reassortant viruses

Summary

Summary: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.

Top Publications

  1. Campbell P, Danzy S, Kyriakis C, Deymier M, Lowen A, Steel J. The M segment of the 2009 pandemic influenza virus confers increased neuraminidase activity, filamentous morphology, and efficient contact transmissibility to A/Puerto Rico/8/1934-based reassortant viruses. J Virol. 2014;88:3802-14 pubmed publisher
    ..how the M segment might affect transmission, we evaluated neuraminidase activity and virion morphology of reassortant viruses. Transmission was found to correlate with higher neuraminidase activity and a more filamentous morphology...
  2. Zhao K, Gu M, Zhong L, Duan Z, Zhang Y, Zhu Y, et al. Characterization of three H5N5 and one H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in China. Vet Microbiol. 2013;163:351-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings highlight the emergence and development of HPAI H5 viruses of other NA subtypes in H5N1 endemic areas and their potential threat to poultry industry and public health...
  3. Ha J, Schwahn A, Downard K. Proteotyping to establish gene origin within reassortant influenza viruses. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e15771 pubmed publisher
  4. Bodewes R, Nieuwkoop N, Verburgh R, Fouchier R, Osterhaus A, Rimmelzwaan G. Use of influenza A viruses expressing reporter genes to assess the frequency of double infections in vitro. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:1645-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Double-infected A549 and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells were detected by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry...
  5. Tremblay D, Allard V, Doyon J, Bellehumeur C, Spearman J, Harel J, et al. Emergence of a new swine H3N2 and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A virus reassortant in two Canadian animal populations, mink and swine. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:4386-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Data indicate that the swH3N2/pH1N1 virus can be found in several pigs that are housed at different locations...
  6. Vijaykrishna D, Smith G, Pybus O, Zhu H, Bhatt S, Poon L, et al. Long-term evolution and transmission dynamics of swine influenza A virus. Nature. 2011;473:519-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that increased antigenic drift is associated with reassortment events and offer insights into the emergence of influenza viruses with epidemic potential in swine and humans...
  7. Sun Y, Qin K, Wang J, Pu J, Tang Q, Hu Y, et al. High genetic compatibility and increased pathogenicity of reassortants derived from avian H9N2 and pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:4164-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the potential public risk of the reassortant viruses derived from these viruses, we used reverse genetics to generate 127 H9 reassortants derived from an avian ..
  8. Ducatez M, Hause B, Stigger Rosser E, Darnell D, CORZO C, Juleen K, et al. Multiple reassortment between pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and endemic influenza viruses in pigs, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1624-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Nine reassortant viruses representing 7 genotypes were detected in commercial pig farms in the United States...
  9. Yu H, Zhou Y, Li G, Ma J, Yan L, Wang B, et al. Genetic diversity of H9N2 influenza viruses from pigs in China: a potential threat to human health?. Vet Microbiol. 2011;149:254-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The other eight genotype (C-J) viruses might be double-reassortant viruses, in which six genotype (E-J) viruses possessed 1-4 H5-like gene segments indicating they were reassortants ..

More Information

Publications71

  1. Liu Q, Ma J, Liu H, Qi W, Anderson J, Henry S, et al. Emergence of novel reassortant H3N2 swine influenza viruses with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 genes in the United States. Arch Virol. 2012;157:555-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The emergence of novel reassortant H3N2 SIVs demonstrates reassortment between pH1N1 and endemic SIVs in pigs and justifies continuous surveillance...
  2. Ali A, Khatri M, Wang L, Saif Y, Lee C. Identification of swine H1N2/pandemic H1N1 reassortant influenza virus in pigs, United States. Vet Microbiol. 2012;158:60-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The four internal genes, PB2, PB1, PA, and NS were similar to the contemporary swine triple reassortant viruses' internal genes (TRIG)...
  3. Yanase T, Kato T, Aizawa M, Shuto Y, Shirafuji H, Yamakawa M, et al. Genetic reassortment between Sathuperi and Shamonda viruses of the genus Orthobunyavirus in nature: implications for their genetic relationship to Schmallenberg virus. Arch Virol. 2012;157:1611-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis of the three genomic RNA segments indicated that Schmallenberg virus is a reassortant, with the M RNA segment from SATV and the S and L RNA segments from SHAV...
