proviruses

Summary

Summary: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.

Top Publications

  1. Jimba M, Takeshima S, Matoba K, Endoh D, Aida Y. BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR: Quantitation of bovine leukemia virus proviral load using the CoCoMo algorithm. Retrovirology. 2010;7:91 pubmed publisher
    ..CoCoMo algorithm may be a useful tool to design degenerate primers for quantification of proviral load for other retroviruses including HTLV and human immunodeficiency virus type 1. ..
  2. Krupovic M, Spang A, Gribaldo S, Forterre P, Schleper C. A thaumarchaeal provirus testifies for an ancient association of tailed viruses with archaea. Biochem Soc Trans. 2011;39:82-8 pubmed publisher
  3. Kattan T, MacNamara A, Rowan A, Nose H, Mosley A, Tanaka Y, et al. The avidity and lytic efficiency of the CTL response to HTLV-1. J Immunol. 2009;182:5723-9 pubmed publisher
    ..CTL quality determines the position of virus-host equilibrium in persistent HTLV-1 infection. ..
  4. Rasmussen M, Ballarín González B, Liu J, Lassen L, Füchtbauer A, Füchtbauer E, et al. Antisense transcription in gammaretroviruses as a mechanism of insertional activation of host genes. J Virol. 2010;84:3780-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Elucidation of the nature and potential regulatory role of 5' LTR antisense transcription will be relevant to the design of therapeutic vectors and may contribute to the increasing recognition of pervasive eukaryotic transcription. ..
  5. Macías D, Oya R, Saniger L, Martin F, Luque F. A lentiviral vector that activates latent human immunodeficiency virus-1 proviruses by the overexpression of tat and that kills the infected cells. Hum Gene Ther. 2009;20:1259-68 pubmed publisher
    ..We have demonstrated that the Tat-expressed protein from p5p53RTAT3 vector reactivates latent HIV-1 proviruses in J1.1 and ACH-2 cell lines and promotes p53-induced apoptosis in the presence of Rev...
  6. Matsui T, Leung D, Miyashita H, Maksakova I, Miyachi H, Kimura H, et al. Proviral silencing in embryonic stem cells requires the histone methyltransferase ESET. Nature. 2010;464:927-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that a DNA-methylation-independent pathway involving KAP1 and ESET/ESET-mediated H3K9me3 is required for proviral silencing during the period early in embryogenesis when DNA methylation is dynamically reprogrammed. ..
  7. Jha A, Nixon D, Rosenberg M, Martin J, Deeks S, Hudson R, et al. Human endogenous retrovirus K106 (HERV-K106) was infectious after the emergence of anatomically modern humans. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20234 pubmed publisher
    ..and HERV-K115 have been considered to be among the youngest HERVs because they are the only known full-length proviruses that are insertionally polymorphic and maintain the open reading frames of their coding genes...
  8. Trejbalova K, Blazkova J, Matouskova M, Kucerova D, Pecnova L, Vernerova Z, et al. Epigenetic regulation of transcription and splicing of syncytins, fusogenic glycoproteins of retroviral origin. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:8728-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results thus demonstrate that cell-specific retroviral splicing represents an additional epigenetic level controling the expression of endogenous retroviruses...
  9. Armitage A, Katzourakis A, de Oliveira T, Welch J, Belshaw R, Bishop K, et al. Conserved footprints of APOBEC3G on Hypermutated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K(HML2) sequences. J Virol. 2008;82:8743-61 pubmed publisher
    ..To characterize their mutational preferences in detail, we analyzed single-copy, near-full-length HIV-1 proviruses which had been hypermutated in vitro by hA3G or hA3F...

