Summary: A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most individual species are restricted to their natural hosts. They possess a characteristic six-pointed starlike shape whose surfaces have cup-shaped (chalice) indentions. Transmission is by contaminated food, water, fomites, and occasionally aerosolization of secretions. Genera include LAGOVIRUS; NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES; SAPPORO-LIKE VIRUSES; and VESIVIRUS.

Top Publications

  1. Smiley J, Hoet A, Tråvén M, Tsunemitsu H, Saif L. Reverse transcription-PCR assays for detection of bovine enteric caliciviruses (BEC) and analysis of the genetic relationships among BEC and human caliciviruses. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:3089-99 pubmed
    ..Our data support the genetic relationship between NLV-BECs and NLV-HuCVs but with the NLV-BECs comprising two clusters within a third NLV genogroup. ..
  2. Chen R, Neill J, Estes M, Prasad B. X-ray structure of a native calicivirus: structural insights into antigenic diversity and host specificity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:8048-53 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest a mechanism for antigenic diversity and host specificity in caliciviruses and provide a structural framework for vaccine development. ..
  3. Farkas T, Sestak K, Wei C, Jiang X. Characterization of a rhesus monkey calicivirus representing a new genus of Caliciviridae. J Virol. 2008;82:5408-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the pathogenicity of TV in rhesus macaques remains to be elucidated, the likelihood of TV causing intestinal infection and the availability of a tissue culture system make this virus a valuable surrogate for human CVs. ..
  4. Park S, Jeong C, Park S, Kim H, Jeong Y, Hyun B, et al. Molecular detection and characterization of unclassified bovine enteric caliciviruses in South Korea. Vet Microbiol. 2008;130:371-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that these BEC infections are endemic in diarrheic calves in South Korea. The infecting strains are genetically closer to the NB-like viruses but have a distinct evolutionary pathway. ..
  5. L Homme Y, Sansregret R, Plante Fortier E, Lamontagne A, Ouardani M, Lacroix G, et al. Genomic characterization of swine caliciviruses representing a new genus of Caliciviridae. Virus Genes. 2009;39:66-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the genomic analyses presented, the St-Valérien-like viruses are members of a new genus of Caliciviridae for which we propose the name Valovirus.
  6. Farkas T, Cross R, Hargitt E, Lerche N, Morrow A, Sestak K. Genetic diversity and histo-blood group antigen interactions of rhesus enteric caliciviruses. J Virol. 2010;84:8617-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Jiang, J. Virol. 82:5408-5416, 2008). TV grows well in tissue culture, and it represents a new genus within Caliciviridae, with the proposed name of Recovirus...
  7. Wolf S, Reetz J, Otto P. Genetic characterization of a novel calicivirus from a chicken. Arch Virol. 2011;156:1143-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Morphologically, the Bavaria virus particles are 37-42 nm in diameter and exhibit characteristic cup-shaped surface depressions. ..
  8. Jiang X, Huang P, Zhong W, Farkas T, Cubitt D, Matson D. Design and evaluation of a primer pair that detects both Norwalk- and Sapporo-like caliciviruses by RT-PCR. J Virol Methods. 1999;83:145-54 pubmed
    ..This primer pair is useful for broad detection of HuCVs for clinical and epidemiologic studies as well as for environmental monitoring. ..
  9. Clarke I, Lambden P. Organization and expression of calicivirus genes. J Infect Dis. 2000;181 Suppl 2:S309-16 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of genome structure and gene expression in the enteric caliciviruses. ..

More Information

Publications138 found, 100 shown here

  1. Chen R, Neill J, Noel J, Hutson A, Glass R, Estes M, et al. Inter- and intragenus structural variations in caliciviruses and their functional implications. J Virol. 2004;78:6469-79 pubmed
    The family Caliciviridae is divided into four genera and consists of single-stranded RNA viruses with hosts ranging from humans to a wide variety of animals...
  2. Wang Q, Costantini V, Saif L. Porcine enteric caliciviruses: genetic and antigenic relatedness to human caliciviruses, diagnosis and epidemiology. Vaccine. 2007;25:5453-66 pubmed
    ..This article reviews the discovery of porcine noroviruses and sapoviruses, their classification, diagnosis, epidemiology and genetic and antigenic relatedness to human caliciviruses. ..
  3. Gutiérrez Escolano A, Velazquez F, Escobar Herrera J, Lopez Saucedo C, Torres J, Estrada Garcia T. Human caliciviruses detected in Mexican children admitted to hospital during 1998-2000, with severe acute gastroenteritis not due to other enteropathogens. J Med Virol. 2010;82:632-7 pubmed publisher
  4. Di Martino B, Martella V, Di Profio F, Ceci C, Marsilio F. Detection of St-Valerien-like viruses in swine, Italy. Vet Microbiol. 2011;149:221-4 pubmed publisher
    ..non-human primate virus and noroviruses (NoVs), may represent members of a potential new genera within the Caliciviridae family. To date, there are no information on the epidemiology of these novel caliciviruses in other continents...
