orthobunyavirus

Summary

Summary: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE containing over 150 viruses, most of which are transmitted by mosquitoes or flies. They are arranged in groups defined by serological criteria, each now named for the original reference species (previously called serogroups). Many species have multiple serotypes or strains.

Top Publications

  1. Livonesi M, de Sousa R, Badra S, Figueiredo L. In vitro and in vivo studies of the Interferon-alpha action on distinct Orthobunyavirus. Antiviral Res. 2007;75:121-8 pubmed
    Oropouche, Caraparu, Guama, Guaroa and Tacaiuma viruses (Orthobunyavirus genus) cause human febrile illnesses and/or encephalitis...
  2. Bastos M, Figueiredo L, Naveca F, Monte R, Lessa N, Pinto de Figueiredo R, et al. Identification of Oropouche Orthobunyavirus in the cerebrospinal fluid of three patients in the Amazonas, Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;86:732-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the OROV from the CSF of these patients belonged to genotype I. We show here that severe Oropouche disease is occurring during outbreaks of this virus in Brazil. ..
  3. Pollitt E, Zhao J, Muscat P, Elliott R. Characterization of Maguari orthobunyavirus mutants suggests the nonstructural protein NSm is not essential for growth in tissue culture. Virology. 2006;348:224-32 pubmed
    Maguari virus (MAGV; genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae) contains a tripartite negative-sense RNA genome...
  4. Dong H, Li P, Elliott R, Dong C. Structure of Schmallenberg orthobunyavirus nucleoprotein suggests a novel mechanism of genome encapsidation. J Virol. 2013;87:5593-601 pubmed publisher
    Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a newly emerged orthobunyavirus (family Bunyaviridae), has spread rapidly across Europe and has caused congenital abnormalities in the offspring of cattle, sheep, and goats...
  5. Goller K, H per D, Schirrmeier H, Mettenleiter T, Beer M. Schmallenberg virus as possible ancestor of Shamonda virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1644-6 pubmed publisher
    Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, recently emerged in Europe and has been suggested to be a Shamonda/Sathuperi virus reassortant...
  6. Farfan Ale J, Loro o Pino M, Garcia Rejon J, Hovav E, Powers A, Lin M, et al. Detection of RNA from a novel West Nile-like virus and high prevalence of an insect-specific flavivirus in mosquitoes in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:85-95 pubmed
    ..tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using WNV-, flavivirus-, alphavirus-, and orthobunyavirus-specific primers. A total of 7,009 Culex quinquefasciatus in 210 pools were analyzed...
  7. Tauro L, Almeida F, Contigiani M. First detection of human infection by Cache Valley and Kairi viruses (Orthobunyavirus) in Argentina. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009;103:197-9 pubmed publisher
    ..42% (9/166) for CVV and KRIV, respectively. The neutralizing antibody titers ranged between 1/20 and >or=1/160. Our results report the first known infection by CVV and KRIV in human inhabitants from temperate areas of Argentina...
  8. Watts D, Lavera V, Callahan J, Rossi C, Oberste M, Roehrig J, et al. Venezuelan equine encephalitis and Oropouche virus infections among Peruvian army troops in the Amazon region of Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1997;56:661-7 pubmed
    ..These data indicated that VEE ID virus was one of the causes of illness among Peruvians soldiers and that this was the first association of this VEE subtype with human disease in Peru...
  9. Tsutsui T, Yamamoto T, Hayama Y, Akiba Y, Nishiguchi A, Kobayashi S, et al. Duration of maternally derived antibodies against Akabane virus in calves: survival analysis. J Vet Med Sci. 2009;71:913-8 pubmed
    ..These differences need to be taken into account when a vaccination strategy is adopted for preventing epizootic encephalomyelitis in the future...

More Information

Publications85

  1. Brenner J, Tsuda T, Yadin H, Kato T. Serological evidence of akabane virus infection in northern Israel in 2001. J Vet Med Sci. 2004;66:441-3 pubmed
    ..5 and +/- 44.7, standard deviation), whereas only one of the 27 samples from the unaffected farms was positive (titer of 8). These results suggest that the vector(s) of AKAV was circulating in Israel in August through December, 2001...