More Information

Publications72

  1. Baliji S, Liu Q, Kozak C. Common inbred strains of the laboratory mouse that are susceptible to infection by mouse xenotropic gammaretroviruses and the human-derived retrovirus XMRV. J Virol. 2010;84:12841-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of the XPR1 gammaretrovirus receptor, a resistance that also limits in vivo expression of germ line X-MLV proviruses capable of producing infectious virus...
  2. Herrmann Hoesing L, White S, Mousel M, Lewis G, Knowles D. Ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels associate with breed and Ovar-DRB1. Immunogenetics. 2008;60:749-58 pubmed publisher
    ..013-0.043) with higher OPP provirus levels. These results suggest that Ovar-DRB1 contributes as one host genetic factor that controls OPP provirus levels, but does not fully account for the breed-specific OPP proviral differences...
  3. Schlesinger S, Goff S. Silencing of proviruses in embryonic cells: efficiency, stability and chromatin modifications. EMBO Rep. 2013;14:73-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and stability of silencing, and the associated chromatin modifications on newly established and endogenous proviruses were determined...
  4. Chun T, Murray D, Justement J, Hallahan C, Moir S, Kovacs C, et al. Relationship between residual plasma viremia and the size of HIV proviral DNA reservoirs in infected individuals receiving effective antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:135-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Novel therapeutic strategies aimed at targeting the source of residual viremia may be necessary to achieve viral eradication...
  5. Paprotka T, Delviks Frankenberry K, Cingöz O, Martinez A, Kung H, Tepper C, et al. Recombinant origin of the retrovirus XMRV. Science. 2011;333:97-101 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, we found that the host mice contained two proviruses, PreXMRV-1 and PreXMRV-2, which share 99.92% identity with XMRV over >3.2-kilobase stretches of their genomes...
  6. Krupovic M, Forterre P. Microviridae goes temperate: microvirus-related proviruses reside in the genomes of Bacteroidetes. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19893 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis of the putative major capsid proteins places the identified proviruses into a group separate from the previously characterized microviruses and gokushoviruses, suggesting that the ..
  7. Goering W, Ribarska T, Schulz W. Selective changes of retroelement expression in human prostate cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2011;32:1484-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of both proviruses was restricted to androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell lines and LTRs sequences containing steroid hormone-..
  8. de Souza J, da Fonseca F, Martins M, Martins C, de Carvalho L, Coelho dos Reis J, et al. Anti-Tax antibody levels in asymptomatic carriers, oligosymptomatic carriers, patients with rheumatologic disease or with HAM/TSP do not correlate with HTLV-1 proviral load. J Clin Virol. 2011;50:13-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Biomarkers are needed to predict patients who are at risk for HAM/TSP. Tax is highly immunogenic and is a major target protein recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Anti-Tax antibodies are involved in HAM/TSP pathogenesis...
  9. Plachy J, Kotáb J, Divina P, Reinisová M, Senigl F, Hejnar J. Proviruses selected for high and stable expression of transduced genes accumulate in broadly transcribed genome areas. J Virol. 2010;84:4204-11 pubmed publisher
    ..these tumors represent clonal expansions of cells bearing transcriptionally active replication-defective proviruses. Therefore, integration sites in our study distinguished genomic loci favorable for the expression of integrated ..
  10. Melamed A, Laydon D, Gillet N, Tanaka Y, Taylor G, Bangham C. Genome-wide determinants of proviral targeting, clonal abundance and expression in natural HTLV-1 infection. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003271 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that transcriptional interference and chromatin remodelling are critical determinants of proviral latency in natural HTLV-1 infection. ..
  11. Gourraud P, Karaouni A, Woo J, Schmidt T, Oksenberg J, Hecht F, et al. APOBEC3H haplotypes and HIV-1 pro-viral vif DNA sequence diversity in early untreated human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection. Hum Immunol. 2011;72:207-12 pubmed publisher
    ..015 mixed effects model). This effect may be due to enhanced susceptibility of A3H forms to HIV-1 Vif mediated viral suppression of sequence editing activity, slowing viral diversification and escape from immune responses...
  12. Edelstein L, Micheva Viteva S, Phelan B, Dougherty J. Short communication: activation of latent HIV type 1 gene expression by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), an HDAC inhibitor approved for use to treat cutaneous T cell lymphoma. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009;25:883-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of latent proviruses from the infected cells in combination with ART is a therapeutic strategy that may lead to the complete ..
  13. Tarlinton R, Meers J, Young P. Biology and evolution of the endogenous koala retrovirus. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:3413-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Part of a multi-author review)...
  14. Iwanaga M, Watanabe T, Utsunomiya A, Okayama A, Uchimaru K, Koh K, et al. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) proviral load and disease progression in asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers: a nationwide prospective study in Japan. Blood. 2010;116:1211-9 pubmed publisher
