infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

Summary

Summary: The type species of AQUABIRNAVIRUS, causing infectious pancreatic necrosis in salmonid fish and other freshwater and marine animals including mollusks.

Top Publications

  1. Jensen I, Robertsen B. Effect of double-stranded RNA and interferon on the antiviral activity of Atlantic salmon cells against infectious salmon anemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2002;13:221-41 pubmed
    ..the Mx protein expression and antiviral activity against infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in the Atlantic salmon cell lines SHK-1 and TO...
  2. Munro E, Gahlawat S, Acosta F, Ellis A. In infectious pancreatic necrosis virus carrier Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., post-smolts, almost all kidney macrophages ex vivo contain a low level of non-replicating virus. J Fish Dis. 2006;29:43-8 pubmed
    The level of infection by infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) of kidney macrophages from 12 asymptomatic carrier Atlantic salmon post-smolts was studied...
  3. Weber S, Fichtner D, Mettenleiter T, Mundt E. Expression of VP5 of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus strain VR299 is initiated at the second in-frame start codon. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:805-12 pubmed
    b>Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), a member of the BIRNAVIRIDAE: with two double-stranded RNA genome segments, encodes five proteins designated VP1 to VP5...
  4. Orpetveit I, Mikalsen A, Sindre H, Evensen O, Dannevig B, Midtlyng P. Detection of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in subclinically infected Atlantic salmon by virus isolation in cell culture or real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction: influence of sample preservation and storage. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010;22:886-95 pubmed
    Infectious pancreatic necrosis, an important problem of the salmon industry worldwide, is caused by Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV)...
  5. Montero J, Chaves Pozo E, Cuesta A, Tafalla C. Chemokine transcription in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is differently modulated in response to viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) or infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2009;27:661-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of a viral infection using two different viruses, viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), comparing them to the levels induced by poly I:C...
  6. Rønneseth A, Pettersen E, Wergeland H. Neutrophils and B-cells in blood and head kidney of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) challenged with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2006;20:610-20 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that non-specific immune cells like neutrophils are highly influenced by IPNV infection of parr and post-smolts several weeks post challenge. ..
  7. Sundh H, Olsen R, Fridell F, Gadan K, Evensen Ø, Glette J, et al. The effect of hyperoxygenation and reduced flow in fresh water and subsequent infectious pancreatic necrosis virus challenge in sea water, on the intestinal barrier integrity in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. J Fish Dis. 2009;32:687-98 pubmed publisher
    ..used husbandry practice has been shown to be stressful to fish and increase mortality after infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) challenge, but the cause and effect relationship is not known...
  8. Collet B, Munro E, Gahlawat S, Acosta F, Garcia J, Roemelt C, et al. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus suppresses type I interferon signalling in rainbow trout gonad cell line but not in Atlantic salmon macrophages. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2007;22:44-56 pubmed
  9. Ingerslev H, Rønneseth A, Pettersen E, Wergeland H. Differential expression of immune genes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) challenged intraperitoneally or by cohabitation with IPNV. Scand J Immunol. 2009;69:90-8 pubmed publisher
    ..smolts challenged intraperitoneally (ip) and by cohabitation with a highly virulent strain of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus showed strong activation of important immune genes in spleen, liver, head-kidney and gill measured ..

More Information

Publications70

  1. Song H, Santi N, Evensen O, Vakharia V. Molecular determinants of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus virulence and cell culture adaptation. J Virol. 2005;79:10289-99 pubmed
    ..Highly virulent isolates possess residues Thr217 and Ala221; moderate- to low-virulence strains have Pro217 and Ala221; and strains containing Thr221 are almost avirulent, irrespective of the residue at position 217. ..
  2. Gheyas A, Houston R, Mota Velasco J, Guy D, Tinch A, Haley C, et al. Segregation of infectious pancreatic necrosis resistance QTL in the early life cycle of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). Anim Genet. 2010;41:531-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the segregation of the LG21 QTL in a different sub-population gives further evidence of its association with IPN-resistance...