  2. Yanase T, Kato T, Aizawa M, Shuto Y, Shirafuji H, Yamakawa M, et al. Genetic reassortment between Sathuperi and Shamonda viruses of the genus Orthobunyavirus in nature: implications for their genetic relationship to Schmallenberg virus. Arch Virol. 2012;157:1611-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis of the three genomic RNA segments indicated that Schmallenberg virus is a reassortant, with the M RNA segment from SATV and the S and L RNA segments from SHAV...
  3. Tsuda T, Yoshida K, Yanase T, Ohashi S, Yamakawa M. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of the antibodies specific to akabane virus. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2004;16:571-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the C-ELISA is acceptable as a rapid and specific method for detecting antibodies to AKAV and is a potential alternative to the SN test. ..
  4. Reusken C, van den Wijngaard C, van Beek P, Beer M, Bouwstra R, Godeke G, et al. Lack of evidence for zoonotic transmission of Schmallenberg virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1746-54 pubmed publisher
    The emergence of Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel orthobunyavirus, in ruminants in Europe triggered a joint veterinary and public health response to address the possible consequences to human health...
  5. Wernike K, Breithaupt A, Keller M, Hoffmann B, Beer M, Eschbaumer M. Schmallenberg virus infection of adult type I interferon receptor knock-out mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40380 pubmed publisher
    Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel orthobunyavirus, was discovered in Europe in late 2011. It causes mild and transient disease in adult ruminants, but fetal infection can lead to abortion or severe malformations...
  6. Kamata H, Inai K, Maeda K, Nishimura T, Arita S, Tsuda T, et al. Encephalomyelitis of cattle caused by Akabane virus in southern Japan in 2006. J Comp Pathol. 2009;140:187-93 pubmed publisher
    ..It is suggested that AKAV infection is likely to have occurred during the early life period in the calves of this study. ..
  7. Tarlinton R, Daly J, Dunham S, Kydd J. The challenge of Schmallenberg virus emergence in Europe. Vet J. 2012;194:10-8 pubmed publisher
    The large-scale outbreak of disease across Northern Europe caused by a new orthobunyavirus known as Schmallenberg virus has caused considerable disruption to lambing and calving...
  8. Claine F, Coupeau D, Wiggers L, Muylkens B, Kirschvink N. Schmallenberg virus among female lambs, Belgium, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:1115-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Bimonthly assessment by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and seroneutralization demonstrated that 100% of lambs were infected. Viremia duration may be longer in naturally infected than in experimentally infected animals. ..
  9. Wernike K, Eschbaumer M, Schirrmeier H, Blohm U, Breithaupt A, Hoffmann B, et al. Oral exposure, reinfection and cellular immunity to Schmallenberg virus in cattle. Vet Microbiol. 2013;165:155-9 pubmed publisher
    Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel orthobunyavirus, was discovered in Germany in 2011. In adult ruminants SBV causes mild transient disease, but foetal infection can lead to severe malformations...
  10. Leonard V, Kohl A, Hart T, Elliott R. Interaction of Bunyamwera Orthobunyavirus NSs protein with mediator protein MED8: a mechanism for inhibiting the interferon response. J Virol. 2006;80:9667-75 pubmed
    ..The interacting domain on NSs was mapped to the C-terminal region, which contains amino acids conserved among orthobunyavirus NSs proteins...
  11. Herder V, Wohlsein P, Peters M, Hansmann F, Baumgartner W. Salient lesions in domestic ruminants infected with the emerging so-called Schmallenberg virus in Germany. Vet Pathol. 2012;49:588-91 pubmed publisher
    ..virus (SBV), first detected in a German town of the same name in October 2011, is a novel emerging orthobunyavirus in Europe causing malformations and severe economic loss in ruminants...
  12. Nunes M, Martins L, Rodrigues S, Chiang J, Da Rosa A, Vasconcelos P. Oropouche virus isolation, southeast Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1610-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama...
  13. Garigliany M, Bayrou C, Kleijnen D, Cassart D, Desmecht D. Schmallenberg virus in domestic cattle, Belgium, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1512-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Of cattle within 250 km of location where the virus emerged, ?91% tested positive for IgG targeting nucleoprotein. Risk for fetal infection was ?28%. ..
