norovirus

Summary

Summary: A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.

Top Publications

  1. Mesquita J, Costantini V, Cannon J, Lin S, Nascimento M, Vinje J. Presence of antibodies against genogroup VI norovirus in humans. Virol J. 2013;10:176 pubmed publisher
    Noroviruses are important enteric pathogens in humans and animals. Recently, we reported a novel canine norovirus (CaNoV) in dogs with diarrhea belonging to a new genogroup (GVI). No data are available on exposure of humans to this virus...
  2. Thorne L, Goodfellow I. Norovirus gene expression and replication. J Gen Virol. 2014;95:278-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our knowledge of norovirus biology has improved significantly over the past decade as a result of numerous technological advances...
  3. Kittigul L, Panjangampatthana A, Pombubpa K, Taweekate Y, Pungchitton S, Diraphat P, et al. Detection and genetic characterization of norovirus in environmental water samples in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2012;43:323-32 pubmed
    ..91 x 10(2) -1.26 x 10(3) copies/ml for NoV GI and 3.51 x 10(3) copies/ml for NoV GII. This is the first study demonstrating the presence of NoV variants in water samples collected from a river and the adjacent canals of Thailand. ..
  4. Nordgren J, Nitiema L, Ouermi D, Simpore J, Svensson L. Host genetic factors affect susceptibility to norovirus infections in Burkina Faso. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69557 pubmed publisher
    b>Norovirus (NoV) constitutes the second most common viral pathogen causing pediatric diarrhea after rotavirus. In Africa, diarrhea is a major health problem in children, and yet few studies have been performed regarding NoV...
  5. Thorne L, Bailey D, Goodfellow I. High-resolution functional profiling of the norovirus genome. J Virol. 2012;86:11441-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies with murine norovirus (MNV), which can be propagated in permissive cells, have begun to probe different aspects of the norovirus life ..
  6. Shen Z, Wang G, Zai S, Hu Y, Yuan Z, Zhang J. [The emergence of novel GII.4 norovirus variant, Sydney_2012, in Shanghai, China]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2013;29:608-14 pubmed
    To describe the epidemiological characteristics of norovirus (NOV) associated acute gastroenteritis in Shanghai and characterize the evolution pattern of circulating strains...
  7. Giamberardino A, Labib M, Hassan E, Tetro J, Springthorpe S, Sattar S, et al. Ultrasensitive norovirus detection using DNA aptasensor technology. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e79087 pubmed publisher
    DNA aptamers were developed against murine norovirus (MNV) using SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment)...
  8. Kroneman A, Vega E, Vennema H, Vinjé J, White P, Hansman G, et al. Proposal for a unified norovirus nomenclature and genotyping. Arch Virol. 2013;158:2059-68 pubmed publisher
    ..on a defined pairwise distance cutoff of complete VP1 sequences, but with the increasing number of available norovirus sequences, this cutoff is no longer accurate, and sequences in the public database have been misclassified...
  9. Trivedi T, Desai R, Hall A, Patel M, Parashar U, Lopman B. Clinical characteristics of norovirus-associated deaths: a systematic literature review. Am J Infect Control. 2013;41:654-7 pubmed publisher
    Although deaths are often reported in the context of norovirus outbreaks, clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of the decedents prior to death are not well established...

More Information

Publications121 found, 100 shown here

  1. McFadden N, Arias A, Dry I, Bailey D, Witteveldt J, Evans D, et al. Influence of genome-scale RNA structure disruption on the replication of murine norovirus--similar replication kinetics in cell culture but attenuation of viral fitness in vivo. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:6316-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Murine norovirus (MNV) persists in immunocompetent mice and provides an experimental model to functionally characterize GORS...
  2. Sukhrie F, Teunis P, Vennema H, Bogerman J, van Marm S, Beersma M, et al. P2 domain profiles and shedding dynamics in prospectively monitored norovirus outbreaks. J Clin Virol. 2013;56:286-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Norovirus P2 domain is commonly used to extrapolate transmission within an outbreak (OB) setting. The current definition is that transmission among cases is considered to be proven when no sequence variation is found...
  3. Costantini V, Whitaker T, Barclay L, Lee D, McBrayer T, Schinazi R, et al. Antiviral activity of nucleoside analogues against norovirus. Antivir Ther. 2012;17:981-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide. The lack of a cell culture has significantly hampered the development of effective therapies against human NoV...