  3. Bain N, Gregory A, Raynard R. Genetic analysis of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus from Scotland. J Fish Dis. 2008;31:37-47 pubmed
    ..This type of analysis is a useful tool in the management and control of fish diseases because it can assist in the identification of epidemiological links and highlight potential risks to aquaculture...
  4. Gadan K, Marjara I, Sundh H, Sundell K, Evensen Ø. Slow release cortisol implants result in impaired innate immune responses and higher infection prevalence following experimental challenge with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2012;32:637-44 pubmed publisher
    ..levels of cortisol on the immune response and susceptibility to experimental infection with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). Further, the effect of IPNV challenge on circulating levels of cortisol was investigated...
  5. Ozaki A, Sakamoto T, Khoo S, Nakamura K, Coimbra M, Akutsu T, et al. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance/susceptibility to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;265:23-31 pubmed
    ..Clarification of the genetic bases of complex traits has broad implications for fundamental research, but will also be of practical benefit to fish breeding...
  6. Espinoza J, Kuznar J. Rapid simultaneous detection and quantitation of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). J Virol Methods. 2002;105:81-5 pubmed
    b>Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a pathogen of great concern in the salmon industry as well as in the environment...
  7. Das B, Collet B, Snow M, Ellis A. Expression kinetics of ISG15 and viral major capsid protein (VP2) in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) fry following infection with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2007;23:825-30 pubmed
    ..Following infection with IPNV there was a marked increase in transcripts on day 3 and this level persisted up to day 21. This is the first report that IPNV induces the expression of the ISG15 gene in Atlantic cod...
  8. Graham S, Sarin L, Bahar M, Myers R, Stuart D, Bamford D, et al. The N-terminus of the RNA polymerase from infectious pancreatic necrosis virus is the determinant of genome attachment. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002085 pubmed publisher
    The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase VP1 of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a single polypeptide responsible for both viral RNA transcription and genome replication...
  9. Jørgensen J, Johansen L, Steiro K, Johansen A. CpG DNA induces protective antiviral immune responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). J Virol. 2003;77:11471-9 pubmed
    ..5'-GTCGTT-3') showed the highest stimulatory activity and were shown to induce protection against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus when injected in Atlantic salmon...
  10. Sun B, Skjæveland I, Svingerud T, Zou J, Jørgensen J, Robertsen B. Antiviral activity of salmonid gamma interferon against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus and salmonid alphavirus and its dependency on type I interferon. J Virol. 2011;85:9188-98 pubmed publisher
    ..IFN-? protected salmon cells against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV)-induced cytopathic effect (CPE), reduced virus titers, and inhibited the synthesis of the ..
  11. Hong J, Gong H, Wu J. IPNV VP5, a novel anti-apoptosis gene of the Bcl-2 family, regulates Mcl-1 and viral protein expression. Virology. 2002;295:217-29 pubmed
    VP5, a 5'-terminal, small open reading frame in segment A of the aquatic birnavirus (infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, IPNV) genome, encodes a 17-kDa nonstructural protein...
  12. Alonso M, Rodriguez S, Perez Prieto S. Viral coinfection in salmonids: infectious pancreatic necrosis virus interferes with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Arch Virol. 1999;144:657-73 pubmed
    ..Here we examine whether infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) strain Sp interferes with the growth of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) ..
  13. Ballesteros N, Saint Jean S, Pérez Prieto S, Coll J. Trout oral VP2 DNA vaccination mimics transcriptional responses occurring after infection with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2012;33:1249-57 pubmed publisher
    ..rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were studied after oral DNA-vaccination with the VP2 gene of the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) encapsulated in alginates...
  14. Shivappa R, Song H, Yao K, Aas Eng A, Evensen O, Vakharia V. Molecular characterization of Sp serotype strains of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus exhibiting differences in virulence. Dis Aquat Organ. 2004;61:23-32 pubmed
    b>Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), a prototype virus of the family Birnaviridae, exhibits a high degree of antigenic variability, pathogenicity and virulence in salmonid species...