  14. Breard E, Lara E, Comtet L, Viarouge C, Doceul V, Desprat A, et al. Validation of a commercially available indirect ELISA using a nucleocapside recombinant protein for detection of Schmallenberg virus antibodies. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53446 pubmed publisher
    ..Although cross-reactions with other Orthobunyavirus from the Simbu serogroup viruses might occur, it is a highly sensitive, specific and robust ELISA-test ..
  15. Larska M, Polak M, Grochowska M, Lechowski L, Związek J, Zmudzinski J. First report of Schmallenberg virus infection in cattle and midges in Poland. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2013;60:97-101 pubmed publisher
    ..These cases are the first ones detected in cattle in Poland and provide evidence of recent transmission of the pathogen into the country and involvement of midge vectors. ..
  16. Vasconcelos H, Azevedo R, Casseb S, Nunes Neto J, Chiang J, Cantuária P, et al. Oropouche fever epidemic in Northern Brazil: epidemiology and molecular characterization of isolates. J Clin Virol. 2009;44:129-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Oropouche fever virus is an important arbovirus associated with febrile disease that re-emerged in 2006 in several municipalities of Pará State, Bragantina region, Amazon, Brazil, 26 years after the last epidemic...
  17. De Regge N, Deblauwe I, De Deken R, Vantieghem P, Madder M, Geysen D, et al. Detection of Schmallenberg virus in different Culicoides spp. by real-time RT-PCR. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2012;59:471-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Pools of heads originating from following species: C. obsoletus complex, C. dewulfi and C. chiopterus were found positive, strongly indicating that these species are relevant vectors for SBV...
  18. Akashi H, Inaba Y. Antigenic diversity of Akabane virus detected by monoclonal antibodies. Virus Res. 1997;47:187-96 pubmed
    ..AKA virus may be a single gene pool consisting of different genotypes in the field. ..
  19. Yanase T, Kato T, Yamakawa M, Takayoshi K, Nakamura K, Kokuba T, et al. Genetic characterization of Batai virus indicates a genomic reassortment between orthobunyaviruses in nature. Arch Virol. 2006;151:2253-60 pubmed
    ..Genetic analyses showed that the viruses were Batai virus of the genus Orthobunyavirus of the family Bunyaviridae...
  20. Rosseel T, Scheuch M, Höper D, De Regge N, Caij A, Vandenbussche F, et al. DNase SISPA-next generation sequencing confirms Schmallenberg virus in Belgian field samples and identifies genetic variation in Europe. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41967 pubmed publisher
    In 2011, a novel Orthobunyavirus was identified in cattle and sheep in Germany and The Netherlands. This virus was named Schmallenberg virus (SBV)...
  21. Wernike K, Nikolin V, Hechinger S, Hoffmann B, Beer M. Inactivated Schmallenberg virus prototype vaccines. Vaccine. 2013;31:3558-63 pubmed publisher
    Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel Orthobunyavirus, is an insect-transmitted pathogen and was first described in Europe in 2011...
  22. Savji N, Palacios G, Travassos da Rosa A, Hutchison S, Celone C, Hui J, et al. Genomic and phylogenetic characterization of Leanyer virus, a novel orthobunyavirus isolated in northern Australia. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1676-87 pubmed publisher
    Leanyer virus (LEAV), currently classified as a member of the genus Orthobunyavirus, in the family Bunyaviridae, was originally isolated from a pool of Anopheles meraukensis mosquitoes, collected at Leanyer, Northern Territory, Australia ..
  23. Dong H, Li P, Bottcher B, Elliott R, Dong C. Crystal structure of Schmallenberg orthobunyavirus nucleoprotein-RNA complex reveals a novel RNA sequestration mechanism. RNA. 2013;19:1129-36 pubmed publisher
    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a newly emerged orthobunyavirus (family Bunyaviridae) that has caused severe disease in the offspring of farm animals across Europe...
