nairovirus

Summary

Summary: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE named after NAIROBI SHEEP DISEASE, an acute, hemorrhagic, tick-borne, gastroenteritis affecting sheep and goats. The type species is Dugbe virus. Some viruses in this genus are capable of causing severe and fatal disease in humans.

Top Publications

  1. Bridgen A, Dalrymple D, Elliott R. Dugbe nairovirus S segment: correction of published sequence and comparison of five isolates. Virology. 2002;294:364-71 pubmed
    The sequence of the S (small) RNA segment of the ArD 44313 isolate of Dugbe nairovirus (DUG) has been redetermined, and a number of apparent errors in the previously reported sequence (V. K. Ward, A. C. Marriott, A. A. El-Ghorr, and P. A...
  2. Frias Staheli N, Giannakopoulos N, Kikkert M, Taylor S, Bridgen A, Paragas J, et al. Ovarian tumor domain-containing viral proteases evade ubiquitin- and ISG15-dependent innate immune responses. Cell Host Microbe. 2007;2:404-16 pubmed
    ..Thus, the deconjugating activity of viral OTU proteases represents a unique viral strategy to inhibit Ub- and ISG15-dependent antiviral pathways. ..
  3. Burt F, Spencer D, Leman P, Patterson B, Swanepoel R. Investigation of tick-borne viruses as pathogens of humans in South Africa and evidence of Dugbe virus infection in a patient with prolonged thrombocytopenia. Epidemiol Infect. 1996;116:353-61 pubmed
    ..The latter patient suffered from febrile illness with prolonged thrombocytopenia...
  4. Dilcher M, Koch A, Hasib L, Dobler G, Hufert F, Weidmann M. Genetic characterization of Erve virus, a European Nairovirus distantly related to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Virus Genes. 2012;45:426-32 pubmed publisher
    Erve virus (ERVEV) is a European Nairovirus that is suspected to cause severe headache (thunderclap headache) and intracerebral hemorrhage. The mode of transmission to humans (ticks or mosquitoes) is still unknown...
  5. van Kasteren P, Beugeling C, Ninaber D, Frias Staheli N, van Boheemen S, Garcia Sastre A, et al. Arterivirus and nairovirus ovarian tumor domain-containing Deubiquitinases target activated RIG-I to control innate immune signaling. J Virol. 2012;86:773-85 pubmed publisher
    ..now show that PLP2 DUB activity is conserved in all members of the arterivirus family and that both arteri- and nairovirus DUBs inhibit RIG-I-mediated innate immune signaling when overexpressed...
  6. Peyrefitte C, Perret M, Garcia S, Rodrigues R, Bagnaud A, Lacote S, et al. Differential activation profiles of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus- and Dugbe virus-infected antigen-presenting cells. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:189-98 pubmed publisher
    ..fever virus (CCHFV) is a highly pathogenic, tick-borne member of the family Bunyaviridae and the genus Nairovirus. To better elucidate the pathogenesis of CCHFV, we analysed the host innate immune response induced in antigen-..
  7. Garcia S, Billecocq A, Crance J, Munderloh U, Garin D, Bouloy M. Nairovirus RNA sequences expressed by a Semliki Forest virus replicon induce RNA interference in tick cells. J Virol. 2005;79:8942-7 pubmed
    ..of the cell line ISE6 derived from Ixodes scapularis tick embryos by the tick-borne Hazara virus (HAZV), a nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae...
  8. Chastel C, Bailly Choumara H, Bach Hamba D, Le Lay G, Legrand M, Le Goff F, et al. [Tick-transmitted arbovirus in Maghreb]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 1995;88:81-5 pubmed
    ..Four tick-borne arboviruses have been isolated so far: three from Morocco, Soldado (Nairovirus), Essaouria (Orbivirus) and Kala Iris (Orbivirus) from Ornithodoros (A...