  4. Wang Z, Robb N, Lenz E, Wolff T, Fodor E, Pleschka S. NS reassortment of an H7-type highly pathogenic avian influenza virus affects its propagation by altering the regulation of viral RNA production and antiviral host response. J Virol. 2010;84:11323-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Virological characterizations demonstrated that the growth kinetics of the reassortant viruses differed from that of wild-type (wt) FPV and depended on whether cells were of mammalian or avian origin...
  5. Kitikoon P, Vincent A, Gauger P, Schlink S, Bayles D, Gramer M, et al. Pathogenicity and transmission in pigs of the novel A(H3N2)v influenza virus isolated from humans and characterization of swine H3N2 viruses isolated in 2010-2011. J Virol. 2012;86:6804-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Continued monitoring of these H3N2 viruses is necessary to evaluate the evolution and potential loss of population immunity in swine and humans...
  6. Cline T, Karlsson E, Freiden P, Seufzer B, Rehg J, Webby R, et al. Increased pathogenicity of a reassortant 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus containing an H5N1 hemagglutinin. J Virol. 2011;85:12262-70 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the virulence of pH1N1-H5N1 reassortant viruses, we created pH1N1 (A/California/04/2009) viruses expressing individual genes from an avian H5N1 influenza ..
  7. Imai M, Watanabe T, Hatta M, Das S, Ozawa M, Shinya K, et al. Experimental adaptation of an influenza H5 HA confers respiratory droplet transmission to a reassortant H5 HA/H1N1 virus in ferrets. Nature. 2012;486:420-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and infect humans, receptor-binding variants of H5N1 viruses with pandemic potential, including avian-human reassortant viruses as tested here, may emerge...
  8. Chan R, Kang S, Yen H, Li A, Tang L, Yu W, et al. Tissue tropism of swine influenza viruses and reassortants in ex vivo cultures of the human respiratory tract and conjunctiva. J Virol. 2011;85:11581-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these findings suggest that ex vivo cultures of the human respiratory tract provide a useful biological model for assessing the human health risk of swine influenza viruses...
  9. Dong C, Ying L, Yuan D. Detecting transmission and reassortment events for influenza A viruses with genotype profile method. Virol J. 2011;8:395 pubmed publisher
    ..sourceforge.net. Furthermore, we found that a previous summary of the reassortment events in swine influenza A viruses may be inaccurate...
  10. Mak P, Wong C, Li O, Chan K, Cheung C, Ma E, et al. Rapid genotyping of swine influenza viruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:691-4 pubmed publisher
  11. Qu Y, Zhang R, Cui P, Song G, Duan Z, Lei F. Evolutionary genomics of the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses (pH1N 1v). Virol J. 2011;8:250 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study is trying to estimate a temporal reassortment history of 2009 H1N1 viruses by phylogenetic analysis based on a total 394 sequences of H1N1viruses isolated from swine, human and avian...
  12. Mukherjee T, Agrawal A, Chakrabarti S, Chawla Sarkar M. Full genomic analysis of an influenza A (H1N2) virus identified during 2009 pandemic in Eastern India: evidence of reassortment event between co-circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 and A/Brisbane/10/2007-like H3N2 strains. Virol J. 2012;9:233 pubmed publisher
    ..During the pandemic [Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09] period in 2009-2010, an influenza A (Inf-A) virus with H1N2 subtype (designated as A/Eastern India/N-1289/2009) was detected from a 25 years old male from Mizoram (North-eastern India)...
  13. Hiromoto Y, Parchariyanon S, Ketusing N, Netrabukkana P, Hayashi T, Kobayashi T, et al. Isolation of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus and its reassortant with an H3N2 swine influenza virus from healthy weaning pigs in Thailand in 2011. Virus Res. 2012;169:175-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our result demonstrated that the A (H1N1) pdm09 virus has been established in the Thai pig population and this has resulted in genetic reassortment with Thai SIV that previously circulated among pigs...