  5. Neill J, Meyer R, Seal B. Genetic relatedness of the caliciviruses: San Miguel sea lion and vesicular exanthema of swine viruses constitute a single genotype within the Caliciviridae. J Virol. 1995;69:4484-8 pubmed
    ..related while being distinct from feline calicivirus, the human caliciviruses (small, round-structured viruses), and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and that they should be classified as a single genotype within the Caliciviridae.
  6. Yuen L, Catton M, Cox B, Wright P, Marshall J. Heminested multiplex reverse transcription-PCR for detection and differentiation of Norwalk-like virus genogroups 1 and 2 in fecal samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:2690-4 pubmed
    ..Although the multiplex RT-PCR assay failed to detect NLV in about 3% of the fecal samples which were NLV positive by electron microscopy (EM), the assay was approximately six times more sensitive than EM for NLV detection. ..
  7. Smiley J, Chang K, Hayes J, Vinj J, Saif L. Characterization of an enteropathogenic bovine calicivirus representing a potentially new calicivirus genus. J Virol. 2002;76:10089-98 pubmed
    ..strains detected in Europe form a third genogroup within the genus "Norwalk-like viruses" (NLV) of the family Caliciviridae. In this report, we present sequence, clinical, and histological data characterizing a novel enteropathogenic ..
  8. Oliver S, Brown D, Green J, Bridger J. A chimeric bovine enteric calicivirus: evidence for genomic recombination in genogroup III of the Norovirus genus of the Caliciviridae. Virology. 2004;326:231-9 pubmed
    The Norovirus genus of the Caliciviridae encompasses viruses that cause outbreaks of gastroenteritis in human and viruses that have been associated with diarrhea in cattle...
  9. Oliver S, Asobayire E, Dastjerdi A, Bridger J. Genomic characterization of the unclassified bovine enteric virus Newbury agent-1 (Newbury1) endorses a new genus in the family Caliciviridae. Virology. 2006;350:240-50 pubmed publisher, the complete genome sequence of Newbury1 was determined and classified Newbury1 in a new genus of the Caliciviridae. The Newbury1 genome, of 7454 nucleotides, had two predicted open reading frames (ORFs)...
  10. Kirkwood C, Bishop R. Molecular detection of human calicivirus in young children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Melbourne, Australia, during 1999. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:2722-4 pubmed
    ..The overall annual incidence rate for calcivirus was 9% (32 of 354 children). Molecular analysis identified 30 "Norwalk-like virus" genogroup II (predominantly Lordsdale cluster) and 2 "Sapporo-like virus" strains. ..
  11. Buesa J, Collado B, López Andújar P, Abu Mallouh R, Rodriguez Diaz J, Garcia Diaz A, et al. Molecular epidemiology of caliciviruses causing outbreaks and sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis in Spain. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:2854-9 pubmed
    ..The nucleotide sequence of part of the capsid gene (ORF2) from three of these strains demonstrated their relationship with Mexico virus. ..
  12. Roman E, Negredo A, Dalton R, Wilhelmi I, Sanchez Fauquier A. Molecular detection of human calicivirus among Spanish children with acute gastroenteritis. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:3857-9 pubmed
    ..The minimum incidence of human calicivirus infection was 7.7%, with Lordsdale as the predominant genotype. The clinical features and severity of calicivirus and rotavirus were similar. ..
  13. Ganova Raeva L, Smith A, Fields H, Khudyakov Y. New Calicivirus isolated from walrus. Virus Res. 2004;102:207-13 pubmed publisher
    The nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a new member of Caliciviridae was determined...
  14. Duizer E, Bijkerk P, Rockx B, De Groot A, Twisk F, Koopmans M. Inactivation of caliciviruses. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:4538-43 pubmed
    ..The incomplete inactivation by ethanol and the high hypochlorite concentration needed for sufficient virus inactivation point to a concern for decontamination of fomites and surfaces contaminated with noroviruses and virus-safe water. ..
  15. Han M, Smiley J, Thomas C, Saif L. Genetic recombination between two genotypes of genogroup III bovine noroviruses (BoNVs) and capsid sequence diversity among BoNVs and Nebraska-like bovine enteric caliciviruses. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:5214-24 pubmed
  16. Goodfellow I, Chaudhry Y, Gioldasi I, Gerondopoulos A, Natoni A, Labrie L, et al. Calicivirus translation initiation requires an interaction between VPg and eIF 4 E. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:968-72 pubmed
    ..This work lends support to the idea that calicivirus VPg acts as a novel 'cap substitute' during initiation of translation on virus mRNA. ..