  9. Boyd A, Fazakerley J, Bridgen A. Pathogenesis of Dugbe virus infection in wild-type and interferon-deficient mice. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2005-9 pubmed
    In 129 mice, infection with the nairovirus Dugbe virus (DUGV) was lethal following intracerebral but not intraperitoneal inoculation...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Honig J, Osborne J, Nichol S. The high genetic variation of viruses of the genus Nairovirus reflects the diversity of their predominant tick hosts. Virology. 2004;318:10-6 pubmed
    The genus Nairovirus (family Bunyaviridae) contains seven serogroups consisting of 34 predominantly tick-borne viruses, including several associated with severe human and livestock diseases [e.g...
  2. Marczinke B, Nichol S. Nairobi sheep disease virus, an important tick-borne pathogen of sheep and goats in Africa, is also present in Asia. Virology. 2002;303:146-51 pubmed
    Nairobi sheep disease (NSD) virus is the prototype of the tick-borne NSD serogroup, genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae. It is highly pathogenic for sheep and goats, causes disease in humans, and is widespread throughout East Africa...
  3. Walker P, Widen S, Firth C, Blasdell K, Wood T, Travassos da Rosa A, et al. Genomic Characterization of Yogue, Kasokero, Issyk-Kul, Keterah, Gossas, and Thiafora Viruses: Nairoviruses Naturally Infecting Bats, Shrews, and Ticks. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015;93:1041-51 pubmed publisher
    The genus Nairovirus of arthropod-borne bunyaviruses includes the important emerging human pathogen, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), as well as Nairobi sheep disease virus and many other poorly described viruses isolated ..
  4. Shimada S, Aoki K, Nabeshima T, Fuxun Y, Kurosaki Y, Shiogama K, et al. Tofla virus: A newly identified Nairovirus of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever group isolated from ticks in Japan. Sci Rep. 2016;6:20213 pubmed publisher
    ..The full-genome sequences revealed that TFLV belonged to the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae...
  5. Shayan S, Bokaean M, Shahrivar M, Chinikar S. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever. Lab Med. 2015;46:180-9 pubmed publisher
    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a member of the Bunyaviridae family and Nairovirus genus. The viral genome consists of 3 RNA segments of 12 kb (L), 6.8 kb (M), and 3 kb (S)...
  6. Barnwal B, Karlberg H, Mirazimi A, Tan Y. The Non-structural Protein of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Disrupts the Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and Induces Apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:582-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This study, for the first time, suggests that the non-structural protein NSs of CCHFV, a member of the genus Nairovirus, induces apoptosis...
  7. Walker P, Widen S, Wood T, Guzman H, Tesh R, Vasilakis N. A Global Genomic Characterization of Nairoviruses Identifies Nine Discrete Genogroups with Distinctive Structural Characteristics and Host-Vector Associations. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016;94:1107-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Global phylogenetic analyses of proteins encoded in the L, M, and S RNA segments of these and 20 other available nairovirus genomes identified nine well-supported genogroups (Nairobi sheep disease, Thiafora, Sakhalin, Keterah, Qalyub, ..
  8. Hover S, King B, Hall B, Loundras E, Taqi H, Daly J, et al. Modulation of Potassium Channels Inhibits Bunyavirus Infection. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:3411-22 pubmed publisher
    ..bunyaviruses namely Schmallenberg virus (Orthobunyavirus) as well as the more distantly related Hazara virus (Nairovirus)...
  9. Lv J, Fernández de Marco M, Goharriz H, Phipps L, McElhinney L, Hernández Triana L, et al. Detection of tick-borne bacteria and babesia with zoonotic potential in Argas (Carios) vespertilionis (Latreille, 1802) ticks from British bats. Sci Rep. 2018;8:1865 pubmed publisher
    ..venatorum and SFG Rickettsia spp. could present a risk of disease transmission in England. No evidence for the presence of flaviviruses or Issyk-Kul virus (nairovirus) was found in these tick samples.
  10. Wang W, Liu X, Wang X, Dong H, Ma C, Wang J, et al. Structural and Functional Diversity of Nairovirus-Encoded Nucleoproteins. J Virol. 2015;89:11740-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the structural and biological variation of nairovirus-encoded NPs, here, we systematically solved the crystal structures of NPs encoded by various nairoviruses, ..