  24. Zhang Y, He Y, Dai Y, Xiong Y, Zheng H, Zhou D, et al. Hemorrhagic fever caused by a novel Bunyavirus in China: pathogenesis and correlates of fatal outcome. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54:527-33 pubmed publisher
  25. Muskens J, Smolenaars A, van der Poel W, Mars M, van Wuijckhuise L, Holzhauer M, et al. [Diarrhea and loss of production on Dutch dairy farms caused by the Schmallenberg virus]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2012;137:112-5 pubmed
    ..Likely the Schmallenbergvirus was the primary cause of the clinical symptoms in the Dutch dairy herds. Further research will be done to confirm this...
  26. Larska M, Lechowski L, Grochowska M, Zmudzinski J. Detection of the Schmallenberg virus in nulliparous Culicoides obsoletus/scoticus complex and C. punctatus--the possibility of transovarial virus transmission in the midge population and of a new vector. Vet Microbiol. 2013;166:467-73 pubmed publisher
    ..punctatus as a new possible vector of SBV and the recovery of viral RNA from the nulliparous females which may suggest transovarial transmission in C. obsoletus/scoticus complex and C. punctatus. ..
  27. Elliott R, Blakqori G, van Knippenberg I, Koudriakova E, Li P, McLees A, et al. Establishment of a reverse genetics system for Schmallenberg virus, a newly emerged orthobunyavirus in Europe. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:851-9 pubmed publisher
    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a newly emerged orthobunyavirus that has caused widespread disease in cattle, sheep and goats in Europe...
  28. Conraths F, Peters M, Beer M. Schmallenberg virus, a novel orthobunyavirus infection in ruminants in Europe: potential global impact and preventive measures. N Z Vet J. 2013;61:63-7 pubmed publisher
    In autumn 2011, Schmallenberg virus was the first orthobunyavirus detected in Europe. The virus belongs to the Simbu serogroup...
  29. Ducomble T, Wilking H, Stark K, Takla A, Askar M, Schaade L, et al. Lack of evidence for Schmallenberg virus infection in highly exposed persons, Germany, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1333-5 pubmed publisher
    Schmallenberg virus, a novel orthobunyavirus, is spreading among ruminants, especially sheep, throughout Europe. To determine the risk for human infection, we conducted a survey among shepherds to assess possible exposure and symptoms...
  30. van Eeden C, Williams J, Gerdes T, van Wilpe E, Viljoen A, Swanepoel R, et al. Shuni virus as cause of neurologic disease in horses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:318-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Shuni virus was found in 7 horses, 5 of which had neurologic signs. Testing for lesser known viruses should be considered for horses with unexplained illness...
  31. De Regge N, van den Berg T, Georges L, Cay B. Diagnosis of Schmallenberg virus infection in malformed lambs and calves and first indications for virus clearance in the fetus. Vet Microbiol. 2013;162:595-600 pubmed publisher
    ..lambs and calves are sent to CODA-CERVA in Belgium for diagnosis of Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel Orthobunyavirus that was first detected by researchers of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI, Germany) in German cattle in ..
  32. Kim Y, Kweon C, Tark D, Lim S, Yang D, Hyun B, et al. Development of inactivated trivalent vaccine for the teratogenic Aino, Akabane and Chuzan viruses. Biologicals. 2011;39:152-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the field application of experimental vaccine also revealed increased antibodies in inoculated cattle, we demonstrated that these trivalent vaccines could be used as a vaccine to control the arboviral infections in ruminants...
  33. Farfan Ale J, Lorono Pino M, Garcia Rejon J, Soto V, Lin M, Staley M, et al. Detection of flaviviruses and orthobunyaviruses in mosquitoes in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico in 2008. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010;10:777-83 pubmed publisher
    ..7 and the monthly flavivirus minimal infection rates ranged from 4.3 to 16.6. Approximately one-third of the RT-PCR products were sequenced and all corresponded to Culex flavivirus, a recently discovered insect-specific flavivirus. ..
  34. Lambert A, Lanciotti R. Molecular characterization of medically important viruses of the genus Orthobunyavirus. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:2580-5 pubmed publisher
    ..the full-length S segment RNA sequences of five human pathogens of the virus family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus. S segment sequences of Fort Sherman, Shokwe and Xingu viruses of the Bunyamwera serogroup, as well as those ..