  17. Chaudhry Y, Nayak A, Bordeleau M, Tanaka J, Pelletier J, Belsham G, et al. Caliciviruses differ in their functional requirements for eIF4F components. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:25315-25 pubmed
    Two classes of viruses, namely members of the Potyviridae and Caliciviridae, use a novel mechanism for the initiation of protein synthesis that involves the interaction of translation initiation factors with a viral protein covalently ..
  18. Wei C, Farkas T, Sestak K, Jiang X. Recovery of infectious virus by transfection of in vitro-generated RNA from tulane calicivirus cDNA. J Virol. 2008;82:11429-36 pubmed publisher
    ..TV represents a new genus and is evolutionarily more closely related to Norovirus than to any other genus of Caliciviridae. In this study, we demonstrated that RNA transcripts made in vitro from the full-length genomic cDNA of TV ..
  19. Farkas T, Dufour J, Jiang X, Sestak K. Detection of norovirus-, sapovirus- and rhesus enteric calicivirus-specific antibodies in captive juvenile macaques. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:734-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The high prevalence of human and rhesus CV-specific serum antibodies suggests the frequent exposure of colony macaques to enteric CVs including the possibility of CV transmission between human and non-human primate hosts. ..
  20. Thiel H, Konig M. Caliciviruses: an overview. Vet Microbiol. 1999;69:55-62 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the review will concentrate on RHDV. ..
  21. Matsuura Y, Tohya Y, Mochizuki M, Takase K, Sugimura T. Identification of conformational neutralizing epitopes on the capsid protein of canine calicivirus. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:1695-702 pubmed
    ..In CaCV, the conformational epitopes may play a more important role in neutralization than do linear epitopes. ..
  22. Vainio K, Stene Johansen K, Øystein Jonassen T, Bruu A, Grinde B. Molecular epidemiology of calicivirus infections in Norway. J Med Virol. 2001;65:309-14 pubmed
    ..Most often, samples from particular outbreaks were highly homogeneous. However, in a few cases, samples connected with the same outbreak proved to contain epidemiologically independent strains. ..
  23. Pletneva M, Sosnovtsev S, Green K. The genome of hawaii virus and its relationship with other members of the caliciviridae. Virus Genes. 2001;23:5-16 pubmed
    ..virus (Hu/NLV/GII/Hawaii virus/1971/US), a member of the genus 'Norwalk-like viruses' (NLVs) in the family Caliciviridae, has served as one of the reference strains for the fastidious caliciviruses associated with epidemic ..
  24. Su X, Zivanovic S, D Souza D. Inactivation of human enteric virus surrogates by high-intensity ultrasound. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2010;7:1055-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that HIUS alone is not sufficient to inactivate virus in food. Hurdle technologies that combine HIUS with antimicrobials, heat, or pressure should be explored for viral inactivation...
  25. Arthur S, Gibson K. Environmental persistence of Tulane virus - a surrogate for human norovirus. Can J Microbiol. 2016;62:449-54 pubmed publisher
    ..5 ± 0.34 and 13.1 ± 0.36 days, respectively. This is the first study to demonstrate the persistence of TV in environmental waters and on fomite surfaces. ..
  26. Caddy S. New viruses associated with canine gastroenteritis. Vet J. 2018;232:57-64 pubmed publisher
    ..viruses have been associated with canine gastroenteritis in recent years, from viral families as diverse as Caliciviridae and Picornaviridae to Parvoviridae and Circoviridae...
  27. Zhuge X, Cui D, Wu Y, Zheng S, Jin M, Duan Z, et al. [Detection and typing of caliciviruses from patients with acute diarrhea in Hangzhou area, 2009 - 2010]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2011;32:1022-5 pubmed
    ..Both multiple viruses and genotypes of HuCVs were found in the specimens. GII-4/2006b variant and similar strains were identified, probably as the prevalent strains from 2009 to 2010 in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province. ..
  28. Lauritsen K, Hansen M, Johnsen C, Jungersen G, Böttiger B. Repeated examination of natural sapovirus infections in pig litters raised under experimental conditions. Acta Vet Scand. 2015;57:60 pubmed publisher
    Porcine sapovirus, belonging to the family Caliciviridae, is an enteric virus that is widespread in the swine industry worldwide...