  11. Nurmakhanov T, Sansyzbaev Y, Atshabar B, Deryabin P, Kazakov S, Zholshorinov A, et al. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in Kazakhstan (1948-2013). Int J Infect Dis. 2015;38:19-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The causative agent is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus classified within the Nairovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family...
  12. Wang X, Li B, Guo Y, Shen S, Zhao L, Zhang P, et al. Molecular basis for the formation of ribonucleoprotein complex of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. J Struct Biol. 2016;196:455-465 pubmed publisher
    ..the monomeric structure of NP encoded by Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), which belongs to the Nairovirus genus within the Bunyaviridae family, and revealed its unusual endonuclease activity...
  13. Vanmechelen B, Laenen L, Vergote V, Maes P. Grotenhout Virus, a Novel Nairovirus Found in Ixodes ricinus in Belgium. Genome Announc. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    We report here the draft genome of a novel nairovirus, Grotenhout virus, isolated from deer ticks (Ixodes ricinus) in Belgium...
  14. Aktaş T, Aktaş F, Özmen Z, Kaya T. Does Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Cause a Vasculitic Reaction with Pulmonary Artery Enlargement and Acute Pulmonary Hypertension?. Lung. 2016;194:807-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Although its etiopathogenesis is not clearly understood, it is known to be a Nairovirus. We aimed to examine the viral effects of intense systemic inflammation and vascular damage on the pulmonary ..
  15. Jeeva S, Cheng E, Ganaie S, Mir M. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Augments mRNA Translation. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne Nairovirus of the Bunyaviridae family, causing severe illness with high mortality rates in humans...
  16. Al Abri S, Abaidani I, Fazlalipour M, Mostafavi E, Leblebicioglu H, Pshenichnaya N, et al. Current status of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region: issues, challenges, and future directions. Int J Infect Dis. 2017;58:82-89 pubmed publisher
    ..increase our understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors for the transmission of the CCHF virus (CCHFV; a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae) in the WHO EMR, and to identify the current knowledge gaps that are hindering ..
  17. Lima R, Faheem M, Barbosa J, Polêto M, Verli H, Melo F, et al. Homology modeling and molecular dynamics provide structural insights into tospovirus nucleoprotein. BMC Bioinformatics. 2016;17:489 pubmed publisher
    ..genus within the family Bunyaviridae, which also includes four animal-infecting genera: Hantavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus and Orthobunyavirus...
  18. Aslani D, Salehi Vaziri M, Baniasadi V, Jalali T, Azad Manjiri S, Mohammadi T, et al. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever among children in Iran. Arch Virol. 2017;162:721-725 pubmed publisher
    ..The etiological agent of CCHF is an RNA virus belonging to the genus Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae...
  19. Surtees R, Dowall S, Shaw A, Armstrong S, Hewson R, Carroll M, et al. Heat Shock Protein 70 Family Members Interact with Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus and Hazara Virus Nucleocapsid Proteins and Perform a Functional Role in the Nairovirus Replication Cycle. J Virol. 2016;90:9305-16 pubmed publisher
    The Nairovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family contains serious human and animal pathogens classified within multiple serogroups and species...
  20. Rahman S, Yao X, Li X, Chen D, Tao S. Analysis of codon usage bias of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and its adaptation to hosts. Infect Genet Evol. 2018;58:1-16 pubmed publisher
    ..CCHFV) is a negative-sense, single stranded RNA virus with a three-segmented genome that belongs to the genus Nairovirus within the family Bunyaviridae...
  21. Flusin O, Vigne S, Peyrefitte C, Bouloy M, Crance J, Iseni F. Inhibition of Hazara nairovirus replication by small interfering RNAs and their combination with ribavirin. Virol J. 2011;8:249 pubmed publisher
    The genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae contains 34 tick-borne viruses classified into seven serogroups...