  35. Mansfield K, La Rocca S, Khatri M, Johnson N, Steinbach F, Fooks A. Detection of Schmallenberg virus serum neutralising antibodies. J Virol Methods. 2013;188:139-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these two assays constitute an effective diagnostic tool-box for providing confirmation of exposure to SBV...
  36. Kaba J, Czopowicz M, Witkowski L. Schmallenberg virus antibodies detected in Poland. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2013;60:1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrates for the first time the presence of antibodies to SBV in Poland. ..
  37. Elbers A, Loeffen W, Quak S, de Boer Luijtze E, van der Spek A, Bouwstra R, et al. Seroprevalence of Schmallenberg virus antibodies among dairy cattle, the Netherlands, winter 2011-2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1065-71 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant differences were found in age-specific prevalence of antibodies against SBV, which is an indication that SBV is newly arrived in the country...
  38. Fischer M, Hoffmann B, Goller K, Höper D, Wernike K, Beer M. A mutation 'hot spot' in the Schmallenberg virus M segment. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:1161-7 pubmed publisher
    In the autumn of 2011, Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, was identified by metagenomic analysis in Germany...
  39. Yanase T, Aizawa M, Kato T, Yamakawa M, Shirafuji H, Tsuda T. Genetic characterization of Aino and Peaton virus field isolates reveals a genetic reassortment between these viruses in nature. Virus Res. 2010;153:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..L RNA segments of the 10 Aino, 6 Peaton and 1 Sango virus (AINOV, PEAV and SANV) field isolates of the genus Orthobunyavirus in the family Bunyaviridae, respectively...
  40. Aguilar P, Barrett A, Saeed M, Watts D, Russell K, Guevara C, et al. Iquitos virus: a novel reassortant Orthobunyavirus associated with human illness in Peru. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1315 pubmed publisher
    Oropouche (ORO) virus, a member of the Simbu serogroup, is one of the few human pathogens in the Orthobunyavirus genus in the family Bunyaviridae...
  41. Yanase T, Maeda K, Kato T, Nyuta S, Kamata H, Yamakawa M, et al. The resurgence of Shamonda virus, an African Simbu group virus of the genus Orthobunyavirus, in Japan. Arch Virol. 2005;150:361-9 pubmed publisher
    ..identified these viruses as isolates of Shamonda virus (SHAV), which belongs to the Simbu group of the genus Orthobunyavirus of the family Bunyaviridae...
  42. Huang C, Huang T, Deng M, Jong M, Lin S. Natural infections of pigs with akabane virus. Vet Microbiol. 2003;94:1-11 pubmed
    ..Contrarily, fattening pigs aged at approximately 20 weeks old contained the lowest titers of specific antibodies. Our results suggest that pigs in natural situations are part of the AKA virus transmission cycle...
  43. Vasconcelos H, Nunes M, Casseb L, Carvalho V, Pinto da Silva E, Silva M, et al. Molecular epidemiology of Oropouche virus, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:800-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, time-scale analysis based on the N gene showed that OROV emerged in Brazil ?223 years ago and that genotype I (based on N gene data) was responsible for the emergence of all other genotypes and for virus dispersal...
  44. Gerrard S, Li L, Barrett A, Nichol S. Ngari virus is a Bunyamwera virus reassortant that can be associated with large outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in Africa. J Virol. 2004;78:8922-6 pubmed
    Two isolates of a virus of the genus Orthobunyavirus (family Bunyaviridae) were obtained from hemorrhagic fever cases during a large disease outbreak in East Africa in 1997 and 1998...
  45. Niu F, Shaw N, Wang Y, Jiao L, Ding W, Li X, et al. Structure of the Leanyer orthobunyavirus nucleoprotein-RNA complex reveals unique architecture for RNA encapsidation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:9054-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe a unique fold of N from Leanyer virus (LEAV, Orthobunyavirus genus, Bunyaviridae family) in complex with single-stranded RNA refined to 2.78 Å resolution as well as a 2...
  46. Lanciotti R, Kosoy O, Bosco Lauth A, Pohl J, Stuchlik O, Reed M, et al. Isolation of a novel orthobunyavirus (Brazoran virus) with a 1.7 kb S segment that encodes a unique nucleocapsid protein possessing two putative functional domains. Virology. 2013;444:55-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Data from immunofluorescence testing suggested that these isolates are members of the genus Orthobunyavirus. Expanded analyses confirmed that these isolates comprise three independent isolations of the same virus; a ..