  29. Humoud M, Doyle N, Royall E, Willcocks M, Sorgeloos F, van Kuppeveld F, et al. Feline Calicivirus Infection Disrupts Assembly of Cytoplasmic Stress Granules and Induces G3BP1 Cleavage. J Virol. 2016;90:6489-6501 pubmed publisher
    ..Human norovirus is a member of the Caliciviridae family responsible for gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide...
  30. Farkas T, Berke T, Reuter G, Szucs G, Matson D, Jiang X. Molecular detection and sequence analysis of human caliciviruses from acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in Hungary. J Med Virol. 2002;67:567-73 pubmed
    ..Further study of this VLP will have important applications in antigenic characterization and diagnosis of HuCVs. ..
  31. Jang H, Tohya Y, Han K, Kim T, Song C, Mochizuki M. Seroprevalence of canine calicivirus and canine minute virus in the Republic of Korea. Vet Rec. 2003;153:150-2 pubmed
  32. Kingsley D. An RNA extraction protocol for shellfish-borne viruses. J Virol Methods. 2007;141:58-62 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the GPTT method can be used as a general viral RNA extraction method for multiple picornaviruses and caliciviruses that could potentially contaminate shellfish. ..
  33. Atmar R, Neill F, Le Guyader F. Detection of human caliciviruses in fecal samples by rt-PCR. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;665:39-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This chapter describes methods for sample collection and processing of fecal specimens for molecular detection of enteric viruses, and it also describes both traditional and real-time RT-PCR assays for norovirus diagnosis. ..
  34. Goodfellow I. The genome-linked protein VPg of vertebrate viruses - a multifaceted protein. Curr Opin Virol. 2011;1:355-62 pubmed publisher
    Several vertebrate positive-sense RNA viruses, namely the Picornaviridae and Caliciviridae have evolved to use a protein-primed mechanism of genome replication...
  35. Wolf S, Reetz J, Hoffmann K, Gründel A, Schwarz B, Hänel I, et al. Discovery and genetic characterization of novel caliciviruses in German and Dutch poultry. Arch Virol. 2012;157:1499-507 pubmed publisher
    ..Attempts were made to propagate chicken and turkey CVs from both the bavovirus and nacovirus clusters in primary chicken cecal cells, embryonal liver cells and fibroblast cells, but these attempts were not successful. ..
  36. Monroe S, Glass R, Noah N, Flewett T, Caul E, Ashton C, et al. Electron microscopic reporting of gastrointestinal viruses in the United Kingdom, 1985-1987. J Med Virol. 1991;33:193-8 pubmed
    ..We have attempted to identify the reasons for this. We make suggestions for improving the detection of human fecal viruses, and we recognize the need for continued surveillance of these agents...
  37. Kaufman S, Chatterjee N, Fuschino M, Morse D, Morotti R, Magid M, et al. Characteristics of human calicivirus enteritis in intestinal transplant recipients. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005;40:328-33 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that human calicivirus can be a significant pathogen in intestinal transplant recipients and potentially in other immunocompromised patients. ..
  38. Schulz B, Hartmann K, Unterer S, Eichhorn W, Majzoub M, Homeier Bachmann T, et al. Two outbreaks of virulent systemic feline calicivirus infection in cats in Germany. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2011;124:186-93 pubmed
    ..However, phylogenetic analysis of the virus genome suggests that virus strains involved in these outbreaks were different from each other and from virulent strains isolated before, confirming the known genetic variability of FCV. ..
  39. Hassine Zaafrane M, Kaplon J, Sdiri Loulizi K, Aouni Z, Pothier P, Aouni M, et al. Molecular prevalence of bovine noroviruses and neboviruses detected in central-eastern Tunisia. Arch Virol. 2012;157:1599-604 pubmed publisher
    ..6 % and were more frequent than nebovirus infections. NoVsGIII infections showed clear seasonality, with a peak in winter. Nebovirus infections, with a prevalence of 3.0 %, were all related to the reference strain Bo/Nebraska/80/US. ..
  40. Guo M, Qian Y, Chang K, Saif L. Expression and self-assembly in baculovirus of porcine enteric calicivirus capsids into virus-like particles and their use in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibody detection in swine. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:1487-93 pubmed
    ..For the VLP ELISA, the VLPs were used for the coating antigen. Our data indicate that both tests were rapid, specific, and reproducible and might be used for large-scale serological investigations of PEC antibodies in swine. ..
  41. Aridgides L, Doblin M, Berke T, Dobbs F, Matson D, Drake L. Multiplex PCR allows simultaneous detection of pathogens in ships' ballast water. Mar Pollut Bull. 2004;48:1096-101 pubmed
    ..Here, we show simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens is possible, a result supporting the promising future use of microarrays for simultaneous detection of pathogens in ballast water. ..
