phlebovirus

Summary

Summary: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE comprising many viruses, most of which are transmitted by Phlebotomus flies and cause PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER. The type species is RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS.

Top Publications

  1. Konstantinou G, Papa A, Antoniadis A. Sandfly-fever outbreak in Cyprus: are phleboviruses still a health problem?. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2007;5:239-42 pubmed
    ..Between May and September of 2002, 256 soldiers of the Greek Army Forces in Cyprus developed a 3-day self-limited febrile illness. All clinical symptoms and laboratory findings are described...
  2. Liu Y, Li Q, Hu W, Wu J, Wang Y, Mei L, et al. Person-to-person transmission of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:156-60 pubmed publisher
    ..No person who contacted the index patient during the same period, but were not exposed to the index patient blood, had got illness. We concluded that SFTSV can be transmitted from person to person through contacting patient's blood...
  3. Gowen B, Ennis J, Sefing E, Wong M, Jung K, Turner J. Extended protection against phlebovirus infection conferred by recombinant adenovirus expressing consensus interferon (DEF201). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:4168-74 pubmed publisher
    Punta Toro virus (PTV; Bunyaviridae, Phlebovirus) is related to Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a pathogenic agent which causes severe disease in humans and livestock primarily in the sub-Saharan region of Africa...
  4. CIufolini M, Maroli M, Guandalini E, Marchi A, Verani P. Experimental studies on the maintenance of Toscana and Arbia viruses (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1989;40:669-75 pubmed
    ..Transovarially infected females were able to transmit TOS virus by bite to a susceptible vertebrate. Venereal infection of P. perniciosus females mated to males transovarially infected with TOS virus was seen...
  5. Schwarz T, Gilch S, Schätzl H. A recombinant Toscana virus nucleoprotein in a diagnostic immunoblot test system. Res Virol. 1998;149:413-8 pubmed
    ..No cross-reactivity was detected. The rTOS N protein is useful as an antigen for immunoblot assays, and will enable more laboratories to perform TOS antibody diagnosis...
  6. Batieha A, Saliba E, Graham R, Mohareb E, Hijazi Y, Wijeyaratne P. Seroprevalence of West Nile, Rift Valley, and sandfly arboviruses in Hashimiah, Jordan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6:358-62 pubmed
    ..Our study is the first documentation of West Nile and sandfly viruses in Jordan and calls attention to the possible health hazards of living close to wastewater treatment plants and their effluent channels...
  7. Mendenhall M, Wong M, Skirpstunas R, Morrey J, Gowen B. Punta Toro virus (Bunyaviridae, Phlebovirus) infection in mice: strain differences in pathogenesis and host interferon response. Virology. 2009;395:143-51 pubmed publisher
    The Adames strain of Punta Toro virus (PTV-A, Bunyaviridae, Phlebovirus) causes an acute lethal disease in hamsters and mice. The Balliet strain of the virus (PTV-B) is generally considered to be avirulent...
  8. Sun Y, Liang M, Qu J, Jin C, Zhang Q, Li J, et al. Early diagnosis of novel SFTS bunyavirus infection by quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay. J Clin Virol. 2012;53:48-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical diagnosis is urgently needed to differentiate the disease from other infections...
  9. Xu B, Liu L, Huang X, Ma H, Zhang Y, Du Y, et al. Metagenomic analysis of fever, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia syndrome (FTLS) in Henan Province, China: discovery of a new bunyavirus. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002369 pubmed publisher
    ..A phylogenetic analysis further showed that, although closely related to Uukuniemi virus of the Phlebovirus genus, this virus was distinct...
  10. Valassina M, Meacci F, Valensin P, Cusi M. Detection of neurotropic viruses circulating in Tuscany: the incisive role of Toscana virus. J Med Virol. 2000;60:86-90 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate the incisive role of the RNA viruses as the cause of meningitis, and overall the relevance of Toscana virus...

Detail Information

Publications118 found, 100 shown here

  1. Konstantinou G, Papa A, Antoniadis A. Sandfly-fever outbreak in Cyprus: are phleboviruses still a health problem?. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2007;5:239-42 pubmed
    ..Between May and September of 2002, 256 soldiers of the Greek Army Forces in Cyprus developed a 3-day self-limited febrile illness. All clinical symptoms and laboratory findings are described...