  47. Varela M, Schnettler E, Caporale M, Murgia C, Barry G, McFarlane M, et al. Schmallenberg virus pathogenesis, tropism and interaction with the innate immune system of the host. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003133 pubmed publisher
    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emerging orthobunyavirus of ruminants associated with outbreaks of congenital malformations in aborted and stillborn animals...
  48. Kono R, Hirata M, Kaji M, Goto Y, Ikeda S, Yanase T, et al. Bovine epizootic encephalomyelitis caused by Akabane virus in southern Japan. BMC Vet Res. 2008;4:20 pubmed publisher
    Akabane virus is a member of the genus Orthobunyavirus in the family Bunyaviridae...
  49. Matsumori Y, Inai K, Yanase T, Ohashi S, Kato T, Yoshida K, et al. Serological and genetic characterization of newly isolated Peaton virus in Japan. Brief report. Arch Virol. 2002;147:401-10 pubmed
    ..6% between the Australian and Japanese strains. A phylogenetic analysis of the N protein sequence revealed that the PEA virus strains are closely related to Aino (AIN) virus and suggested reassortment events for PEA and AIN viruses. ..
  50. Loeffen W, Quak S, de Boer Luijtze E, Hulst M, van der Poel W, Bouwstra R, et al. Development of a virus neutralisation test to detect antibodies against Schmallenberg virus and serological results in suspect and infected herds. Acta Vet Scand. 2012;54:44 pubmed publisher
    At the end of 2011, a new orthobunyavirus, tentatively named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), was discovered in Germany...
  51. Lambert A, Lanciotti R. Consensus amplification and novel multiplex sequencing method for S segment species identification of 47 viruses of the Orthobunyavirus, Phlebovirus, and Nairovirus genera of the family Bunyaviridae. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:2398-404 pubmed publisher
  52. YU X, Liang M, Zhang S, Liu Y, Li J, Sun Y, et al. Fever with thrombocytopenia associated with a novel bunyavirus in China. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:1523-32 pubmed publisher
    ..A novel phlebovirus was identified in patients with a life-threatening illness associated with fever and thrombocytopenia in China. (Funded by the China Mega-Project for Infectious Diseases and others.). ..
  53. de Brito Magalhães C, Quinan B, Novaes R, dos Santos J, Kroon E, Bonjardim C, et al. Caraparu virus (group C Orthobunyavirus): sequencing and phylogenetic analysis based on the conserved region 3 of the RNA polymerase gene. Virus Genes. 2007;35:681-4 pubmed
    ..The CARV clustered in the Orthobunyavirus genus...
  54. Saeed M, Wang H, Nunes M, Vasconcelos P, Weaver S, Shope R, et al. Nucleotide sequences and phylogeny of the nucleocapsid gene of Oropouche virus. J Gen Virol. 2000;81:743-8 pubmed
  55. Meroc E, Poskin A, Van Loo H, Quinet C, Van Driessche E, Delooz L, et al. Large-scale cross-sectional serological survey of Schmallenberg virus in Belgian cattle at the end of the first vector season. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2013;60:4-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In consequence, the vast majority of the host animals should have developed post infection protective immunity against the virus...
  56. Saeed M, Li L, Wang H, Weaver S, Barrett A. Phylogeny of the Simbu serogroup of the genus Bunyavirus. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:2173-81 pubmed
    ..In comparison to previous phylogenetic studies on the California and Bunyamwera serogroups of the Bunyavirus genus, the Simbu serogroup displays much larger genetic variation in the N gene (up to 40% amino acid sequence divergence). ..
  57. Yamakawa M, Yanase T, Kato T, Tsuda T. Chronological and geographical variations in the small RNA segment of the teratogenic Akabane virus. Virus Res. 2006;121:84-92 pubmed
  58. Briese T, Bird B, Kapoor V, Nichol S, Lipkin W. Batai and Ngari viruses: M segment reassortment and association with severe febrile disease outbreaks in East Africa. J Virol. 2006;80:5627-30 pubmed
    Ngari virus is an orthobunyavirus recently recognized as a reassortant between Bunyamwera virus and an as yet unidentified M segment donor...