  22. Dinçer E, Brinkmann A, Hekimoğlu O, Hacıoğlu S, Földes K, Karapınar Z, et al. Generic amplification and next generation sequencing reveal Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus AP92-like strain and distinct tick phleboviruses in Anatolia, Turkey. Parasit Vectors. 2017;10:335 pubmed publisher
    ..pooled and analysed via generic nucleic acid amplification of the viruses belonging to the genera Flavivirus, Nairovirus and Phlebovirus of the families Flaviviridae and Bunyaviridae, followed by sequencing and NGS in selected ..
  23. Jin H, Elliott R. Non-viral sequences at the 5' ends of Dugbe nairovirus S mRNAs. J Gen Virol. 1993;74 ( Pt 10):2293-7 pubmed
    ..To provide similar information on the fifth genus in the family, the 5' ends of Dugbe nairovirus S mRNA species were specifically cloned and sequenced...
  24. Bridgen A, Dalrymple D, Weber F, Elliott R. Inhibition of Dugbe nairovirus replication by human MxA protein. Virus Res. 2004;99:47-50 pubmed
    ..findings to a member of the fourth and remaining genus containing viruses that infect man and other animals, the nairovirus Dugbe virus (DUGV)...
  25. Suliman H, Adam I, Saeed S, Abdelaziz S, Haroun E, Aradaib I. Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever among the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedaries) in Central Sudan. Virol J. 2017;14:147 pubmed publisher
    ..tick-borne viral zoonotic disease caused by Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a member of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae...
  26. Marriott A, El Ghorr A, Nuttall P. Dugbe Nairovirus M RNA: nucleotide sequence and coding strategy. Virology. 1992;190:606-15 pubmed
    The coding assignments of the medium-sized (M) RNA segment of the Dugbe (DUG) virus (Nairovirus, Bunyaviridae) were investigated...
  27. Rwambo P, Shaw M, Rurangirwa F, DeMartini J. Ultrastructural studies on the replication and morphogenesis of Nairobi sheep disease virus, a Nairovirus. Arch Virol. 1996;141:1479-92 pubmed
    The Nairovirus Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) affects sheep and goats causing severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and high mortality...
  28. Booth T, Gould E, Nuttall P. Structure and morphogenesis of Dugbe virus (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) studied by immunogold electron microscopy of ultrathin cryosections. Virus Res. 1991;21:199-212 pubmed
    We have studied the structure and morphogenesis of Dugbe (DUG) virus (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) in cultured porcine kidney (PS) cells and a tick cell line (Ra 243) using immunogold electron microscopy...
  29. Gauci P, McAllister J, Mitchell I, Cybinski D, St George T, Gubala A. Genomic Characterisation of Vinegar Hill Virus, An Australian Nairovirus Isolated in 1983 from Argas Robertsi Ticks Collected from Cattle Egrets. Viruses. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..VINHV is the second nairovirus reported to be isolated on mainland Australia and the first to be sequenced and analysed...
  30. Deaton M, Dzimianski J, Daczkowski C, Whitney G, Mank N, Parham M, et al. Biochemical and Structural Insights into the Preference of Nairoviral DeISGylases for Interferon-Stimulated Gene Product 15 Originating from Certain Species. J Virol. 2016;90:8314-27 pubmed publisher
    ..of binding by isothermal titration calorimetry illustrated significant differences in the abilities of nairovirus deISGylases to accommodate certain species of ISG15...
  31. L vov D, Al khovskiĭ S, Shchelkanov M, Deriabin P, Shchetinin A, Samokhvalov E, et al. [Genetic characterization of the Geran virus (GERV, Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus, Qalyub group) isolated from the ticks Ornithodoros verrucosus Olenev, Zasukhin and Fenyuk, 1934 (Argasidae) collected in the burrow of Meriones erythrourus Grey, 1842 in Az. Vopr Virusol. 2014;59:13-8 pubmed
    ..It was shown that the GERV is a new representative of the Nairovirus genus (family Bunyaviridae)...