  2. Liu Y, Li Q, Hu W, Wu J, Wang Y, Mei L, et al. Person-to-person transmission of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:156-60 pubmed publisher
    ..No person who contacted the index patient during the same period, but were not exposed to the index patient blood, had got illness. We concluded that SFTSV can be transmitted from person to person through contacting patient's blood...
  3. Gowen B, Ennis J, Sefing E, Wong M, Jung K, Turner J. Extended protection against phlebovirus infection conferred by recombinant adenovirus expressing consensus interferon (DEF201). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:4168-74 pubmed publisher
    Punta Toro virus (PTV; Bunyaviridae, Phlebovirus) is related to Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a pathogenic agent which causes severe disease in humans and livestock primarily in the sub-Saharan region of Africa...
  4. CIufolini M, Maroli M, Guandalini E, Marchi A, Verani P. Experimental studies on the maintenance of Toscana and Arbia viruses (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1989;40:669-75 pubmed
    ..Transovarially infected females were able to transmit TOS virus by bite to a susceptible vertebrate. Venereal infection of P. perniciosus females mated to males transovarially infected with TOS virus was seen...
  5. Schwarz T, Gilch S, Schätzl H. A recombinant Toscana virus nucleoprotein in a diagnostic immunoblot test system. Res Virol. 1998;149:413-8 pubmed
    ..No cross-reactivity was detected. The rTOS N protein is useful as an antigen for immunoblot assays, and will enable more laboratories to perform TOS antibody diagnosis...
  6. Batieha A, Saliba E, Graham R, Mohareb E, Hijazi Y, Wijeyaratne P. Seroprevalence of West Nile, Rift Valley, and sandfly arboviruses in Hashimiah, Jordan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6:358-62 pubmed
    ..Our study is the first documentation of West Nile and sandfly viruses in Jordan and calls attention to the possible health hazards of living close to wastewater treatment plants and their effluent channels...
  7. Mendenhall M, Wong M, Skirpstunas R, Morrey J, Gowen B. Punta Toro virus (Bunyaviridae, Phlebovirus) infection in mice: strain differences in pathogenesis and host interferon response. Virology. 2009;395:143-51 pubmed publisher
    The Adames strain of Punta Toro virus (PTV-A, Bunyaviridae, Phlebovirus) causes an acute lethal disease in hamsters and mice. The Balliet strain of the virus (PTV-B) is generally considered to be avirulent...
  8. Sun Y, Liang M, Qu J, Jin C, Zhang Q, Li J, et al. Early diagnosis of novel SFTS bunyavirus infection by quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay. J Clin Virol. 2012;53:48-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical diagnosis is urgently needed to differentiate the disease from other infections...
  9. Xu B, Liu L, Huang X, Ma H, Zhang Y, Du Y, et al. Metagenomic analysis of fever, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia syndrome (FTLS) in Henan Province, China: discovery of a new bunyavirus. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002369 pubmed publisher
    ..A phylogenetic analysis further showed that, although closely related to Uukuniemi virus of the Phlebovirus genus, this virus was distinct...
  10. Valassina M, Meacci F, Valensin P, Cusi M. Detection of neurotropic viruses circulating in Tuscany: the incisive role of Toscana virus. J Med Virol. 2000;60:86-90 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate the incisive role of the RNA viruses as the cause of meningitis, and overall the relevance of Toscana virus...
  11. Liu D, Tesh R, Travassos da Rosa A, Peters C, Yang Z, Guzman H, et al. Phylogenetic relationships among members of the genus Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) based on partial M segment sequence analyses. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:465-73 pubmed
    Viruses in the Phlebovirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae cause clinical syndromes ranging from a short, self-limiting febrile illness to fatal haemorrhagic fever...
  12. Navarro Marí J, Gómez Camarasa C, Pérez Ruiz M, Sanbonmatsu Gámez S, Pedrosa Corral I, Jimenez Valera M. Clinic-epidemiologic study of human infection by Granada virus, a new phlebovirus within the sandfly fever Naples serocomplex. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013;88:1003-6 pubmed publisher
    Granada virus (GRV), a new phlebovirus within the Naples serocomplex, has been recently described in phlebotomine sandflies from Spain...
  13. Giorgi C, Accardi L, Nicoletti L, Gro M, Takehara K, Hilditch C, et al. Sequences and coding strategies of the S RNAs of Toscana and Rift Valley fever viruses compared to those of Punta Toro, Sicilian Sandfly fever, and Uukuniemi viruses. Virology. 1991;180:738-53 pubmed
    ..strategies of the S RNAs of two viruses, Toscana (TOS) and the M12 derivative of Rift Valley fever ZH-548 (RVF, Phlebovirus genus, Bunyaviridae) have been determined from cDNA clones and compared to the previously published sequences ..