  59. Wernike K, Hoffmann B, Breard E, Bøtner A, Ponsart C, Zientara S, et al. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep. Vet Microbiol. 2013;166:461-6 pubmed publisher
    Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe...
  60. Guo Y, Wang W, Ji W, Deng M, Sun Y, Zhou H, et al. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus nucleoprotein reveals endonuclease activity in bunyaviruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:5046-51 pubmed publisher
  61. Garigliany M, Bayrou C, Kleijnen D, Cassart D, Jolly S, Linden A, et al. Schmallenberg virus: a new Shamonda/Sathuperi-like virus on the rise in Europe. Antiviral Res. 2012;95:82-7 pubmed publisher
    ..adults) or in the central nervous system (newborns) of the genome of a new Shamonda-Sathuperi reassortant orthobunyavirus provisionally named Schmallenberg virus after the place where the first positive samples were collected...
  62. Mohamed M, McLees A, Elliott R. Viruses in the Anopheles A, Anopheles B, and Tete serogroups in the Orthobunyavirus genus (family Bunyaviridae) do not encode an NSs protein. J Virol. 2009;83:7612-8 pubmed publisher
    Viruses in the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, have a genome comprising three segments (called L, M, and S) of negative-sense RNA...
  63. Hoffmann B, Scheuch M, Höper D, Jungblut R, Holsteg M, Schirrmeier H, et al. Novel orthobunyavirus in Cattle, Europe, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:469-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Metagenomic analysis identified a novel orthobunyavirus, which subsequently was isolated from blood of affected animals...
  64. Doceul V, Lara E, Sailleau C, Belbis G, Richardson J, Breard E, et al. Epidemiology, molecular virology and diagnostics of Schmallenberg virus, an emerging orthobunyavirus in Europe. Vet Res. 2013;44:31 pubmed publisher
    ..The virus, belonging to the Orthobunyavirus genus in the Bunyaviridae family, was first detected in Germany, in The Netherlands and in Belgium in 2011 ..
  65. van den Brom R, Luttikholt S, Lievaart Peterson K, Peperkamp N, Mars M, van der Poel W, et al. Epizootic of ovine congenital malformations associated with Schmallenberg virus infection. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2012;137:106-11 pubmed
    ..related to the Shamonda, Aino, and Akabane viruses, all of which belong to the Simbu serogroup of the genus Orthobunyavirus of the family Bunyaviridae...
  66. Acrani G, Gomes R, Proença Módena J, da Silva A, Carminati P, Silva M, et al. Apoptosis induced by Oropouche virus infection in HeLa cells is dependent on virus protein expression. Virus Res. 2010;149:56-63 pubmed publisher
    Oropouche (OROV) is a single-stranded RNA arbovirus of the family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, which has caused over half a million cases of febrile illness in Brazil in the past 30 years...
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    In 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, the Schmallenberg virus (SBV), was discovered using a metagenomic approach. SBV caused a large epidemic in Europe in ruminants...
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    The family Bunyaviridae contains over 350 named isolates, classified into five genera: Orthobunyavirus, Hantavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus and Tospovirus...
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    ..The Simbu serogroup of the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, is an example...
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    ..Previously, we described a rescue system to recover infectious Bunyamwera virus (genus Orthobunyavirus) entirely from cloned cDNA (Bridgen, A. and Elliott, R.M. (1996) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci...
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    ..Discrepancies among the phylogenetic trees of the S, M and L RNA segments indicate genomic reassortment events among AKAV field isolates...
  74. Linden A, Desmecht D, Volpe R, Wirtgen M, Gregoire F, Pirson J, et al. Epizootic spread of Schmallenberg virus among wild cervids, Belgium, Fall 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:2006-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings indicated rapid spread among these deer since virus emergence ?250 km away...
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    ..However, more nationwide isolates and more clinical data from Korean cattle farms will be required in the future to confirm the precise relationships between genotypes and pathogenicity. ..
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    ..This is the first description of an experimental model for OROV infection and should be helpful to study pathogenesis and possibly to test antiviral interventions such as drugs and vaccine candidates...