  4. Ruvoen Clouet N, Belliot G, Le Pendu J. Noroviruses and histo-blood groups: the impact of common host genetic polymorphisms on virus transmission and evolution. Rev Med Virol. 2013;23:355-66 pubmed publisher
  5. Tra My P, Lam H, Thompson C, Phuc H, Tuyet P, Vinh H, et al. The dynamics of GII.4 Norovirus in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Infect Genet Evol. 2013;18:335-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of epidemic gastroenteritis in industrialized countries, yet the epidemiological significance of NoV in industrializing countries remains poorly understood...
  6. Kim H, Hyun J, Kim H, Kim J, Song W, Lee K. Emergence of GII.4 Sydney norovirus in South Korea during the winter of 2012-2013. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;23:1641-3 pubmed
    b>Norovirus is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Between November 2012 and June 2013, 1718 stool samples were requested for norovirus antigen testing in the metropolitan areas of South Korea, and 91 samples were genotyped...
  7. Gastañaduy P, Hall A, Curns A, Parashar U, Lopman B. Burden of norovirus gastroenteritis in the ambulatory setting--United States, 2001-2009. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:1058-65 pubmed publisher
    Gastroenteritis remains an important cause of morbidity in the United States. The burden of norovirus gastroenteritis in ambulatory US patients is not well understood.
  8. Mandadapu S, Gunnam M, Tiew K, Uy R, Prior A, Alliston K, et al. Inhibition of norovirus 3CL protease by bisulfite adducts of transition state inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013;23:62-5 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Norovirus infections constitute an important health problem for which there are no specific antiviral therapeutics or ..
  9. Vashist S, Ureña L, Chaudhry Y, Goodfellow I. Identification of RNA-protein interaction networks involved in the norovirus life cycle. J Virol. 2012;86:11977-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Caliciviridae family of small RNA viruses are often used as model systems to dissect the finer details of the norovirus life cycle...
  10. Tajima M, Kotani Y, Kurosawa T, Miyasaka M. Pitfalls in mouse norovirus (MNV) detection in fecal samples using RT-PCR, and construction of new MNV-specific primers. Exp Anim. 2013;62:127-35 pubmed
    The murine norovirus (MNV), which belongs to the Caliciviridae family, is prevalent in laboratory mice...
  11. Mesquita J, Nascimento M. Serosurvey of veterinary conference participants for evidence of zoonotic exposure to canine norovirus - study protocol. Virol J. 2012;9:250 pubmed publisher
    ..The present paper describes a seroepidemiologic study aiming to provide information on the exposure level of humans to canine norovirus.
  12. Benabbes L, Ollivier J, Schaeffer J, Parnaudeau S, Rhaissi H, Nourlil J, et al. Norovirus and other human enteric viruses in moroccan shellfish. Food Environ Virol. 2013;5:35-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Only two samples were contaminated with enterovirus and none with norovirus GIV or Aichi virus...
  13. Tang M, Chen C, Chen S, Chou Y, Yu C. Epidemiological and molecular analysis of human norovirus infections in Taiwan during 2011 and 2012. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:338 pubmed publisher
    The human norovirus (NV) circulates worldwide and is a major cause of epidemics, which have increased in Taiwan since 2002...
  14. Subba Reddy C, Goodfellow I, Kao C. VPg-primed RNA synthesis of norovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerases by using a novel cell-based assay. J Virol. 2011;85:13027-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparable activities were observed for the murine norovirus (MNV) RdRp. RdRps with mutations at divalent metal ion binding residues did not activate RIG-I signaling...
  15. Kim Y, Lovell S, Tiew K, Mandadapu S, Alliston K, Battaile K, et al. Broad-spectrum antivirals against 3C or 3C-like proteases of picornaviruses, noroviruses, and coronaviruses. J Virol. 2012;86:11754-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that these compounds have the potential to be developed as antiviral therapeutics aimed at a single virus or multiple viruses in the picornavirus-like supercluster by targeting 3Cpro or 3CLpro. ..
  16. Frenck R, Bernstein D, Xia M, Huang P, Zhong W, Parker S, et al. Predicting susceptibility to norovirus GII.4 by use of a challenge model involving humans. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:1386-93 pubmed publisher
    GII.4 is the predominant norovirus genotype worldwide. Challenge models involving humans have shown the association of human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) and susceptibility to infection with Norwalk virus (GI...
  17. Kendall M, Mody R, Mahon B, Doyle M, Herman K, Tauxe R. Emergence of salsa and guacamole as frequent vehicles of foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States, 1973-2008. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2013;10:316-22 pubmed publisher
    ..There were no SGA outbreaks reported before 1984. Among reported outbreaks, most were caused by norovirus (24%), nontyphoidal Salmonella (19%), and Shigella (7%)...