  14. Chastel C, Bailly Choumara H, Bach Hamba D, Le Lay G, Legrand M, Le Goff F, et al. [Tick-transmitted arbovirus in Maghreb]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 1995;88:81-5 pubmed
    ..maritimus ticks parasitizing marine birds, and one from Tunisia, Tunis (Phlebovirus), from Argas reflexus hermanni infesting domestic pigeons...
  15. Cohen D, Zaide Y, Karasenty E, Schwarz M, LeDuc J, Slepon R, et al. Prevalence of antibodies to West Nile fever, sandfly fever Sicilian, and sandfly fever Naples viruses in healthy adults in Israel. Public Health Rev. 1999;27:217-30 pubmed
    ..It is suspected that some of the cases of nonspecific febrile illnesses in Israel may in fact be either WNF or SFF...
  16. Jiao Y, Zeng X, Guo X, Qi X, Zhang X, Shi Z, et al. Preparation and evaluation of recombinant severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein for detection of total antibodies in human and animal sera by double-antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:372-7 pubmed publisher
  17. Magurano F, Nicoletti L. Humoral response in Toscana virus acute neurologic disease investigated by viral-protein-specific immunoassays. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999;6:55-60 pubmed
    The Toscana virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus) is the only sandfly-transmitted virus that demonstrates neurotropic activity...
  18. Palacios G, Tesh R, Travassos da Rosa A, Savji N, Sze W, Jain K, et al. Characterization of the Candiru antigenic complex (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus), a highly diverse and reassorting group of viruses affecting humans in tropical America. J Virol. 2011;85:3811-20 pubmed publisher
    The genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae consists of approximately 70 named viruses, currently assigned to nine serocomplexes (species) based on antigenic similarities...
  19. Pan H, Hu J, Liu S, Shen H, Zhu Y, Wu J, et al. A reported death case of a novel bunyavirus in Shanghai, China. Virol J. 2013;10:187 pubmed publisher
  20. Nicoletti L, Verani P, Caciolli S, CIufolini M, Renzi A, Bartolozzi D, et al. Central nervous system involvement during infection by Phlebovirus toscana of residents in natural foci in central Italy (1977-1988). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1991;45:429-34 pubmed
    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement was detected during infection caused by the sand fly-transmitted Phlebovirus Toscana...
  21. Fisher A, Tesh R, Tonry J, Guzman H, Liu D, Xiao S. Induction of severe disease in hamsters by two sandfly fever group viruses, Punta toro and Gabek Forest (Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae), similar to that caused by Rift Valley fever virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;69:269-76 pubmed
    ..hamsters inoculated subcutaneously with either of two sandfly fever group viruses, Punta Toro and Gabek Forest (Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae), developed a fulminating fatal illness characterized by hepatic and splenic necrosis and ..
  22. Liu L, Guan X, Xing X, Shen X, Xu J, Yue J, et al. [Epidemiologic analysis on severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Hubei province, 2010]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2012;33:168-72 pubmed
    ..To identify the epidemic characteristics and risk factors of an emerging infectious disease-severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in Hubei province...
  23. Spiegel M, Plegge T, Pohlmann S. The Role of Phlebovirus Glycoproteins in Viral Entry, Assembly and Release. Viruses. 2016;8: pubmed publisher
    ..Members of the Phlebovirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae are transmitted by mosquitos and ticks to humans and include highly pathogenic ..
  24. Ning Y, Feng K, Min Y, Deng F, Hu Z, Wang H. Heartland virus NSs protein disrupts host defenses by blocking the TBK1 kinase-IRF3 transcription factor interaction and signaling required for interferon induction. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:16722-16733 pubmed publisher
    Heartland virus (HRTV) is a pathogenic phlebovirus related to the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), another phlebovirus causing life-threatening disease in humans...
  25. Beaty B, Calisher C. Bunyaviridae--natural history. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1991;169:27-78 pubmed
    ..Public health practitioners, veterinarians, virologists, entomologists, biologists, ecologists, molecular biologists, and other scientists will all benefit from increased study and knowledge of this fascinating group of viruses...