  42. Rodríguez Guillén L, Vizzi E, Alcala A, Pujol F, Liprandi F, Ludert J. Calicivirus infection in human immunodeficiency virus seropositive children and adults. J Clin Virol. 2005;33:104-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that caliciviruses may be an important opportunistic pathogen in children infected with HIV. ..
  43. Tryland M, Neuvonen E, Huovilainen A, Tapiovaara H, Osterhaus A, Wiig O, et al. Serologic survey for selected virus infections in polar bears at Svalbard. J Wildl Dis. 2005;41:310-6 pubmed
    ..Morbillivirus and calicivirus are potential pathogens in seals, but it is unknown whether they may cause health problems in polar bears. ..
  44. Urakova N, Strive T, Frese M. RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases of Both Virulent and Benign Rabbit Caliciviruses Induce Striking Rearrangement of Golgi Membranes. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0169913 pubmed publisher
    ..and the completely benign Rabbit calicivirus (RCV) are closely related members of the genus Lagovirus (family Caliciviridae)...
  45. Etherington G, Ring S, Charleston M, Dicks J, Rayward Smith V, Roberts I. Tracing the origin and co-phylogeny of the caliciviruses. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1229-35 pubmed
  46. Yinda C, Conceição Neto N, Zeller M, Heylen E, Maes P, Ghogomu S, et al. Novel highly divergent sapoviruses detected by metagenomics analysis in straw-colored fruit bats in Cameroon. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2017;6:e38 pubmed publisher
    Sapoviruses (SaVs) belong to the Sapovirus genus, in the family Caliciviridae. They have been associated with gastroenteritis in humans and in pigs but not in other animals...
  47. Atmar R, Estes M. Diagnosis of noncultivatable gastroenteritis viruses, the human caliciviruses. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2001;14:15-37 pubmed
    ..The application of these newer assays has significantly increased the recognition of the importance of human caliciviruses as causes of sporadic and outbreak-associated gastroenteritis. ..
  48. Ferreira R, Borges A, Fiaccadori F, Souza M, Santos R, Cardoso D. Gastroenteric virus detection in fecal samples from women in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2010;43:240-3 pubmed
    ..This study presents data on gastroenteric virus detection among pregnant and/or HIV-positive women. ..
  49. Honma S, Nakata S, Numata K, Kogawa K, Yamashita T, Oseto M, et al. Epidemiological study of prevalence of genogroup II human calicivirus (Mexico virus) infections in Japan and Southeast Asia as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:2481-4 pubmed
  50. Taku A, Gulati B, Allwood P, Palazzi K, Hedberg C, Goyal S. Concentration and detection of caliciviruses from food contact surfaces. J Food Prot. 2002;65:999-1004 pubmed
  51. Alcalá A, Hidalgo M, Obando C, Vizzi E, Liprandi F, Ludert J. [Molecular identification of bovine enteric calciviruses in Venezuela]. Acta Cient Venez. 2003;54:148-52 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic studies based on partial RNA polymerase sequences indicated that the Venezuelan isolate (Bo/NV/Lara/2000/VE) is most closely related to the genogroup III, genus Noroviruses. ..
  52. Maslin J, Nicand E, Ambert Balay K, Fouet C, Kaplon J, Haus R, et al. Detection and characterization of Human caliciviruses associated with sporadic acute diarrhea in adults in Djibouti (horn of Africa). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;78:522-6 pubmed
    ..These results could help to the knowledge of HuCV infections in Tropical Africa. ..
  53. Lu H, Fang Z, Xie H, Tang J, Hu H, Zheng L, et al. [Epidemiological study of human caliciviruses among children with acute diarrhea in Lulong county, 1999 - 2001]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2003;24:1118-21 pubmed
    ..6 per thousand. Human caliciviruses with different genotypes circulated among children in Lulong county with GII NLVs were the prevalent strains. The disease burden of HuCVs was second to rotavirus. ..
  54. Simmonds P, Karakasiliotis I, Bailey D, Chaudhry Y, Evans D, Goodfellow I. Bioinformatic and functional analysis of RNA secondary structure elements among different genera of human and animal caliciviruses. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:2530-46 pubmed publisher
    The mechanism and role of RNA structure elements in the replication and translation of Caliciviridae remains poorly understood...
  55. Varela M, Ouardani I, Kato T, Kadoya S, Aouni M, Sano D, et al. Sapovirus in Wastewater Treatment Plants in Tunisia: Prevalence, Removal, and Genetic Characterization. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2018;84: pubmed publisher
    i>Sapovirus (SaV), from the Caliciviridae family, is a genus of enteric viruses that cause acute gastroenteritis...