  14. Belser J, Gustin K, Maines T, Blau D, Zaki S, Katz J, et al. Pathogenesis and transmission of triple-reassortant swine H1N1 influenza viruses isolated before the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. J Virol. 2011;85:1563-72 pubmed publisher
  15. Zhao X, Sun Y, Pu J, Fan L, Shi W, Hu Y, et al. Characterization of an artificial swine-origin influenza virus with the same gene combination as H1N1/2009 virus: a genesis clue of pandemic strain. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22091 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results reveal that not only gene segment reassortment but also amino acid mutation were needed for the generation of the pandemic influenza virus...
  16. Chou Y, Albrecht R, Pica N, Lowen A, Richt J, Garcia Sastre A, et al. The M segment of the 2009 new pandemic H1N1 influenza virus is critical for its high transmission efficiency in the guinea pig model. J Virol. 2011;85:11235-41 pubmed publisher
  17. Howard W, Essen S, Strugnell B, Russell C, Barass L, Reid S, et al. Reassortant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in pigs, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1049-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This virus had genes encoding internal proteins from pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus and hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes from swine influenza virus (H1N2). Our results demonstrate processes contributing to influenza virus heterogeneity...
  18. Wu A, Su C, Wang D, Peng Y, Liu M, Hua S, et al. Sequential reassortments underlie diverse influenza H7N9 genotypes in China. Cell Host Microbe. 2013;14:446-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies the pathways for the generation of diverse H7N9 genotypes in China and highlights the importance of monitoring multiple sources for effective surveillance of potential influenza outbreaks. ..
  19. Kimble J, Sorrell E, Shao H, Martin P, Perez D. Compatibility of H9N2 avian influenza surface genes and 2009 pandemic H1N1 internal genes for transmission in the ferret model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:12084-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Four reassortant viruses were generated, with three of them showing efficient respiratory droplet transmission...
  20. Sorrell E, Schrauwen E, Linster M, de Graaf M, Herfst S, Fouchier R. Predicting 'airborne' influenza viruses: (trans-) mission impossible?. Curr Opin Virol. 2011;1:635-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Investigating 'airborne' transmission of influenza viruses is key to understand-and predict-influenza pandemics...
  21. Martella V, Potgieter A, Lorusso E, De Grazia S, Giammanco G, Matthijnssens J, et al. A feline rotavirus G3P[9] carries traces of multiple reassortment events and resembles rare human G3P[9] rotaviruses. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1214-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, the findings suggest that feline RVs are genetically diverse and that human RVs may occasionally originate either directly or indirectly (via reassortment) from feline RVs...
  22. Shu B, Garten R, Emery S, Balish A, Cooper L, Sessions W, et al. Genetic analysis and antigenic characterization of swine origin influenza viruses isolated from humans in the United States, 1990-2010. Virology. 2012;422:151-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The diversity of subtypes and genetic lineages in SOIV cases highlights the importance of continued surveillance at the animal-human interface...
  23. Gao R, Cao B, Hu Y, Feng Z, Wang D, Hu W, et al. Human infection with a novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1888-97 pubmed publisher
    ..In March 2013, three urban residents of Shanghai or Anhui, China, presented with rapidly progressing lower respiratory tract infections and were found to be infected with a novel reassortant avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus...
  24. Matthijnssens J, De Grazia S, Piessens J, Heylen E, Zeller M, Giammanco G, et al. Multiple reassortment and interspecies transmission events contribute to the diversity of feline, canine and feline/canine-like human group A rotavirus strains. Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:1396-406 pubmed publisher
  25. Maines T, Chen L, Belser J, Van Hoeven N, Smith E, Donis R, et al. Multiple genes contribute to the virulent phenotype observed in ferrets of an H5N1 influenza virus isolated from Thailand in 2004. Virology. 2011;413:226-30 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Reassortant viruses were generated from this virus pair and evaluated in ferrets...
  26. Romagosa A, Allerson M, Gramer M, Joo H, Deen J, Detmer S, et al. Vaccination of influenza a virus decreases transmission rates in pigs. Vet Res. 2011;42:120 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from this study indicate that influenza vaccines can be used to decrease susceptibility to influenza infection and decrease influenza transmission...