  26. Zhu Y, Wu H, Gao J, Zhou X, Zhu R, Zhang C, et al. Two confirmed cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome with pneumonia: implication for a family cluster in East China. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:537 pubmed publisher
    ..It was a family cluster of SFTSV infection imported from Jiangsu province located in the east of China. We suggested to become alert to atypical SFTSV infected cases. ..
  27. Gowen B, Fairman J, Smee D, Wong M, Jung K, Pace A, et al. Protective immunity against acute phleboviral infection elicited through immunostimulatory cationic liposome-DNA complexes. Antiviral Res. 2006;69:165-72 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our findings indicate that non-specific immunotherapy with CLDC appears to be an effective treatment for blocking PTV-induced disease and suggests that further exploration in other viral disease models may be warranted. ..
  28. Chaudhary V, Zhang S, Yuen K, Li C, Lui P, Fung S, et al. Suppression of type I and type III IFN signalling by NSs protein of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus through inhibition of STAT1 phosphorylation and activation. J Gen Virol. 2015;96:3204-11 pubmed
    ..Taken together, SFTSV NSs protein is an IFN antagonist that suppresses phosphorylation and activation of STAT1. ..
  29. Sun Y, Liu M, Lei X, YU X. SFTS phlebovirus promotes LC3-II accumulation and nonstructural protein of SFTS phlebovirus co-localizes with autophagy proteins. Sci Rep. 2018;8:5287 pubmed publisher
    ..Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome phlebovirus (SFTSV) is a newly discovered tick-borne virus in the Phenuiviridae family that causes a severe hemorrhagic ..
  30. Zhou H, Sun Y, Wang Y, Liu M, Liu C, Wang W, et al. The nucleoprotein of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus processes a stable hexameric ring to facilitate RNA encapsidation. Protein Cell. 2013;4:445-55 pubmed publisher
    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), a member of the Phlebovirus genus from the Bunyaviridae family endemic to China, is the causative agent of life-threatening severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), ..
  31. Calvert A, Brault A. Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Directed Against the Nucleoprotein of Heartland Virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015;93:1338-40 pubmed publisher
    Heartland virus (HRTV), a phlebovirus first isolated from two Missouri farmers in 2009, has been proposed to be transmitted to humans by the bite of infected Amblyomma americanum ticks...
  32. Ly H, Lokugamage N, Nishiyama S, Ikegami T. Risk analysis of inter-species reassortment through a Rift Valley fever phlebovirus MP-12 vaccine strain. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185194 pubmed publisher
    ..The causative agent, Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV), belongs to the genus Phlebovirus in the family Phenuiviridae and causes high rates of abortions in ..
  33. Gowen B, Fairman J, Dow S, Troyer R, Wong M, Jung K, et al. Prophylaxis with cationic liposome-DNA complexes protects hamsters from phleboviral disease: importance of liposomal delivery and CpG motifs. Antiviral Res. 2009;81:37-46 pubmed publisher
    ..were evaluated for their ability to elicit protection against lethal Punta Toro virus (PTV, Bunyaviridae, phlebovirus) challenge in hamsters...
  34. Choi C, Kang C, Yun Y, Nam H. Can We Blame Migratory Birds for Transmission of the Emerging Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in East Asia?. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015;93:1391-2 pubmed publisher
  35. Barakat A, Smura T, Kuivanen S, Huhtamo E, Kurkela S, Putkuri N, et al. The Presence and Seroprevalence of Arthropod-Borne Viruses in Nasiriyah Governorate, Southern Iraq: A Cross-Sectional Study. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016;94:794-9 pubmed publisher
    ..5%), chikungunya virus (0.5%), and Tahyna virus (2.0%). The results suggest that WNV and sandfly-borne phlebovirus infections are common in southern Iraq, and these viruses should be considered as potential causative agents in ..
  36. Punda Polic V, Calisher C, Vesenjak Hirjan J. Neutralizing antibodies for sandfly fever Naples virus in human sera on the island of Mljet. Acta Med Iugosl. 1990;44:15-20 pubmed
    ..The presence of SFN neutralizing antibodies in all age groups indicates that the virus must have been present endemically and that it is still active on the island of Mljet. ..
  37. Zhao G, Krishnamurthy S, Cai Z, Popov V, Travassos Da Rosa A, Guzman H, et al. Identification of novel viruses using VirusHunter--an automated data analysis pipeline. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78470 pubmed publisher
    ..Further sequence analysis demonstrated that the viruses were novel members of the Phlebovirus and Orbivirus genera...