  56. Van Bonn W, Jensen E, House C, House J, Burrage T, Gregg D. Epizootic vesicular disease in captive California sea lions. J Wildl Dis. 2000;36:500-7 pubmed
    ..An experimental swine was inoculated with FADDL 7005 and developed vesicular disease, which was transmitted to another experimental swine upon contact. It is proposed that FADDL 7005 is a new San Miguel sea lion virus...
  57. Bereciartu A, Bok K, Gomez J. Identification of viral agents causing gastroenteritis among children in Buenos Aires, Argentina. J Clin Virol. 2002;25:197-203 pubmed
    ..The introduction of affordable viral diagnosis in our pediatric hospitals will improve patient care by reducing the unnecessary use of antibiotics. ..
  58. Li J, Shen Q, Zhang W, Zhao T, Li Y, Jiang J, et al. Genomic organization and recombination analysis of a porcine sapovirus identified from a piglet with diarrhea in China. Virol J. 2017;14:57 pubmed publisher
    Sapovirus (SaV), a member of the family Caliciviridae, is an etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in humans and pigs. To date, both intra- and inter-genogroup recombinant strains have been reported in many countries except for China...
  59. Le Pendu J, Abrantes J, Bertagnoli S, Guitton J, Le Gall Reculé G, Lopes A, et al. Proposal for a unified classification system and nomenclature of lagoviruses. J Gen Virol. 2017;98:1658-1666 pubmed publisher
    Lagoviruses belong to the Caliciviridae family...
  60. Van Bressem M, Van Waerebeek K, Raga J. A review of virus infections of cataceans and the potential impact of morbilliviruses, poxviruses and papillomaviruses on host population dynamics. Dis Aquat Organ. 1999;38:53-65 pubmed
    ..Herpes-like viruses and caliciviruses (Caliciviridae) give rise to cutaneous diseases in Monodontidae and Delphinidae...
  61. Guo M, Hayes J, Cho K, Parwani A, Lucas L, Saif L. Comparative pathogenesis of tissue culture-adapted and wild-type Cowden porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC) in gnotobiotic pigs and induction of diarrhea by intravenous inoculation of wild-type PEC. J Virol. 2001;75:9239-51 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report of an attenuated enteric calicivirus, the induction of diarrhea, and intestinal lesions in Gn pigs caused by i.v. inoculation of WT PEC and the presence of viremia following PEC infection. ..
  62. Belgard S, Truyen U, Thibault J, Sauter Louis C, Hartmann K. Relevance of feline calicivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, feline herpesvirus and Bartonella henselae in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2010;123:369-76 pubmed
    ..The results of this study allow the conclusion that FCV, but no other infectious agents, is commonly associated with chronic gingivostomatitis in cats. ..
  63. Deval J, Jin Z, Chuang Y, Kao C. Structure(s), function(s), and inhibition of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of noroviruses. Virus Res. 2017;234:21-33 pubmed publisher
    Noroviruses belong to the Caliciviridae family of single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses. The genus Norovirus includes seven genogroups (designated GI-GVII), of which GI, GII and GIV infect humans...
  64. O Ryan M, Mamani N, Gaggero A, Avendano L, Prieto S, Pena A, et al. Human caliciviruses are a significant pathogen of acute sporadic diarrhea in children of Santiago, Chile. J Infect Dis. 2000;182:1519-22 pubmed
    ..HuCVs are a significant pathogen of acute sporadic diarrhea in Chilean children, and continuous characterization of genetic diversity will be crucial for appropriate detection. ..
  65. Chang K, Kim Y, Green K, Saif L. Cell-culture propagation of porcine enteric calicivirus mediated by intestinal contents is dependent on the cyclic AMP signaling pathway. Virology. 2002;304:302-10 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that PEC virus replication may be dependent on an initial cAMP signaling pathway induced by IC. ..
  66. Rabenau H, Sturmer M, Buxbaum S, Walczok A, Preiser W, Doerr H. Laboratory diagnosis of norovirus: which method is the best?. Intervirology. 2003;46:232-8 pubmed
    ..4%). All three methods tested (TEM, ELISA and PCR) are useful for epidemiological investigations in gastroenteritis outbreaks; however, to maximize diagnostic validity for individual cases, at least two of the methods should be combined. ..
  67. Kirkwood C, Clark R, Bogdanovic Sakran N, Bishop R. A 5-year study of the prevalence and genetic diversity of human caliciviruses associated with sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis in young children admitted to hospital in Melbourne, Australia (1998-2002). J Med Virol. 2005;77:96-101 pubmed
    ..Five sapovirus strains were also identified. These results highlight the divergence of norovirus strains identified in a pediatric population. ..
