in antigen load and adjuvant formulation...
  57. Mathews J, Roehrig J. Specificity of the murine T helper cell immune response to various alphaviruses. J Gen Virol. 1989;70 ( Pt 11):2877-86 pubmed
  58. Espinosa B, Weaver S, Paessler S, Brining D, Salazar M, Kochel T. Susceptibility of the Aotus nancymaae owl monkey to eastern equine encephalitis. Vaccine. 2009;27:1729-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is an arthropod-borne virus associated with life-threatening encephalitis in humans, equines, birds and many other domestic animals...
  59. Weaver S, Brault A, Kang W, Holland J. Genetic and fitness changes accompanying adaptation of an arbovirus to vertebrate and invertebrate cells. J Virol. 1999;73:4316-26 pubmed
    ..To test this hypothesis, eastern equine encephalitis virus was passaged in BHK or mosquito cells, as well as in alternating (both) host cell passages...
  60. Sabattini M, Daffner J, Monath T, Bianchi T, Cropp C, Mitchell C, et al. Localized eastern equine encephalitis in Santiago del Estero Province, Argentina, without human infection. Medicina (B Aires). 1991;51:3-8 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless vector/s and vertebrate hosts involved in the transmission cycle in Argentina remain unknown, precluding at present speculations on the potential human risk...
  61. Durden L, Linthicum K, Monath T. Laboratory transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus to chickens by chicken mites (Acari: Dermanyssidae). J Med Entomol. 1993;30:281-5 pubmed
    ..Both transmissions were confirmed by the presence of virus in chick blood 24-72 h after mites had fed, and by plaque-reduction neutralization assays of 21-d convalescent chick sera against the original viral strain...