  38. Liu Y, Wu B, Paessler S, Walker D, Tesh R, YU X. The pathogenesis of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection in alpha/beta interferon knockout mice: insights into the pathologic mechanisms of a new viral hemorrhagic fever. J Virol. 2014;88:1781-6 pubmed publisher
    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a newly discovered Phlebovirus causing an emerging hemorrhagic fever in East Asia, with reported case fatality rates up to 30%...
  39. Yang Z, Hu J, Lu Q, Guo C, Cui N, Peng W, et al. The prospective evaluation of viral loads in patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. J Clin Virol. 2016;78:123-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnosis of SFTSV infection based on PCR test should be performed at least three days after disease onset. Peaking viral loads were attained around six days after disease, posing a highest risk of human-to-human transmission. ..
  40. Schwarz T, Jager G, Gilch S, Nitschko H. Nested RT-PCR for detection of sandfly fever virus, serotype Toscana, in clinical specimens, with confirmation by nucleotide sequence analysis. Res Virol. 1995;146:355-62 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR and nested PCR are useful for laboratory diagnosis and studies of the molecular epidemiology of TOS infection...
  41. Gowen B, Wong M, Jung K, Sanders A, Mitchell W, Alexopoulou L, et al. TLR3 is essential for the induction of protective immunity against Punta Toro Virus infection by the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), poly(I:C12U), but not Poly(I:C): differential recognition of synthetic dsRNA molecules. J Immunol. 2007;178:5200-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that TLR3 is essential to the induction of antiviral activity elicited by poly(I:C(12)U), which does not appear to be recognized by the cytosolic sensor of poly(I:C), melanoma differentiation-associated gene-5. ..
  42. Bichaud L, Piarroux R, Izri A, Ninove L, Mary C, De Lamballerie X, et al. Low seroprevalence of sandfly fever Sicilian virus antibodies in humans, Marseille, France. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:1189-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The low seroprevalence rate observed in this study suggests that SFSV is not likely to be of major medical importance in the Marseille area...
  43. Qu B, Qi X, Wu X, Liang M, Li C, Cardona C, et al. Suppression of the interferon and NF-?B responses by severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. J Virol. 2012;86:8388-401 pubmed publisher
    ..It is caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), a novel Phlebovirus in family Bunyaviridae...
  44. Kaneko M, Maruta M, Shikata H, Asou K, Shinomiya H, Suzuki T, et al. Unusual presentation of a severely ill patient having severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2017;11:27 pubmed publisher
    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel phlebovirus belonging to the family Bunyaviridate...
  45. Jia Z, Wu X, Wang L, Li X, Dai X, Liang M, et al. Identification of a candidate standard strain of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus for vaccine quality control in China using a cross-neutralization assay. Biologicals. 2017;46:92-98 pubmed publisher
    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is caused by a phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family, which is designated as SFTS virus (SFTSV). To our knowledge, no efficient SFTSV vaccine exists...
  46. Drake M, Brennan B, Briley K, Bart S, Sherman E, Szemiel A, et al. A role for glycolipid biosynthesis in severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus entry. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006316 pubmed publisher
    ..This virus, named severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), represents a new group within the Phlebovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae...
  47. Di Bonito P, Nicoletti L, Mochi S, Accardi L, Marchi A, Giorgi C. Immunological characterization of Toscana virus proteins. Arch Virol. 1999;144:1947-60 pubmed
    The genome of Toscana virus (Bunyaviridae family, Phlebovirus genus) consists of three single stranded RNA segments (L, M, S), with negative polarity...
  48. Guo Y, Liu B, Ding Z, Li G, Liu M, Zhu D, et al. Distinct Mechanism for the Formation of the Ribonucleoprotein Complex of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Combined with previous studies, the structure of TSWV N helps to build a complete picture of the bunyavirus-encoded N family and reveals a close evolutionary relationship between orthobunyavirus, phlebovirus, hantavirus, and tospovirus.
  49. Simons J, Persson R, Pettersson R. Association of the nonstructural protein NSs of Uukuniemi virus with the 40S ribosomal subunit. J Virol. 1992;66:4233-41 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, NSs was found neither in virions nor in nucleocapsids isolated from infected cells. In vivo labeling with 32Pi indicated that NSs is not phosphorylated. The possible function of NSs is discussed in light of these results. ..
  50. Verani P, CIufolini M, Nicoletti L. Arbovirus surveillance in Italy. Parassitologia. 1995;37:105-8 pubmed
    ..Viruses have been isolated from mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies and vertebrates (birds, rodents, humans). For some of them an association with human disease has been demonstrated. ..