  15. Xu H, Si W, Dobos P. Mapping the site of guanylylation on VP1, the protein primer for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus RNA synthesis. Virology. 2004;322:199-210 pubmed
    VP1, the putative virion-associated RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) can be guanylylated in vitro whereupon it becomes a primer for in vitro RNA synthesis [Virology 208 (1995) 19]...
  16. Santi N, Vakharia V, Evensen Ø. Identification of putative motifs involved in the virulence of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Virology. 2004;322:31-40 pubmed
  17. Martinez Alonso S, Vakharia V, Saint Jean S, Perez Prieto S, Tafalla C. Immune responses elicited in rainbow trout through the administration of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus-like particles. Dev Comp Immunol. 2012;36:378-84 pubmed publisher
    ..in the spleen of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) intraperitoneally injected with VLPs from infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) focusing on the chemokine response as well as the response of genes related to interferon (..
  18. Gadan K, Sandtrø A, Marjara I, Santi N, Munang andu H, Evensen Ø. Stress-induced reversion to virulence of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in naïve fry of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54656 pubmed publisher
    We have studied stress-induced reversion to virulence of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in persistently infected Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry...
  19. Kim H, Oseko N, Nishizawa T, Yoshimizu M. Protection of rainbow trout from infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) by injection of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) or poly(I:C). Dis Aquat Organ. 2009;83:105-13 pubmed publisher
    ..against infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in fish was induced by pre-exposure to the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV)...
  20. Marroquí L, Estepa A, Perez L. Inhibitory effect of mycophenolic acid on the replication of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus. Antiviral Res. 2008;80:332-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) remain two of the most important pathogens of farmed trout worldwide...
  21. Santi N, Sandtrø A, Sindre H, Song H, Hong J, Thu B, et al. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo independent of VP5 expression. Virology. 2005;342:13-25 pubmed
    b>Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), the causative agent of a highly infectious disease in salmonid fish, encodes a small non-structural protein designated VP5...
  22. Galloux M, Chevalier C, Henry C, Huet J, Costa B, Delmas B. Peptides resulting from the pVP2 C-terminal processing are present in infectious pancreatic necrosis virus particles. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:2231-6 pubmed
    ..The presence of peptides in infectious pancreatic necrosis virus particles was investigated using mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing of virus particles...
  23. Skjesol A, Skjæveland I, Elnæs M, Timmerhaus G, Fredriksen B, Jørgensen S, et al. IPNV with high and low virulence: host immune responses and viral mutations during infection. Virol J. 2011;8:396 pubmed publisher
    b>Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is an aquatic member of the Birnaviridae family that causes widespread disease in salmonids. IPNV is represented by multiple strains with markedly different virulence...
  24. Fernández Trujillo M, Garcia Rosado E, Alonso M, Borrego J, Alvarez M, Bejar J. Differential antiviral activity of Mx1, Mx2 and Mx3 proteins from gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) against Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV). Mol Immunol. 2011;49:107-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The protection conferred by each recombinant SauMx against Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) infection has been in vitro evaluated, having found clear differences among them...
  25. Ballesteros N, Saint Jean S, Encinas P, Pérez Prieto S, Coll J. Oral immunization of rainbow trout to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (Ipnv) induces different immune gene expression profiles in head kidney and pyloric ceca. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2012;33:174-85 pubmed publisher
    ..and protection by oral vaccination with DNA-alginates of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) was recently reported...
  26. Chaves Pozo E, Montero J, Cuesta A, Tafalla C. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia and infectious pancreatic necrosis viruses replicate differently in rainbow trout gonad and induce different chemokine transcription profiles. Dev Comp Immunol. 2010;34:648-58 pubmed publisher
    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) are two rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) pathogens...