  18. Shen Q, Zhang W, Yang S, Yang Z, Chen Y, Cui L, et al. Recombinant porcine norovirus identified from piglet with diarrhea. BMC Vet Res. 2012;8:155 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report that recombinant new genotype PoNoV exised in pig herd of China, which cause diarrhea in pigs in nature condition. This find raised questions about the putative epidemiologic role of PoNoV. ..
  19. Jeong A, Jeong H, Lee J, Park Y, Lee S, Hwang I, et al. Occurrence of norovirus infections in asymptomatic food handlers in South Korea. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:598-600 pubmed publisher
    Prevalence of asymptomatic norovirus infection was investigated in food handlers in South Korea. Among 6,441 subjects, 66 (1.02%) had norovirus infections confirmed by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR (real time and nested)...
  20. Wang Q, ERICKSON M, Ortega Y, Cannon J. The fate of murine norovirus and hepatitis A virus during preparation of fresh produce by cutting and grating. Food Environ Virol. 2013;5:52-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, transfer of HAV and murine norovirus (MNV-1), a human norovirus surrogate, between produce (cucumbers, strawberries, tomatoes, cantaloupes, carrots, ..
  21. Kundu S, Lockwood J, Depledge D, Chaudhry Y, Aston A, Rao K, et al. Next-generation whole genome sequencing identifies the direction of norovirus transmission in linked patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:407-14 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate a cluster of norovirus cases occurring in children undergoing bone marrow transplant, we undertook norovirus genome sequencing by next-..
  22. Wikswo M, Hall A. Outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis transmitted by person-to-person contact--United States, 2009-2010. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2012;61:1-12 pubmed
  23. Bui T, Kocher J, Li Y, Wen K, Li G, Liu F, et al. Median infectious dose of human norovirus GII.4 in gnotobiotic pigs is decreased by simvastatin treatment and increased by age. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:2005-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The determination of the ID50 of this challenge virus is valuable for evaluation of protection against different GII.4 variants conferred by NoV vaccines in concurrence with other GII.4 variants in the gnotobiotic pig model. ..
  24. Rahamat Langendoen J, Lokate M, Scholvinck E, Friedrich A, Niesters H. Rapid detection of a norovirus pseudo-outbreak by using real-time sequence based information. J Clin Virol. 2013;58:245-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the added value of sequence based information available within 3 days after the detection of norovirus in fecal samples of patients and personnel during a suspected outbreak on a hospital ward...
  25. Thackray L, Duan E, Lazear H, Kambal A, Schreiber R, Diamond M, et al. Critical role for interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and IRF-7 in type I interferon-mediated control of murine norovirus replication. J Virol. 2012;86:13515-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The short course of HuNoV-induced symptoms has implicated innate immunity in control of norovirus (NoV) infection...
  26. Leen E, Kwok K, Birtley J, Simpson P, Subba Reddy C, Chaudhry Y, et al. Structures of the compact helical core domains of feline calicivirus and murine norovirus VPg proteins. J Virol. 2013;87:5318-30 pubmed publisher
    We report the solution structures of the VPg proteins from feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV), which have been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
  27. Fiona Barker S, O Toole J, Sinclair M, Leder K, Malawaraarachchi M, Hamilton A. A probabilistic model of norovirus disease burden associated with greywater irrigation of home-produced lettuce in Melbourne, Australia. Water Res. 2013;47:1421-32 pubmed publisher
    ..A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) model was constructed to estimate the norovirus disease burden associated with consumption of greywater-irrigated lettuce...
  28. Eden J, Hewitt J, Lim K, Boni M, Merif J, Greening G, et al. The emergence and evolution of the novel epidemic norovirus GII.4 variant Sydney 2012. Virology. 2014;450-451:106-13 pubmed publisher
    b>Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis with most infections caused by GII.4 variants. To understand the evolutionary processes that contribute to the emergence of GII...
  29. Batty E, Wong T, Trebes A, Argoud K, Attar M, Buck D, et al. A modified RNA-Seq approach for whole genome sequencing of RNA viruses from faecal and blood samples. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66129 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe a simple, novel, high-throughput approach to Norovirus and Hepatitis C virus whole genome sequence determination based on RNA shotgun sequencing (also known as RNA-Seq)..
  30. Tamminen K, Lappalainen S, Huhti L, Vesikari T, Blazevic V. Trivalent combination vaccine induces broad heterologous immune responses to norovirus and rotavirus in mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70409 pubmed publisher
    Rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) are the two major causes of viral gastroenteritis (GE) in children worldwide. We have developed an injectable vaccine design to prevent infection or GE induced with these enteric viruses...