  68. Fan K, Wang R. Complete genome of a porcine calicivirus strain in Anhui province, China, is significantly shorter than that of the other Chinese strain. J Virol. 2012;86:13823 pubmed publisher
    ..8% sequence identity over the whole genome excluding the 202-nt-shorter region. ..
  69. Le Gall G, Huguet S, Vende P, Vautherot J, Rasschaert D. European brown hare syndrome virus: molecular cloning and sequencing of the genome. J Gen Virol. 1996;77 ( Pt 8):1693-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These sequencing data clearly show that EBHSV and RHDV share a similar genomic organization and confirm that EBHSV and RHDV are two distinct members within the family Caliciviridae.
  70. Blanton L, Adams S, Beard R, Wei G, Bulens S, Widdowson M, et al. Molecular and epidemiologic trends of caliciviruses associated with outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in the United States, 2000-2004. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:413-21 pubmed
    ..The public health impact of caliciviruses will not be fully appreciated, nor will interventions be completely evaluated, until methods to detect these viruses are more routinely used. ..
  71. D Mello F, Jervis S, Edwards P, Oliver S, Bridger J. Heterogeneity in the capsid protein of bovine enteric caliciviruses belonging to a new genus. Virology. 2009;387:109-16 pubmed publisher
    Some bovine enteric caliciviruses form a new genus in the family Caliciviridae. In this study, Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 31 full length capsid sequences from Europe, North America and Asia revealed that this new genus had four ..
  72. Wright P, Gunesekere I, Doultree J, Marshall J. Small round-structured (Norwalk-like) viruses and classical human caliciviruses in southeastern Australia, 1980-1996. J Med Virol. 1998;55:312-20 pubmed
    ..The majority of viruses detected belonged to this latter subgroup. ..
  73. Matsuura Y, Tohya Y, Nakamura K, Shimojima M, Roerink F, Mochizuki M, et al. Complete nucleotide sequence, genome organization and phylogenic analysis of the canine calicivirus. Virus Genes. 2002;25:67-73 pubmed
    ..Phylogenic analysis indicated that CaCV formed a distinct branch within the genus. Our results strongly suggested that CaCV is a new species in the genus Vesivirus. ..
  74. Chikhi Brachet R, Bon F, Toubiana L, Pothier P, Nicolas J, Flahault A, et al. Virus diversity in a winter epidemic of acute diarrhea in France. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:4266-72 pubmed
    ..These four types of viruses accounted for an attributable risk of acute diarrhea of 34.7% for the general population, under the assumption of a causal role of these viruses. ..
  75. Wilhelmi I, Roman E, Sanchez Fauquier A. Viruses causing gastroenteritis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2003;9:247-62 pubmed
    ..The future development of a safe and highly effective vaccine against rotavirus could prevent, at least, cases of severe diarrhea and reduce mortality from this disease. ..
  76. Ganova Raeva L, Zhang X, Cao F, Fields H, Khudyakov Y. Primer Extension Enrichment Reaction (PEER): a new subtraction method for identification of genetic differences between biological specimens. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:e76 pubmed
    ..The strategy used for PEER is versatile and can be adapted for the identification of known and unknown pathogens and mutations, differential expression studies and other applications that allow the use of subtractive strategies. ..
  77. Smit T, Steele A, Peenze I, Jiang X, Estes M. Study of Norwalk virus and Mexico virus infections at Ga-Rankuwa Hospital, Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:2381-5 pubmed
    ..Although the viral antigens are not highly prevalent in diarrheal stools, it was determined by the two assays for NV and MxV that children are, nevertheless, infected early in life. ..
  78. Honma S, Nakata S, Sakai Y, Tatsumi M, Numata Kinoshita K, Chiba S. Sensitive detection and differentiation of Sapporo virus, a member of the family Caliciviridae, by standard and booster nested polymerase chain reaction. J Med Virol. 2001;65:413-7 pubmed
    ..type species of the genus Norwalk-like viruses and the genus Sapporo-like viruses, respectively, in the family Caliciviridae. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using newly designed primers in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ..
  79. Gulati B, Allwood P, Hedberg C, Goyal S. Efficacy of commonly used disinfectants for the inactivation of calicivirus on strawberry, lettuce, and a food-contact surface. J Food Prot. 2001;64:1430-4 pubmed
    ..However, phenolic compounds at two to four times their recommended concentrations appear to be effective at decontaminating environmental surfaces and may help control foodborne outbreaks of calicivirus in restaurants. ..
  80. Smith A, Skilling D, Castello J, Rogers S. Ice as a reservoir for pathogenic human viruses: specifically, caliciviruses, influenza viruses, and enteroviruses. Med Hypotheses. 2004;63:560-6 pubmed
    ..Environmental ice appears to be an important abiotic reservoir for pathogenic microbes. World health and eradication of specific pathogens could be affected by this huge reservoir. ..