  27. Garcia J, Munro E, Monte M, Fourrier M, Whitelaw J, Smail D, et al. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) serum vitellogenin neutralises infectivity of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010;29:293-7 pubmed publisher
    ..ovarian fluid and serum of mature female Atlantic salmon have high neutralising ability for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV)...
  28. de Las Heras A, Pérez Prieto S, Rodríguez Saint Jean S. In vitro and in vivo immune responses induced by a DNA vaccine encoding the VP2 gene of the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2009;27:120-9 pubmed publisher
    The work presented here describes the construction of a plasmid encoding the VP2 gene of the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), its expression in BF-2 cells and an evaluation of its activity in brown trout (Salmo trutta L) soon ..
  29. Orpetveit I, Gjøen T, Sindre H, Dannevig B. Binding of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) to membrane proteins from different fish cell lines. Arch Virol. 2008;153:485-93 pubmed publisher
    The early interactions between infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) from Atlantic salmon and susceptible cell lines were studied using a virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA)...
  30. Bowers R, LaPatra S, Dhar A. Detection and quantitation of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using lethal and non-lethal tissue sampling. J Virol Methods. 2008;147:226-34 pubmed
    b>Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a bisegmented double-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Birnaviridae, genus Aquabirnavirus, which is a major viral pathogen of salmonid fish...
  31. Blake S, Ma J, Caporale D, Jairath S, Nicholson B. Phylogenetic relationships of aquatic birnaviruses based on deduced amino acid sequences of genome segment A cDNA. Dis Aquat Organ. 2001;45:89-102 pubmed
    Aquatic birnaviruses, such as infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), cause serious diseases in a variety of fish species used worldwide in aquaculture and have also been isolated from a variety of healthy fish and shellfish species...
  32. Guy D, Bishop S, Brotherstone S, Hamilton A, Roberts R, McAndrew B, et al. Analysis of the incidence of infectious pancreatic necrosis mortality in pedigreed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., populations. J Fish Dis. 2006;29:637-47 pubmed
    ..197 full-sib families produced by 149 males and 197 females, experienced a field challenge from infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), following transfer to three separate seawater sites...
  33. Moon C, Do J, Cha S, Bang J, Park M, Yoo D, et al. Comparison of the immunogenicity of recombinant VP2 and VP3 of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus and marine birnavirus. Arch Virol. 2004;149:2059-68 pubmed
    Recombinant proteins of truncated viral protein-2 (VP2) (aa 79-359) and VP3 of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and marine birnavirus (MABV) were expressed in E. coli and their immunogenicities in fish were investigated...
  34. Johansen L, Sommer A. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus infection in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post-smolts affects the outcome of secondary infections with infectious salmon anaemia virus or Vibrio salmonicida. Dis Aquat Organ. 2001;47:109-17 pubmed
    ..When Atlantic salmon with acute IPN were infected with ISAV, significantly fewer fish died than when fish were infected with ISAV alone. The ongoing IPNV infection seemed to provide some protection against development of ISA...
  35. Hong J, Wu J. Induction of apoptotic death in cells via Bad gene expression by infectious pancreatic necrosis virus infection. Cell Death Differ. 2002;9:113-24 pubmed
    ..Our data also suggests that the IPNV induces apoptotic death via a viral receptor which triggers death effector Bad gene expression, possibly through a tyrosine kinase-dependent pathway...
  36. Larsen R, Røkenes T, Robertsen B. Inhibition of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus replication by atlantic salmon Mx1 protein. J Virol. 2004;78:7938-44 pubmed
    ..In fish, alpha/beta IFN has been reported to inhibit the replication of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), but the mode of action has not been elucidated...
  37. Oye A, Rimstad E. Inactivation of infectious salmon anaemia virus, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in water using UVC irradiation. Dis Aquat Organ. 2001;48:1-5 pubmed
    ..5 and 7.9 +/- 1.5 J m(-2), respectively, while that of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) was substantially higher, 1188 +/- 57 J m(-2)...