  31. Trivedi T, DeSalvo T, Lee L, Palumbo A, Moll M, Curns A, et al. Hospitalizations and mortality associated with norovirus outbreaks in nursing homes, 2009-2010. JAMA. 2012;308:1668-75 pubmed
    b>Norovirus outbreaks are common among vulnerable, elderly populations in US nursing homes.
  32. Garcia L, Viancelli A, Rigotto C, Pilotto M, Esteves P, Kunz A, et al. Surveillance of human and swine adenovirus, human norovirus and swine circovirus in water samples in Santa Catarina, Brazil. J Water Health. 2012;10:445-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine adenovirus (PAdV), human adenovirus (HAdV) and human norovirus (NoV) were searched for using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
  33. Li D, Baert L, Xia M, Zhong W, Jiang X, Uyttendaele M. Effects of a variety of food extracts and juices on the specific binding ability of norovirus GII.4 P particles. J Food Prot. 2012;75:1350-4 pubmed publisher
    ..of 13 food extracts and juices, including shellfish, fruits, and vegetables, on the binding ability of human norovirus (NoV) were examined, using P particles of human NoV GII.4 as a research surrogate...
  34. Hall A, Eisenbart V, Etingüe A, Gould L, Lopman B, Parashar U. Epidemiology of foodborne norovirus outbreaks, United States, 2001-2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1566-73 pubmed publisher
    ..To better guide interventions, we analyzed 2,922 foodborne disease outbreaks for which norovirus was the suspected or confirmed cause, which had been reported to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance ..
  35. Bartsch S, Lopman B, Hall A, Parashar U, Lee B. The potential economic value of a human norovirus vaccine for the United States. Vaccine. 2012;30:7097-104 pubmed publisher
    Vaccines against human norovirus are currently under development. We developed a simulation model to determine their potential economic value. Vaccination prevented 100-6125 norovirus gastroenteritis cases per 10,000 vaccinees...
  36. Mahar J, Bok K, Green K, Kirkwood C. The importance of intergenic recombination in norovirus GII.3 evolution. J Virol. 2013;87:3687-98 pubmed publisher
    b>Norovirus genotype II.3 (GII.3) strains are a major cause of sporadic gastroenteritis...
  37. Bitler E, Matthews J, Dickey B, Eisenberg J, Leon J. Norovirus outbreaks: a systematic review of commonly implicated transmission routes and vehicles. Epidemiol Infect. 2013;141:1563-71 pubmed publisher
    Causal mechanisms of norovirus outbreaks are often not revealed. Understanding the transmission route (e.g. foodborne, waterborne, or environmental) and vehicle (e.g...
  38. Yan Y, Wang H, Gao L, Ji J, Ge Z, Zhu X, et al. A one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid and simultaneous detection of human norovirus genogroup I, II and IV. J Virol Methods. 2013;189:277-82 pubmed publisher
    ..RT-PCR) assay was developed for one-tube and simultaneous detection of three genogroups of human norovirus, genogroup I, II and IV (GI, GII and GIV)...
  39. Lee H, Kwon J, Choi J, Lee K, Yang S, Ko S, et al. Rapid detection of norovirus from fresh lettuce using immunomagnetic separation and a quantum dots assay. J Food Prot. 2013;76:707-11 pubmed publisher
    Current molecular methods that include PCR have been used to detect norovirus in many food samples...
  40. Hoffmann D, Mauroy A, Seebach J, Simon V, Wantia N, Protzer U. New norovirus classified as a recombinant GII.g/GII.1 causes an extended foodborne outbreak at a university hospital in Munich. J Clin Virol. 2013;58:24-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Genotype II.4 has been most prevalent over the last years. To characterize an extended norovirus outbreak at a university hospital in Munich, Germany, molecularly and epidemiologically...
  41. Hall A, Lopman B, Payne D, Patel M, Gastañaduy P, Vinje J, et al. Norovirus disease in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:1198-205 pubmed publisher
    Although recognized as the leading cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis across all age groups, norovirus has remained poorly characterized with respect to its endemic disease incidence...
  42. Nahar S, Afrad M, Matthijnssens J, Rahman M, Momtaz Z, Yasmin R, et al. Novel intergenotype human norovirus recombinant GII.16/GII.3 in Bangladesh. Infect Genet Evol. 2013;20:325-9 pubmed publisher
    ..3 capsid and a GII.16 polymerase gene. The recombination breakpoint was located in the ORF1/ORF2 overlap region. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a NoV recombinant GII.16/GII.3 strain worldwide. ..