  32. Lambert A, Lanciotti R. Consensus amplification and novel multiplex sequencing method for S segment species identification of 47 viruses of the Orthobunyavirus, Phlebovirus, and Nairovirus genera of the family Bunyaviridae. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:2398-404 pubmed publisher
  33. Bouquet J, Melgar M, Swei A, Delwart E, Lane R, Chiu C. Metagenomic-based Surveillance of Pacific Coast tick Dermacentor occidentalis Identifies Two Novel Bunyaviruses and an Emerging Human Ricksettsial Pathogen. Sci Rep. 2017;7:12234 pubmed publisher
    ..The genomes of 2 novel bunyaviruses (>99% complete) in the genera Nairovirus and Phlebovirus were also identified and found to be present in 20-91% of ticks, depending on the year of ..
  34. Liang G, Li X, Gao X, Fu S, Wang H, Li M, et al. Arboviruses and their related infections in China: A comprehensive field and laboratory investigation over the last 3 decades. Rev Med Virol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Among them, 4 genera (Orthobunyavirus, Bunyavirus, Phlebovirus, and Nairovirus) belong to the family Bunyaviridae and 3 genera (Seadonavirus, Orbivirus, and Cypovirus) belong to the family ..
  35. Koehler J, Delp K, Hall A, Olschner S, Kearney B, Garrison A, et al. Sequence Optimized Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detection of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus of the genus Nairovirus within the family Bunyaviridae...
  36. Marriott A, Nuttall P. Large RNA segment of Dugbe nairovirus encodes the putative RNA polymerase. J Gen Virol. 1996;77 ( Pt 8):1775-80 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence of the large (L) RNA segment of Dugbe (DUG) virus (Nairovirus, Bunyaviridae) was determined, completing the first entire genome sequence of a nairovirus...
  37. Kuhn J, Wiley M, Rodriguez S, Bao Y, Prieto K, Travassos da Rosa A, et al. Genomic Characterization of the Genus Nairovirus (Family Bunyaviridae). Viruses. 2016;8: pubmed publisher
    b>Nairovirus, one of five bunyaviral genera, includes seven species. Genomic sequence information is limited for members of the Dera Ghazi Khan, Hughes, Qalyub, Sakhalin, and Thiafora nairovirus species...
  38. Ward V, Marriott A, Polyzoni T, El Ghorr A, Antoniadis A, Nuttall P. Expression of the nucleocapsid protein of Dugbe virus and antigenic cross-reactions with other nairoviruses. Virus Res. 1992;24:223-9 pubmed
    The small (S) RNA segment of Dugbe (DUG) virus (Nairovirus, Bunyaviridae) encodes a single protein, the nucleocapsid (N) protein, of M(r) 49.4 kDa...
  39. Papa A, Pappa S, Panayotova E, Papadopoulou E, Christova I. Molecular epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Bulgaria--An update. J Med Virol. 2016;88:769-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the CCHF epidemiology and virus evolution is the basis for public health programs and vaccine design. ..
  40. Al khovskiĭ S, L vov D, Shchelkanov M, Deriabin P, Shchetinin A, Samokhvalov E, et al. [Genetic characterization of the Uzun-Agach virus (UZAV, Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus), isolated from bat Myotis blythii oxygnathus Monticelli, 1885 (Chiroptera; Vespertilionidae) in Kazakhstan]. Vopr Virusol. 2014;59:23-6 pubmed
    ..Based on full-length genome comparison it is shown that UZAV is a new member of the Nairovirus genus (family Bunyaviridae)...
  41. Lasecka L, Baron M. The molecular biology of nairoviruses, an emerging group of tick-borne arboviruses. Arch Virol. 2014;159:1249-65 pubmed publisher
  42. Bakshi S, Holzer B, Bridgen A, McMullan G, Quinn D, Baron M. Dugbe virus ovarian tumour domain interferes with ubiquitin/ISG15-regulated innate immune cell signalling. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:298-307 pubmed publisher
    The ovarian tumour (OTU) domain of the nairovirus L protein has been shown to remove ubiquitin and interferon-stimulated gene 15 protein (ISG15) from host cell proteins, which is expected to have multiple effects on cell signalling ..