  27. Herfst S, Schrauwen E, Linster M, Chutinimitkul S, de Wit E, Munster V, et al. Airborne transmission of influenza A/H5N1 virus between ferrets. Science. 2012;336:1534-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, avian A/H5N1 influenza viruses can acquire the capacity for airborne transmission between mammals without recombination in an intermediate host and therefore constitute a risk for human pandemic influenza. ..
  28. Schrauwen E, Herfst S, Chutinimitkul S, Bestebroer T, Rimmelzwaan G, Osterhaus A, et al. Possible increased pathogenicity of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus upon reassortment. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:200-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic reassortment between these viruses could result in enhanced pathogenicity. We compared 4 reassortant viruses with favorable in vitro replication properties with the wild-type pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus with respect ..
  29. Lindstrom S, Garten R, Balish A, Shu B, Emery S, Berman L, et al. Human infections with novel reassortant influenza A(H3N2)v viruses, United States, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:834-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Influenza A(H3N2)v viruses were antigenically distinct from seasonal influenza viruses and similar to proposed vaccine virus A/Minnesota/11/2010...
  30. Song M, Pascua P, Lee J, Baek Y, Park K, Kwon H, et al. Virulence and genetic compatibility of polymerase reassortant viruses derived from the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus and circulating influenza A viruses. J Virol. 2011;85:6275-86 pubmed publisher
    ..various polymerase point mutants (PB2, 627K/701N; PB1, expression of PB1-F2 protein; and PA, 97I) and reassortant viruses with various sources of influenza viruses by reverse genetics...
  31. Conenello G, Tisoncik J, Rosenzweig E, Varga Z, Palese P, Katze M. A single N66S mutation in the PB1-F2 protein of influenza A virus increases virulence by inhibiting the early interferon response in vivo. J Virol. 2011;85:652-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that PB1-F2 N66S may contribute to the delay of innate immune responses, allowing for unchecked viral growth and ultimately severe immunopathology observed in the lungs...
  32. Yurovsky A, Moret B. FluReF, an automated flu virus reassortment finder based on phylogenetic trees. BMC Genomics. 2011;12 Suppl 2:S3 pubmed publisher
    ..However, current methods are limited to pairwise segment comparisons...
  33. Tada T, Suzuki K, Sakurai Y, Kubo M, Okada H, Itoh T, et al. NP body domain and PB2 contribute to increased virulence of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens. J Virol. 2011;85:1834-46 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore the molecular basis of this difference in pathogenicity, a series of eight single-gene reassortant viruses from these HPAI viruses were compared for pathogenicity in chickens...
  34. Neumann G, Ozawa M, Kawaoka Y. Reverse genetics of influenza viruses. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;865:193-206 pubmed publisher
    ..Several variations of the original system have been established, all of which are considerably robust and efficient...
  35. Moreno A, Di Trani L, Faccini S, Vaccari G, Nigrelli D, Boniotti M, et al. Novel H1N2 swine influenza reassortant strain in pigs derived from the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus. Vet Microbiol. 2011;149:472-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The new reassortant not only represents a pandemic (zoonotic) threat but also has unknown livestock implications for the European swine industry...
  36. Nelson M, Vincent A, Kitikoon P, Holmes E, Gramer M. Evolution of novel reassortant A/H3N2 influenza viruses in North American swine and humans, 2009-2011. J Virol. 2012;86:8872-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of this N2 variant may have implications for influenza vaccine design and the potential pandemic threat of H3N2v to human age groups with differing levels of prior exposure and immunity...
  37. Starick E, Lange E, Fereidouni S, Bunzenthal C, Höveler R, Kuczka A, et al. Reassorted pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A virus discovered from pigs in Germany. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1184-8 pubmed publisher
  38. Zhang X, de Angelis D, White P, Charlett A, Pebody R, McCauley J. Co-circulation of influenza A virus strains and emergence of pandemic via reassortment: the role of cross-immunity. Epidemics. 2013;5:20-33 pubmed publisher
  39. Deblanc C, Gorin S, Queguiner S, Gautier Bouchardon A, Ferre S, Amenna N, et al. Pre-infection of pigs with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae modifies outcomes of infection with European swine influenza virus of H1N1, but not H1N2, subtype. Vet Microbiol. 2012;157:96-105 pubmed publisher
    ..This experimental model of coinfection with Mhp and avian-like swine H1N1 is a relevant tool for studying the pathogenesis of SIV-associated PRDC and testing intervention strategies for the control of the disease...