  43. Dung T, Phat V, Nga T, My P, Duy P, Campbell J, et al. The validation and utility of a quantitative one-step multiplex RT real-time PCR targeting rotavirus A and norovirus. J Virol Methods. 2013;187:138-43 pubmed publisher
    Rotavirus (RoV) and Norovirus (NoV) are the main causes of viral gastroenteritis. Currently, there is no validated multiplex real-time PCR that can detect and quantify RoV and NoV simultaneously...
  44. Richardson C, Bargatze R, Goodwin R, Mendelman P. Norovirus virus-like particle vaccines for the prevention of acute gastroenteritis. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013;12:155-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccination with NoV VLP vaccines has been shown to both induce antibodies that block virus-derived VLP carbohydrate binding and protect against homologous viral challenge in a human clinical study...
  45. Wolf S, Reetz J, Johne R, Heiberg A, Petri S, Kanig H, et al. The simultaneous occurrence of human norovirus and hepatitis E virus in a Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus). Arch Virol. 2013;158:1575-8 pubmed publisher
    ..rats trapped in the sewer system of Copenhagen, Denmark, for caliciviruses revealed the presence of a human norovirus in one of 11 rodents. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis of the ~4...
  46. Aragão G, Mascarenhas J, Kaiano J, de Lucena M, Siqueira J, Fumian T, et al. Norovirus diversity in diarrheic children from an African-descendant settlement in Belém, Northern Brazil. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56608 pubmed publisher
    b>Norovirus (NoV), sapovirus (SaV) and human astrovirus (HAstV) are viral pathogens that are associated with outbreaks and sporadic cases of gastroenteritis...
  47. Jin M, He Y, Li H, Huang P, Zhong W, Yang H, et al. Two gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by GII Noroviruses: host susceptibility and HBGA phenotypes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58605 pubmed publisher
    ..However, No preference of HBGAs was observed in the GII.4 outbreak. The observation that nonsecretors were infected in both outbreaks differed from the previous results that nonsecretors are resistant to these two GII NoVs...
  48. Bernard H, Hohne M, Niendorf S, Altmann D, Stark K. Epidemiology of norovirus gastroenteritis in Germany 2001-2009: eight seasons of routine surveillance. Epidemiol Infect. 2014;142:63-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The mean incidence by norovirus season (week 31 in one year to week 30 in the following year) was 130 (range 19-300) cases/100,000 population ..
  49. Hassine Zaafrane M, Sdiri Loulizi K, Kaplon J, Salem I, Pothier P, Aouni M, et al. Prevalence and genetic diversity of norovirus infection in Tunisian children (2007-2010). J Med Virol. 2013;85:1100-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to continue the epidemiological surveillance of norovirus (NoV) infections in Tunisian children suffering from acute gastroenteritis...
  50. Murakami K, Kurihara C, Oka T, Shimoike T, Fujii Y, Takai Todaka R, et al. Norovirus binding to intestinal epithelial cells is independent of histo-blood group antigens. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66534 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the incubations were performed at 4°C to hinder internalization, VLPs were still detected inside cells. Our results suggest that VLPs utilize molecule(s) other than HBGAs during binding and internalization into cells. ..
  51. Manso C, Torres E, Bou G, Romalde J. Role of norovirus in acute gastroenteritis in the Northwest of Spain during 2010-2011. J Med Virol. 2013;85:2009-15 pubmed publisher
    A total of 2,643 samples from patients with gastroenteritis in Galicia (NW Spain) were tested for the presence of Norovirus (NoV). NoV genogroup GI was detected in 416 (15.7%) samples, while NoV genogroup GII was detected in 278 (10...
  52. Rha B, Burrer S, Park S, Trivedi T, Parashar U, Lopman B. Emergency department visit data for rapid detection and monitoring of norovirus activity, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:1214-21 pubmed publisher
    ..and nausea/vomiting subsyndromes as a monthly proportion of all visits correlated strongly with reported norovirus outbreaks from 6 states during 2007-2010. Higher correlations were seen for diarrhea (R = 0.828-0...
  53. Debbink K, Lindesmith L, Donaldson E, Costantini V, Beltramello M, Corti D, et al. Emergence of new pandemic GII.4 Sydney norovirus strain correlates with escape from herd immunity. J Infect Dis. 2013;208:1877-87 pubmed publisher
    GII.4 noroviruses are a significant source of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, causing the majority of human norovirus outbreaks. Evolution of the GII...