  51. Garry C, Garry R. Proteomics computational analyses suggest that the carboxyl terminal glycoproteins of Bunyaviruses are class II viral fusion protein (beta-penetrenes). Theor Biol Med Model. 2004;1:10 pubmed
    ..analyses indicate that the carboxyl terminal glycoprotein (Gc) encoded by Sandfly fever virus (SAN), a phlebovirus, has a significant amino acid sequence similarity with envelope protein 1 (E1), the class II fusion protein of ..
  52. Moriconi M, Rugna G, Calzolari M, Bellini R, Albieri A, Angelini P, et al. Phlebotomine sand fly-borne pathogens in the Mediterranean Basin: Human leishmaniasis and phlebovirus infections. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005660 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the infections caused by protozoa of the Leishmania genus and viruses belonging to the Phlebovirus genus (family Phenuiviridae)-the most significant group of viruses transmitted by sand flies-have a relevant ..
  53. Jia B, Yan X, Chen Y, Wang G, Liu Y, Xu B, et al. A scoring model for predicting prognosis of patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005909 pubmed publisher
    ..This model may aid the physicians to immediately initiate prompt treatment to block the rapid development of the illness and reduce the fatality of SFTS patients...
  54. Stefan C, Chase K, Coyne S, Kulesh D, Minogue T, Koehler J. Development of real-time reverse transcriptase qPCR assays for the detection of Punta Toro virus and Pichinde virus. Virol J. 2016;13:54 pubmed publisher
    ..These assays will be useful as a standard by researchers for future experiments utilizing PTV and PICV as infection models, offering the ability to track infection and viral replication kinetics during research studies. ..
  55. Smee D, Morris J, Barnard D, Van Aerschot A. Selective inhibition of arthropod-borne and arenaviruses in vitro by 3'-fluoro-3'-deoxyadenosine. Antiviral Res. 1992;18:151-62 pubmed
    ..The results of these studies indicate 3'F3'dAdo is a selective inhibitor of most of the viruses tested and should be a promising candidate for in vivo evaluations. ..
  56. Eitrem R, Vene S, Niklasson B. ELISA for detection of IgM and IgG antibodies to sandfly fever Sicilian virus. Res Virol. 1991;142:387-94 pubmed
    ..A number of PRNT-negative sera were strongly positive by IgG ELISA and also by indirect immunofluorescence test, which may suggest the presence of a virus related to SFS in Cyprus which has not yet been isolated. ..
  57. Sidwell R, Huffman J, Barnard D, Smee D, Warren R, Chirigos M, et al. Antiviral and immunomodulating inhibitors of experimentally-induced Punta Toro virus infections. Antiviral Res. 1994;25:105-22 pubmed
    ..The active immunomodulators were significantly effective when therapy was initiated as late as 48 h after virus inoculation, at a time when clinical signs of the PTV disease were being manifested in the animal. ..
  58. Hornak K, Lanchy J, Lodmell J. RNA Encapsidation and Packaging in the Phleboviruses. Viruses. 2016;8: pubmed publisher
    ..Within the family Bunyaviridae, the Phlebovirus genus includes several important human and animal pathogens, including Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), severe ..
  59. Yun S, Park S, Park S, Choi W, Jeong H, Choi Y, et al. Molecular genomic characterization of tick- and human-derived severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus isolates from South Korea. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005893 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the genetic and evolutionary characteristics shared between tick- and human-derived Korean SFTSV strains are still limited...
  60. Chen S, Matsuoka Y, Compans R. Assembly of G1 and G2 glycoprotein oligomers in Punta Toro virus-infected cells. Virus Res. 1992;22:215-25 pubmed
    We have studied the oligomerization of the membrane glycoproteins of Punta Toro virus (PTV), a member of the Phlebovirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae, and the effect of glycosylation on protein stability and transport...
  61. Marchi A, Nicoletti L, Accardi L, Di Bonito P, Giorgi C. Characterization of Toscana virus-defective interfering particles generated in vivo. Virology. 1998;246:125-33 pubmed
  62. Cui L, Ge Y, Qi X, Xu G, Li H, Zhao K, et al. Detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus by reverse transcription-cross-priming amplification coupled with vertical flow visualization. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:3881-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The entire procedure, from specimen processing to result reporting, can be completed within 2 h. The simplicity and nearly instrument-free platform of the RT-CPA-VF assay make it practical for point-of-care testing. ..