  40. Moreno A, Chiapponi C, Boniotti M, Sozzi E, Foni E, Barbieri I, et al. Genomic characterization of H1N2 swine influenza viruses in Italy. Vet Microbiol. 2012;156:265-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings also highlighted different genomic characteristics of the NA gene the recent Italian strains compared to circulating European viruses...
  41. Evseenko V, Boon A, Brockwell Staats C, Franks J, Rubrum A, Daniels C, et al. Genetic composition of contemporary swine influenza viruses in the West Central region of the United States of America. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2011;5:188-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Reassortment of the genome segments can significantly change virus phenotype, potentially generating virus with pandemic potential. In 2009, a new pandemic influenza virus emerged...
  42. Liu Q, Qiao C, Marjuki H, Bawa B, Ma J, Guillossou S, et al. Combination of PB2 271A and SR polymorphism at positions 590/591 is critical for viral replication and virulence of swine influenza virus in cultured cells and in vivo. J Virol. 2012;86:1233-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that a combination of 271A with the 590/591 SR polymorphism is critical for pH1N1 and triple-reassortant SIVs for efficient replication and adaptation in mammals...
  43. Chen L, Blixt O, Stevens J, Lipatov A, Davis C, Collins B, et al. In vitro evolution of H5N1 avian influenza virus toward human-type receptor specificity. Virology. 2012;422:105-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The complex changes required for airborne transmissibility in ferrets suggest that extensive evolution is needed for H5N1 transmissibility in humans...
  44. Kitikoon P, Sreta D, Na Ayudhya S, Wongphatcharachai M, Lapkuntod J, Prakairungnamthip D, et al. Brief report: Molecular characterization of a novel reassorted pandemic H1N1 2009 in Thai pigs. Virus Genes. 2011;43:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding highlights the role of pig in generating newly reassorted influenza A viruses and also the significance of continuing disease surveillance and genetic characterization of SIV in pigs...
  45. Octaviani C, Goto H, Kawaoka Y. Reassortment between seasonal H1N1 and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza viruses is restricted by limited compatibility among polymerase subunits. J Virol. 2011;85:8449-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results identify the cooperation between PB2 and PB1 as an important restricting factor for reassortment of influenza viruses...
  46. Nagarajan N, Kingsford C. GiRaF: robust, computational identification of influenza reassortments via graph mining. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:e34 pubmed publisher
    ..GiRaF also identifies several previously unreported reassortments via whole-genome studies to catalog events in H5N1 and swine influenza isolates...
  47. Octaviani C, Li C, Noda T, Kawaoka Y. Reassortment between seasonal and swine-origin H1N1 influenza viruses generates viruses with enhanced growth capability in cell culture. Virus Res. 2011;156:147-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that reassortant viruses containing a seasonal H1 HA and swine-origin NA and M genes have enhanced virus growth over their wild-type ..
  48. Zhu H, Zhou B, Fan X, Lam T, Wang J, Chen A, et al. Novel reassortment of Eurasian avian-like and pandemic/2009 influenza viruses in swine: infectious potential for humans. J Virol. 2011;85:10432-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The continuing prevalence of the pdm/09 virus in pigs could lead to the genesis of novel swine reassortant viruses with the potential to infect humans.
  49. Mehle A, Dugan V, Taubenberger J, Doudna J. Reassortment and mutation of the avian influenza virus polymerase PA subunit overcome species barriers. J Virol. 2012;86:1750-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Reassortant viruses with avian polymerases and human PA subunits, or simply the T552S mutation, displayed faster replication ..
  50. Zhou B, Li Y, Halpin R, Hine E, Spiro D, Wentworth D. PB2 residue 158 is a pathogenic determinant of pandemic H1N1 and H5 influenza a viruses in mice. J Virol. 2011;85:357-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, future surveillance efforts should include scrutiny of this region of PB2 because of its potential impact on pathogenesis...