  54. López Manríquez E, Vashist S, Ureña L, Goodfellow I, Chavez P, Mora Heredia J, et al. Norovirus genome circularization and efficient replication are facilitated by binding of PCBP2 and hnRNP A1. J Virol. 2013;87:11371-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Using murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), we describe the presence of long-range RNA-RNA interactions that were stabilized by cellular proteins...
  55. Rocha Pereira J, Jochmans D, Debing Y, Verbeken E, Nascimento M, Neyts J. The viral polymerase inhibitor 2'-C-methylcytidine inhibits Norwalk virus replication and protects against norovirus-induced diarrhea and mortality in a mouse model. J Virol. 2013;87:11798-805 pubmed publisher
    ..There is no vaccine or antiviral drug for the prophylaxis or treatment of norovirus-induced gastroenteritis...
  56. Han T, Kim S, Kim S, Chung C, Chung J. Detection of norovirus genogroup IV, klassevirus, and pepper mild mottle virus in sewage samples in South Korea. Arch Virol. 2014;159:457-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Norovirus (NoV) genogroup (G) IV has been infrequently isolated from patients suffering from acute gastroenteritis (AGE), although this virus has not been detected in Korea...
  57. Lai C, Wang Y, Wu C, Hung C, Jiang D, Wu F. A norovirus outbreak in a nursing home: norovirus shedding time associated with age. J Clin Virol. 2013;56:96-101 pubmed publisher
    b>Norovirus (NoV) GII.4 has been identified as predominant in outbreaks in the long-term health-care facilities.
  58. Herbst Kralovetz M, Radtke A, Lay M, Hjelm B, Bolick A, Sarker S, et al. Lack of norovirus replication and histo-blood group antigen expression in 3-dimensional intestinal epithelial cells. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:431-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the 3-D INT-407 model does not support NV replication. ..
  59. My P, Thompson C, Phuc H, Tuyet P, Vinh H, Hoang N, et al. Endemic norovirus infections in children, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2009-2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:977-80 pubmed publisher
    We performed a case-control investigation to identify risk factors for norovirus infections among children in Vietnam. Of samples from 1,419 children who had diarrhea and 609 who were asymptomatic, 20.6% and 2...
  60. Lee B, Lee S, Park J, Kim K, Ryu S, Rhee O, et al. Norovirus contamination levels in ground water treatment systems used for food-catering facilities in South Korea. Viruses. 2013;5:1646-54 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to inspect norovirus contamination of groundwater treatment systems used in food-catering facilities located in South Korea. A nationwide study was performed in 2010...
  61. Leshem E, Wikswo M, Barclay L, Brandt E, Storm W, Salehi E, et al. Effects and clinical significance of GII.4 Sydney norovirus, United States, 2012-2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:1231-8 pubmed publisher
    During 2012, global detection of a new norovirus (NoV) strain, GII.4 Sydney, raised concerns about its potential effect in the United States...
  62. Rönnqvist M, Rättö M, Tuominen P, Salo S, Maunula L. Swabs as a tool for monitoring the presence of norovirus on environmental surfaces in the food industry. J Food Prot. 2013;76:1421-8 pubmed publisher
    Human norovirus (HuNoV), which causes gastroenteritis, can be transmitted to food and food contact surfaces via viruscontaminated hands...
  63. Galeano M, Martinez M, Amarilla A, Russomando G, Miagostovich M, Parra G, et al. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus strains in Paraguayan children during 2004-2005: description of a possible new GII.4 cluster. J Clin Virol. 2013;58:378-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed a continuous circulation of NoV in children throughout the two years of study and an extensive diversity of genotypes co-circulating, highlighting the need for better surveillance of NoV in Paraguayan children. ..
  64. Martella V, Medici M, De Grazia S, Tummolo F, Calderaro A, Bonura F, et al. Evidence for recombination between pandemic GII.4 norovirus strains New Orleans 2009 and Sydney 2012. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:3855-7 pubmed publisher
    During 2012, a novel pandemic GII.4 norovirus variant, Sydney 2012, emerged worldwide. A signature of the variant was a GII.Pe ORF1, in association with GII.4 Apeldoorn 2008-like ORF2-ORF3 genes...
  65. Harris J, Adams N, Lopman B, Allen D, Adak G. The development of Web-based surveillance provides new insights into the burden of norovirus outbreaks in hospitals in England. Epidemiol Infect. 2014;142:1590-8 pubmed publisher
    A new surveillance system for outbreaks of norovirus in English hospitals, the hospital norovirus outbreak reporting system (HNORS), was launched in January 2009...