  15. Moens B, Lopez G, Adaui V, Gonzalez E, Kerremans L, Clark D, et al. Development and validation of a multiplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous genotyping and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1, 2, and 3 proviral load determination. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:3682-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our molecular assay could offer an alternative when current available serological assays are insufficient...
  16. Nascimento M, Primo J, Bittencourt A, Siqueira I, de Fátima Oliveira M, Meyer R, et al. Infective dermatitis has similar immunological features to human T lymphotropic virus-type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009;156:455-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The similarities between the immunological response in patients with IDH and HAM/TSP and the high proviral load observed in IDH provide support that IDH is a risk factor for development of HAM/TSP...
  17. Kourteva Y, De Pasquale M, Allos T, McMunn C, D Aquila R. APOBEC3G expression and hypermutation are inversely associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) burden in vivo. Virology. 2012;430:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that A3G deaminase-dependent activity above a threshold level, and its deaminase-independent functions, contribute to decreasing Vif-positive virus replication in vivo...
  18. Sadler H, Stenglein M, Harris R, Mansky L. APOBEC3G contributes to HIV-1 variation through sublethal mutagenesis. J Virol. 2010;84:7396-404 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed proviruses with single APOBEC3G-mediated mutations (in the presence or absence of Vif), occurring at distinct hot spots and ..
  19. van der Kuyl A. Characterization of a full-length endogenous beta-retrovirus, EqERV-beta1, in the genome of the horse (Equus caballus). Viruses. 2011;3:620-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetically, EqERV-beta1 most closely resembles an unclassified retroviral sequence from cattle (Bos taurus), and the murine beta-retrovirus MMTV...
  20. Zhuo X, Rho M, FESCHOTTE C. Genome-wide characterization of endogenous retroviruses in the bat Myotis lucifugus reveals recent and diverse infections. J Virol. 2013;87:8493-501 pubmed publisher
    ..We mined an initial set of 362 potentially complete proviruses from the three main classes of ERVs, which were further resolved into 13 major families and 86 subfamilies by ..
  21. Lusic M, Marini B, Ali H, Lucic B, Luzzati R, Giacca M. Proximity to PML nuclear bodies regulates HIV-1 latency in CD4+ T cells. Cell Host Microbe. 2013;13:665-77 pubmed publisher
    ..the mechanisms mediating HIV-1 latency, we determined that silenced but transcriptionally competent HIV-1 proviruses reside in close proximity to PML NBs and that this association inhibits HIV-1 gene expression...
  22. Lee Y, Malim M, Bieniasz P. Hypermutation of an ancient human retrovirus by APOBEC3G. J Virol. 2008;82:8762-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We also present striking evidence that two HERV-K(HML-2) proviruses that are fixed in the modern human genome (HERV-K60 and HERV-KI) were subjected to hypermutation by a cytidine ..
  23. Iglesias Ussel M, Romerio F. HIV reservoirs: the new frontier. AIDS Rev. 2011;13:13-29 pubmed
    ..Addressing these issues, among others, merits careful consideration for the identification of valid targets and the design of effective strategies for therapy, which may increase the success of efforts toward HIV eradication...
  24. Josefsson L, King M, Mäkitalo B, Brannstrom J, Shao W, Maldarelli F, et al. Majority of CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood of HIV-1-infected individuals contain only one HIV DNA molecule. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:11199-204 pubmed publisher
    Neither the number of HIV-1 proviruses within individual infected cells in HIV-1-infected patients nor their genetic relatedness within individual infected cells and between cells and plasma virus are well defined...
  25. Senigl F, Auxt M, Hejnar J. Transcriptional provirus silencing as a crosstalk of de novo DNA methylation and epigenomic features at the integration site. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:5298-312 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Proviruses integrated close to the transcription start sites of active genes into the regions enriched in H3K4 ..
  26. Cortez Romero C, Fieni F, Russo P, Pepin M, Roux C, Pellerin J. Presence of Maedi Visna virus (MVV)-proviral DNA in the genital tissues of naturally infected ewes. Reprod Domest Anim. 2011;46:e1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that there is a risk of vertical and/or horizontal transmission of MVV during embryo transfer from embryos produced in vivo or in vitro...
  27. Held N, Whitaker R. Viral biogeography revealed by signatures in Sulfolobus islandicus genomes. Environ Microbiol. 2009;11:457-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of host and virus biogeography suggests a model for viral diversification driven by host immunity and local adaptation...
  28. Ruprecht K, Ferreira H, Flockerzi A, Wahl S, Sauter M, Mayer J, et al. Human endogenous retrovirus family HERV-K(HML-2) RNA transcripts are selectively packaged into retroviral particles produced by the human germ cell tumor line Tera-1 and originate mainly from a provirus on chromosome 22q11.21. J Virol. 2008;82:10008-16 pubmed publisher