  81. Wei C, Meller J, Jiang X. Substrate specificity of Tulane virus protease. Virology. 2013;436:24-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The apparently shared substrate specificities between TV and Norwalk virus proteases suggested that the cultivable TV could be used as a model for in vivo evaluation of lead candidates of protease inhibitors for human norovirus. ..
  82. Pfister T, Wimmer E. Polypeptide p41 of a Norwalk-like virus is a nucleic acid-independent nucleoside triphosphatase. J Virol. 2001;75:1611-9 pubmed
    Southampton virus (SHV) is a member of the Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs), one of four genera of the family Caliciviridae. The genome of SHV contains three open reading frames (ORFs)...
  83. Deng Y, Batten C, Liu B, Lambden P, Elschner M, Gunther H, et al. Studies of epidemiology and seroprevalence of bovine noroviruses in Germany. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:2300-5 pubmed
    ..sequence of JV was recently described, and the virus has been assigned to the genus Norovirus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE: In the present study, the JV capsid gene encoded by open reading frame 2 was cloned into the baculovirus ..
  84. Hansman G, Natori K, Oka T, Ogawa S, Tanaka K, Nagata N, et al. Cross-reactivity among sapovirus recombinant capsid proteins. Arch Virol. 2005;150:21-36 pubmed publisher
    Sapovirus (SaV), a member of the genus Sapovirus in the family Caliciviridae, is an agent of human and porcine gastroenteritis. SaV strains are divided into five genogroups (GI-GV) based on their capsid (VP1) sequences...
  85. Ferreira P, Costa e Silva A, Oliveira M, Monteiro E, Aguas A. Leukocyte-hepatocyte interaction in calicivirus infection: differences between rabbits that are resistant or susceptible to rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD). Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2005;103:217-21 pubmed
  86. Yin Y, Tohya Y, Ogawa Y, Numazawa D, Kato K, Akashi H. Genetic analysis of calicivirus genomes detected in intestinal contents of piglets in Japan. Arch Virol. 2006;151:1749-59 pubmed
    ..In phylogenetic analysis using amino acid sequences of VP1, K5/JP was demonstrated to be close to the noroviruses previously detected in pigs, and K7/JP and K10/JP were considered to be classified as a new genogroup of sapoviruses. ..
  87. Lehtola M, Torvinen E, Kusnetsov J, Pitkänen T, Maunula L, von Bonsdorff C, et al. Survival of Mycobacterium avium, Legionella pneumophila, Escherichia coli, and caliciviruses in drinking water-associated biofilms grown under high-shear turbulent flow. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:2854-9 pubmed
    ..Also, considering the low number of virus particles needed to result in an infection, their extended survival in biofilms must be taken into account as a risk for the consumer...
  88. Sestak K, Feely S, Fey B, Dufour J, Hargitt E, Alvarez X, et al. Experimental inoculation of juvenile rhesus macaques with primate enteric caliciviruses. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37973 pubmed publisher
    ..05) suggested active TV replication in cultured lymphocytes. Taken together, our results show that ReCVs represent an alternative cell culture and animal model to study enteric calicivirus replication, pathogenesis and immunity. ..
  89. Wegener H, Mallagaray A, Schöne T, Peters T, Lockhauserbäumer J, Yan H, et al. Human norovirus GII.4(MI001) P dimer binds fucosylated and sialylated carbohydrates. Glycobiology. 2017;27:1027-1037 pubmed publisher
    Human noroviruses (HuNoV), members of the family Caliciviridae, are the major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide...
  90. Nakata S. [Calicivirus]. Uirusu. 2002;52:7-13 pubmed
  91. Dove W, Cunliffe N, Gondwe J, Broadhead R, Molyneux M, Nakagomi O, et al. Detection and characterization of human caliciviruses in hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in Blantyre, Malawi. J Med Virol. 2005;77:522-7 pubmed
    ..Each of the Sapoviruses belonged to genogroup GIII. HuCVs are the second most commonly identified viral enteropathogens (after rotavirus) among hospitalized children with gastroenteritis in Malawi. ..
  92. Arcangeletti M, De Conto F, Pinardi F, Medici M, Valcavi P, Ferraglia F, et al. Electron microscopy as a reliable tool for rapid and conventional detection of enteric viral agents: a five-year experience report. Acta Biomed. 2005;76:165-70 pubmed
    ..A rationalized use of EM on selected samples, such as stool, appears suitable in epidemiological or clinical conditions when a very rapid diagnosis is required to save time, including cases of suspected emerging viral infections. ..