  66. Rocha Pereira J, Jochmans D, Dallmeier K, Leyssen P, Cunha R, Costa I, et al. Inhibition of norovirus replication by the nucleoside analogue 2'-C-methylcytidine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;427:796-800 pubmed publisher
    ..a nucleoside polymerase inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV)] on the in vitro replication of (murine) norovirus (MNV)...
  67. Nelson A, Walk S, Taube S, Taniuchi M, Houpt E, Wobus C, et al. Disruption of the human gut microbiota following Norovirus infection. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48224 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to determine if infection with Norovirus disrupts the gut microbiota...
  68. Lindesmith L, Costantini V, Swanstrom J, Debbink K, Donaldson E, Vinje J, et al. Emergence of a norovirus GII.4 strain correlates with changes in evolving blockade epitopes. J Virol. 2013;87:2803-13 pubmed publisher
    The major capsid protein of norovirus GII.4 strains is evolving rapidly, resulting in epidemic strains with altered antigenicity. GII.4.2006 Minerva strains circulated at pandemic levels in 2006 and persisted at lower levels until 2009...
  69. Zhu S, Regev D, Watanabe M, Hickman D, Moussatche N, Jesus D, et al. Identification of immune and viral correlates of norovirus protective immunity through comparative study of intra-cluster norovirus strains. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003592 pubmed publisher
    Whether or not primary norovirus infections induce protective immunity has become a controversial issue, potentially confounded by the comparison of data from genetically distinct norovirus strains...
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    ..Rotavirus and norovirus have been recognized as the most common pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis among children...
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    ..From September 2009 through August 2013, 3,960 norovirus outbreaks were reported to CaliciNet...
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    The lack of an animal model for human norovirus (HuNoV) has hindered the development of therapeutic strategies...
  73. McIntyre L, Galanis E, Mattison K, Mykytczuk O, Buenaventura E, Wong J, et al. Multiple clusters of norovirus among shellfish consumers linked to symptomatic oyster harvesters. J Food Prot. 2012;75:1715-20 pubmed publisher
    We describe the investigation of a norovirus outbreak associated with raw oyster consumption affecting 36 people in British Columbia, Canada, in 2010...
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    Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the major cause of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide but has no clear animal reservoir...
  75. van Beek J, Ambert Balay K, Botteldoorn N, Eden J, Fonager J, Hewitt J, et al. Indications for worldwide increased norovirus activity associated with emergence of a new variant of genotype II.4, late 2012. Euro Surveill. 2013;18:8-9 pubmed
    Globally, surveillance systems showed an increasein norovirus activity in late 2012. Molecular datashared through the NoroNet network suggest thatthis increase is related to the emergence of a newnorovirus genotype II...
  76. Hemming M, Räsänen S, Huhti L, Paloniemi M, Salminen M, Vesikari T. Major reduction of rotavirus, but not norovirus, gastroenteritis in children seen in hospital after the introduction of RotaTeq vaccine into the National Immunization Programme in Finland. Eur J Pediatr. 2013;172:739-46 pubmed publisher
    ..acute gastroenteritis (GE) of children by eliminating most of severe RVGE, but it does not have any effect on norovirus (NV), the second most common causative agent of GE in children...
  77. Muhsen K, Kassem E, Rubinstein U, Schachter Y, Kremer A, Goren S, et al. Incidence and characteristics of sporadic norovirus gastroenteritis associated with hospitalization of children less than 5 years of age in Israel. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32:688-90 pubmed publisher
    The incidence of sporadic GII norovirus gastroenteritis associated with hospitalization was examined among 515 children aged <5 years in a prospective study in Israel...
  78. Chagla Z, Quirt J, Woodward K, Neary J, Rutherford C. Chronic norovirus infection in a transplant patient successfully treated with enterally administered immune globulin. J Clin Virol. 2013;58:306-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Norovirus infection causes a significant burden of morbidity and (in the developing world) mortality. In immunocompromised hosts, norovirus infection can become chronic, with devastating consequences...
  79. Huynen P, Mauroy A, Martin C, Savadogo L, Boreux R, Thiry E, et al. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus infections in symptomatic and asymptomatic children from Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. J Clin Virol. 2013;58:515-21 pubmed publisher
    ..A high strain diversity was detected with a surprisingly high proportion of NoV GI compared to the common genotypes usually reported in comparable epidemiological studies. ..