  43. Rodrigues R, Telles J, Essere K, Ducournau C, Roqueplo C, Levieuge A, et al. Development of a one step real time RT-PCR assay to detect and quantify Dugbe virus. J Virol Methods. 2011;176:74-7 pubmed publisher
    ..time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was developed to detect all published Dugbe virus (DUGV) genomes of the Nairovirus genus...
  44. Major L, Linn M, Slade R, Schroder W, Hyatt A, Gardner J, et al. Ticks associated with macquarie island penguins carry arboviruses from four genera. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4375 pubmed publisher
    ..A flavivirus, an orbivirus, a phlebovirus, and a nairovirus were isolated from these ticks and partial sequences obtained...
  45. Sparagano O, Allsopp M, Mank R, Rijpkema S, Figueroa J, Jongejan F. Molecular detection of pathogen DNA in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae): a review. Exp Appl Acarol. 1999;23:929-60 pubmed
    ..Some recommendations are also given towards the end of this review. ..
  46. Chastel C. [Erve and Eyach: two viruses isolated in France, neuropathogenic for man and widely distributed in Western Europe]. Bull Acad Natl Med. 1998;182:801-9; discussion 809-10 pubmed
    ..ventalloi ticks, and Erve virus, a nairovirus from the tissues of white-toothed shrews, Crocidura russula...
  47. Guilherme J, Gonella Legall C, Legall F, Nakoume E, Vincent J. Seroprevalence of five arboviruses in Zebu cattle in the Central African Republic. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1996;90:31-3 pubmed
    ..Zebus do not play an important role in the spread of CHIK and WSL viruses among humans; these viruses were found in only one and 5, respectively, of the 183 cattle examined. ..
  48. Beaty B, Calisher C. Bunyaviridae--natural history. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1991;169:27-78 pubmed
    ..Public health practitioners, veterinarians, virologists, entomologists, biologists, ecologists, molecular biologists, and other scientists will all benefit from increased study and knowledge of this fascinating group of viruses...
  49. Marriott A, Nuttall P. Comparison of the S RNA segments and nucleoprotein sequences of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Hazara, and Dugbe viruses. Virology. 1992;189:795-9 pubmed
    ..The deduced protein sequences show homology to each other and to the nucleoprotein of Dugbe (DUG) nairovirus, although both the CCHF and HAZ viral proteins are larger...
  50. Capodagli G, Deaton M, Baker E, Lumpkin R, Pegan S. Diversity of ubiquitin and ISG15 specificity among nairoviruses' viral ovarian tumor domain proteases. J Virol. 2013;87:3815-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent work has implicated the viral ovarian tumor domain (vOTU) as a possible nairovirus virulence factor due to its ability to edit ubiquitin (Ub) bound to cellular proteins and, at least in the case ..
  51. Escadafal C, Olschlager S, Avsic Zupanc T, Papa A, Vanhomwegen J, Wölfel R, et al. First international external quality assessment of molecular detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1706 pubmed publisher
    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonosis caused by a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae...
  52. Andrei G, De Clercq E. Molecular approaches for the treatment of hemorrhagic fever virus infections. Antiviral Res. 1993;22:45-75 pubmed
    ..fever, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, Lassa fever), filovirus (Ebola, Marburg), phlebovirus (Rift Valley fever), nairovirus (Crimian-Congo hemorrhagic fever) and hantavirus (hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, nephropathic epidemia)...
  53. Green E, Armstrong S, Dimmock N. Mechanisms of neutralization of a nairovirus (Dugbe virus) by polyclonal IgG and IgM. J Gen Virol. 1992;73 ( Pt 8):1995-2001 pubmed
    Dugbe virus is a member of the nairovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae. Purified polyclonal anti-Dugbe virus IgG, which neutralized greater than 99.5% of virus, reduced attachment of virus to BSC-1 cell monolayers by only 36%...