  38. Coulibaly F, Chevalier C, Delmas B, Rey F. Crystal structure of an Aquabirnavirus particle: insights into antigenic diversity and virulence determinism. J Virol. 2010;84:1792-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), a pathogen of salmon and trout, imposes a severe toll on the aquaculture and sea farming industries...
  39. Santi N, Song H, Vakharia V, Evensen Ø. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus VP5 is dispensable for virulence and persistence. J Virol. 2005;79:9206-16 pubmed
    b>Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is the causative agent of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) disease in salmonid fish...
  40. McBeath A, Snow M, Secombes C, Ellis A, Collet B. Expression kinetics of interferon and interferon-induced genes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) following infection with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus and infectious salmon anaemia virus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2007;22:230-41 pubmed
    b>Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) are economically important pathogens of the salmonid aquaculture industry. Atlantic salmon were challenged by intraperitoneal injection (i.p...
  41. Petit S, Lejal N, Huet J, Delmas B. Active residues and viral substrate cleavage sites of the protease of the birnavirus infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. J Virol. 2000;74:2057-66 pubmed
    The polyprotein of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), a birnavirus, is processed by the viral protease VP4 (also named NS) to generate three polypeptides: pVP2, VP4, and VP3...
  42. Villanueva R, Galaz J, Valdés J, Jashés M, Sandino A. Genome assembly and particle maturation of the birnavirus infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. J Virol. 2004;78:13829-38 pubmed
    In this study, we have analyzed the morphogenesis of the birnavirus infectious pancreatic necrosis virus throughout the infective cycle in CHSE-214 cells by using a native agarose electrophoresis system...
  43. Rodríguez Saint Jean S, Borrego J, Pérez Prieto S. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus: biology, pathogenesis, and diagnostic methods. Adv Virus Res. 2003;62:113-65 pubmed
  44. Kim S, Kim S, Oh M, Jung S, Kang S. In vitro antiviral activity of red alga, Polysiphonia morrowii extract and its bromophenols against fish pathogenic infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. J Microbiol. 2011;49:102-6 pubmed publisher
    ..activities against fish pathogenic viruses, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV)...
  45. Munang andu H, Fredriksen B, Mutoloki S, Brudeseth B, Kuo T, Marjara I, et al. Comparison of vaccine efficacy for different antigen delivery systems for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus vaccines in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in a cohabitation challenge model. Vaccine. 2012;30:4007-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, there still remains the challenge of developing highly efficacious vaccines with the ability to eliminate the post challenge carrier state in IPNV vaccinology...
  46. Wallace I, Gregory A, Murray A, Munro E, Raynard R. Distribution of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in wild marine fish from Scottish waters with respect to clinically infected aquaculture sites producing Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. J Fish Dis. 2008;31:177-86 pubmed publisher
    ..and saithe, respectively. This study provides evidence that clinical outbreaks of IPN in farmed Atlantic salmon may cause a localized small increase in the prevalence of IPNV in wild marine fish...
  47. Cuesta A, Chaves Pozo E, de las Heras A, Saint Jean S, Perez Prieto S, Tafalla C. An active DNA vaccine against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) with a different mode of action than fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccines. Vaccine. 2010;28:3291-300 pubmed publisher
    Although there are some commercial vaccines available against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), the disease still continues to be a major problem for aquaculture development worldwide...
  48. Julin K, Johansen L, Sommer A. Reference genes evaluated for use in infectious pancreatic necrosis virus real-time RT-qPCR assay applied during different stages of an infection. J Virol Methods. 2009;162:30-9 pubmed publisher
    ..head kidney and pylorus and collected at different time points during a challenge experiment with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). The stability of some of the reference genes was also studied in infected CHSE-214 cells...
  49. Ruane N, McCarthy L, Swords D, Henshilwood K. Molecular differentiation of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus isolates from farmed and wild salmonids in Ireland. J Fish Dis. 2009;32:979-87 pubmed publisher
    This study investigated the genotypes and sub-groups of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) present in farmed and wild salmonid fish in Ireland...