  80. Su X, D Souza D. Naturally occurring flavonoids against human norovirus surrogates. Food Environ Virol. 2013;5:97-102 pubmed publisher
    ..of four flavonoids (myricetin, L-epicatechin, tangeretin, and naringenin) on the infectivity of food borne norovirus surrogates after 2 h at 37 °C...
  81. Payne D, Vinje J, Szilagyi P, Edwards K, Staat M, Weinberg G, et al. Norovirus and medically attended gastroenteritis in U.S. children. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1121-30 pubmed publisher
    ..acute gastroenteritis have declined since the introduction of rotavirus vaccines, but the burden of norovirus-associated acute gastroenteritis in children remains to be assessed...
  82. Stals A, Uyttendaele M, Baert L, Van Coillie E. Norovirus transfer between foods and food contact materials. J Food Prot. 2013;76:1202-9 pubmed publisher
    ..4. The obtained transfer efficiency data may provide insights into the transfer of NoV during preparation of foods and can be included in risk assessment models describing the transmission of NoVs in this context. ..
  83. Simmons K, Gambhir M, Leon J, Lopman B. Duration of immunity to norovirus gastroenteritis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:1260-7 pubmed publisher
    The duration of immunity to norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis has been believed to be from 6 months to 2 years. However, several observations are inconsistent with this short period...
  84. Ahmed S, Lopman B, Levy K. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the global seasonality of norovirus. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75922 pubmed publisher
    ..published between 1997 and 2011 to identify and extract data from articles reporting on monthly counts of norovirus. We conducted a descriptive analysis to document seasonal patterns of norovirus disease, and we also constructed ..
  85. Arias A, Emmott E, Vashist S, Goodfellow I. Progress towards the prevention and treatment of norovirus infections. Future Microbiol. 2013;8:1475-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Numerous antiviral targets and small molecule inhibitors that have efficacy in cell culture have now been identified; however, further studies in this area are required in order to make these suitable for clinical use. ..
  86. Pereira C, Lopes E, Mesquita J, Nascimento M, Saraiva L. Production and purification of theVP1 capsid protein of a novel canine norovirus using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system. J Microbiol Methods. 2012;91:358-60 pubmed publisher
    The discovery of a novel canine norovirus was recently reported. The VP1 capsid protein of this canine norovirus was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and purified with a yield of 1.6-1.8 mg/L...
  87. Siqueira J, Linhares A, de Carvalho T, Aragão G, Oliveira D, Dos Santos M, et al. Norovirus infection in children admitted to hospital for acute gastroenteritis in Belém, Pará, Northern Brazil. J Med Virol. 2013;85:737-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to identify norovirus infections in children not infected by rotavirus admitted to hospital for acute gastroenteritis in Belém...
  88. Hasing M, Lee B, Preiksaitis J, Tellier R, Honish L, Senthilselvan A, et al. Emergence of a new norovirus GII.4 variant and changes in the historical biennial pattern of norovirus outbreak activity in Alberta, Canada, from 2008 to 2013. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:2204-11 pubmed publisher
    The public health impact of the emergence of new norovirus (NoV) strains is uncertain. A biennial pattern of alternating quiescent and epidemic levels of NoV outbreak activity associated with the emergence of new GII...
  89. Tresset G, Le Coeur C, Bryche J, Tatou M, Zeghal M, Charpilienne A, et al. Norovirus capsid proteins self-assemble through biphasic kinetics via long-lived stave-like intermediates. J Am Chem Soc. 2013;135:15373-81 pubmed publisher
    The self-assembly kinetics for a norovirus capsid protein were probed by time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering and then analyzed by singular value decomposition and global fitting...
  90. Shortland A, Chettle J, Archer J, Wood K, Bailey D, Goodfellow I, et al. Pathology caused by persistent murine norovirus infection. J Gen Virol. 2014;95:413-22 pubmed publisher
    Subclinical infection of murine norovirus (MNV) was detected in a mixed breeding group of WT and Stat1(-/-) mice with no outward evidence of morbidity or mortality...
  91. Mahar J, Donker N, Bok K, Talbo G, Green K, Kirkwood C. Identification and characterization of antibody-binding epitopes on the norovirus GII.3 capsid. J Virol. 2014;88:1942-52 pubmed publisher
    ..A panel of seven GII.3 virus-like particles (VLPs), representing norovirus strains isolated during 1975 to 2008, was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for reactivity ..
  92. Eden J, Tanaka M, Boni M, Rawlinson W, White P. Recombination within the pandemic norovirus GII.4 lineage. J Virol. 2013;87:6270-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis globally. Since 1996, NoV variants of a single genetic lineage, GII...