  51. Kim H, Park C, Oem J, Bae Y, Choi J, Lee O, et al. Characterization of H5N2 influenza viruses isolated in South Korea and their influence on the emergence of a novel H9N2 influenza virus. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:1978-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Three H9N2 viruses obtained at live bird markets and duck farms were reassortant viruses generated from the H5N2 viruses of domestic ducks and the H9N2 virus endemic in Korean chickens...
  52. Babakir Mina M, Dimonte S, Perno C, Ciotti M. Origin of the 2009 Mexico influenza virus: a comparative phylogenetic analysis of the principal external antigens and matrix protein. Arch Virol. 2009;154:1349-52 pubmed publisher
    ..All of the 2009 isolates appear homogeneous and cluster together, although they are distinct from classical human A (H1N1) viruses. ..
  53. Ibe S, Yokomaku Y, Shiino T, Tanaka R, Hattori J, Fujisaki S, et al. HIV-2 CRF01_AB: first circulating recombinant form of HIV-2. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;54:241-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently identified HIV-2 CRF01_AB cases in Japan. This ectopic observation of the virus outside its original endemic area suggests an ongoing global spread of HIV-2 CRF01_AB. ..
  54. Bokhari S, Janies D. Reassortment networks for investigating the evolution of segmented viruses. IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform. 2010;7:288-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The reassortment network, with O(taun2) nodes, is then constructed using these distances. The ancestors and descendents of a specific virus can be traced via shortest paths in this network, which can be found in O(taun3) time. ..
  55. Li C, Hatta M, Nidom C, Muramoto Y, Watanabe S, Neumann G, et al. Reassortment between avian H5N1 and human H3N2 influenza viruses creates hybrid viruses with substantial virulence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:4687-92 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the pathogenic potential of reassortant viruses between currently cocirculating avian H5N1 and human H3N2 influenza viruses, we generated all the 254 ..
  56. Matthijnssens J, Rahman M, Van Ranst M. Two out of the 11 genes of an unusual human G6P[6] rotavirus isolate are of bovine origin. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:2630-5 pubmed publisher
  57. Ge F, Zhou J, Liu J, Wang J, Zhang W, Sheng L, et al. Genetic evolution of H9 subtype influenza viruses from live poultry markets in Shanghai, China. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:3294-300 pubmed publisher
    ..The infected chickens showed no signs of disease. These results show the genetic and biological diversity of H9N2 viruses in Shanghai and support their potential role as pandemic influenza agents. ..
  58. Gatherer D. The 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak in its historical context. J Clin Virol. 2009;45:174-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that the divergence between H1 and its nearest serotype neighbour H2 is around 40-46%, the 2009 H1 may be broadly considered as halfway towards a new serotype. The current situation is one of antigenic pseudo-shift. ..
  59. Xu M, Huang Y, Chen J, Huang Z, Zhang J, Zhu Y, et al. Isolation and genetic analysis of a novel triple-reassortant H1N1 influenza virus from a pig in China. Vet Microbiol. 2011;147:403-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The isolation of triple-reassortant H1N1 influenza virus provides further evidence that pigs serve as emergence hosts or "mixing vessels", and swine influenza virus (SIV) surveillance in China should be given a high priority. ..
  60. Lukashevich I, Carrion R, Salvato M, Mansfield K, Brasky K, Zapata J, et al. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the ML29 reassortant vaccine for Lassa fever in small non-human primates. Vaccine. 2008;26:5246-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The ML29 reassortant is a promising vaccine candidate for Lassa fever...
  61. Octaviani C, Ozawa M, Yamada S, Goto H, Kawaoka Y. High level of genetic compatibility between swine-origin H1N1 and highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses. J Virol. 2010;84:10918-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies of human lung cell lines indicated that some reassortants had better growth kinetics than their parental viruses. We conclude that reassortment between these two viruses can occur and could create pandemic H5N1 viruses...
  62. Garten R, Davis C, Russell C, Shu B, Lindstrom S, Balish A, et al. Antigenic and genetic characteristics of swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza viruses circulating in humans. Science. 2009;325:197-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Antigenically the viruses are homogeneous and similar to North American swine A(H1N1) viruses but distinct from seasonal human A(H1N1)...