  50. Pedersen T, Skjesol A, J rgensen J. VP3, a structural protein of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, interacts with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase VP1 and with double-stranded RNA. J Virol. 2007;81:6652-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a bisegmented, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of the Birnaviridae family that causes widespread disease in salmonids...
  51. Mutoloki S, Evensen Ø. Sequence similarities of the capsid gene of Chilean and European isolates of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus point towards a common origin. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1721-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The objectives of this study were to compare the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) isolates from Chile to those of European origin and to determine the diversity of the ..
  52. Chiu C, Wu J, Her G, Chou Y, Hong J. Aquatic birnavirus capsid protein, VP3, induces apoptosis via the Bad-mediated mitochondria pathway in fish and mouse cells. Apoptosis. 2010;15:653-68 pubmed publisher
  53. Alonso M, Rodríguez Saint Jean S, Perez Prieto S. Virulence of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus coinfection in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) and nucleotide sequence analysis of the IHNV glycoprotein gene. Arch Virol. 2003;148:1507-21 pubmed
    ..trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) with Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) strain S46 and Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) strain S46 was determined after waterborne infection. Trout infected with the IHNV/IPNV...
  54. Murray A, Busby C, Bruno D. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in Scottish Atlantic salmon farms, 1996-2001. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:455-60 pubmed
    ..Data from an official monitoring program were used to analyze the emergence of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in Scottish salmon farms from 1996 to 2001...
  55. Hong J, Huang L, Wu J. Aquatic birnavirus induces apoptosis through activated caspase-8 and -3 in a zebrafish cell line. J Fish Dis. 2005;28:133-40 pubmed
    In this study, the possible influence of temperature on infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV)-induced apoptosis in a zebrafish liver epithelium (ZLE) cell line was investigated...
  56. de Las Heras A, Rodríguez Saint Jean S, Pérez Prieto S. Immunogenic and protective effects of an oral DNA vaccine against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in fish. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010;28:562-70 pubmed publisher
    DNA vaccines and oral DNA-based immunotherapy against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) have scarcely been studied in salmonid fish...
  57. Skjesol A, Aamo T, Hegseth M, Robertsen B, Jørgensen J. The interplay between infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and the IFN system: IFN signaling is inhibited by IPNV infection. Virus Res. 2009;143:53-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a major pathogen in the aquaculture industry worldwide. Factors contributing to IPNV pathogenicity are yet poorly understood...
  58. Rivas Aravena A, Cortez San Martin M, Galaz J, Imarai M, Miranda D, Spencer E, et al. Evaluation of the immune response against immature viral particles of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV): a new model to develop an attenuated vaccine. Vaccine. 2012;30:5110-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a worldwide problem affecting both freshwater and seawater fish. Vaccines developed against IPNV are not as efficient in the field as they are in tests...
  59. Munang andu H, Sandtrø A, Mutoloki S, Brudeseth B, Santi N, Evensen Ø. Immunogenicity and cross protective ability of the central VP2 amino acids of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54263 pubmed publisher
    b>Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a member of the family Birnaviridae that has been linked to high mortalities in juvenile salmonids and postsmolt stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) after transfer to seawater...
  60. Houston R, Gheyas A, Hamilton A, Guy D, Tinch A, Taggart J, et al. Detection and confirmation of a major QTL affecting resistance to infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Dev Biol (Basel). 2008;132:199-204 pubmed
    ..The size of QTL effect is such that the QTL flanking markers can be immediately applied in marker-assisted selection programmes to improve the resistance of salmon populations to IPN, thus reducing mortality due to the disease...
  61. Munang andu H, Fredriksen B, Mutoloki S, Dalmo R, Evensen Ø. Antigen dose and humoral immune response correspond with protection for inactivated infectious pancreatic necrosis virus vaccines in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Vet Res. 2013;44:7 pubmed publisher
    An enduring challenge in the vaccinology of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is the lack of correlation between neutralizing antibodies and protection against mortality...