  29. Brennan T, Woods J, Sedaghat A, Siliciano J, Siliciano R, Wilke C. Analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viremia and provirus in resting CD4+ T cells reveals a novel source of residual viremia in patients on antiretroviral therapy. J Virol. 2009;83:8470-81 pubmed publisher
    ..variance and the Slatkin-Maddison test--to demonstrate that the residual viremia is genetically distinct from proviruses in resting CD4(+) T cells but that proviruses in resting and activated CD4(+) T cells belong to a single ..
  30. Sanabani S, Pastena E, Kleine Neto W, Barreto C, Ferrari K, Kalmar E, et al. Near full-length genome analysis of low prevalent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subclade F1 in São Paulo, Brazil. Virol J. 2009;6:78 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we aimed to characterize and define the molecular prevalence of HIV-1 subclade F1 currently circulating in São Paulo, Brazil...
  31. Desjardins C, Gundersen Rindal D, Hostetler J, Tallon L, Fadrosh D, Fuester R, et al. Comparative genomics of mutualistic viruses of Glyptapanteles parasitic wasps. Genome Biol. 2008;9:R183 pubmed publisher
  32. Krupovic M, Forterre P, Bamford D. Comparative analysis of the mosaic genomes of tailed archaeal viruses and proviruses suggests common themes for virion architecture and assembly with tailed viruses of bacteria. J Mol Biol. 2010;397:144-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identified nine proviruses that are clearly related to tailed bacterial viruses and integrated into chromosomes of species belonging to ..
  33. Gillet N, Malani N, Melamed A, Gormley N, Carter R, Bentley D, et al. The host genomic environment of the provirus determines the abundance of HTLV-1-infected T-cell clones. Blood. 2011;117:3113-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that negative selection dominates during chronic infection, favoring establishment of proviruses integrated in transcriptionally silenced DNA: this selection is significantly stronger in asymptomatic carriers...
  34. Cooper A, García M, Petrovas C, Yamamoto T, Koup R, Nabel G. HIV-1 causes CD4 cell death through DNA-dependent protein kinase during viral integration. Nature. 2013;498:376-9 pubmed publisher
  35. Cook L, Rowan A, Melamed A, Taylor G, Bangham C. HTLV-1-infected T cells contain a single integrated provirus in natural infection. Blood. 2012;120:3488-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that a typical host possesses a large number of distinct HTLV-1-infected T-cell clones...
  36. Ruprecht K, Mayer J, Sauter M, Roemer K, Mueller Lantzsch N. Endogenous retroviruses and cancer. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:3366-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Although available data suggest a potential role of HERVs in human cancers, in particular germ cell tumors, the contributions of HERVs to human tumorigenesis warrant further elucidation. (Part of a multi-author review)...
  37. Dieudonne M, Maiuri P, Biancotto C, Knezevich A, Kula A, Lusic M, et al. Transcriptional competence of the integrated HIV-1 provirus at the nuclear periphery. EMBO J. 2009;28:2231-43 pubmed publisher
  38. Chege D, Kovacs C, la Porte C, Ostrowski M, Raboud J, Su D, et al. Effect of raltegravir intensification on HIV proviral DNA in the blood and gut mucosa of men on long-term therapy: a randomized controlled trial. AIDS. 2012;26:167-74 pubmed publisher
    ..However, despite completely suppressive HAART, it has been suggested that low-levels of viral replication may persist in the gut mucosa and elsewhere in individuals on long-term HAART...
  39. Beck M, Zhang S, Bitra K, Burke G, Strand M. The encapsidated genome of Microplitis demolitor bracovirus integrates into the host Pseudoplusia includens. J Virol. 2011;85:11685-96 pubmed publisher
    ..PDVs persist in wasps as integrated proviruses but are packaged as circularized and segmented double-stranded DNAs into the virions that wasps inject into ..
  40. Jimba M, Takeshima S, Murakami H, Kohara J, Kobayashi N, Matsuhashi T, et al. BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR: a useful tool for evaluating bovine leukemia virus infection status. BMC Vet Res. 2012;8:167 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we compared the sensitivity of our BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR method for detecting BLV proviruses with the sensitivities of two real-time PCR systems, and also determined the differences of proviral load with ..
  41. Lenasi T, Contreras X, Peterlin B. Transcriptional interference antagonizes proviral gene expression to promote HIV latency. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;4:123-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings suggest that TI contributes significantly to HIV latency and should be considered when attempting to purge the latent reservoir...
  42. Yang H. Primary cell models of HIV latency. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2011;6:62-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To provide updated points of view regarding the recent development and application of in-vitro primary cell models of HIV latency and their potential application in future studies of HIV eradication...
  43. Kim Y, Mbonye U, Hokello J, Karn J. T-cell receptor signaling enhances transcriptional elongation from latent HIV proviruses by activating P-TEFb through an ERK-dependent pathway. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:896-916 pubmed publisher
    Latent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) proviruses are thought to be primarily reactivated in vivo through stimulation of the T-cell receptor (TCR)...
  44. Archin N, Liberty A, Kashuba A, Choudhary S, Kuruc J, Crooks A, et al. Administration of vorinostat disrupts HIV-1 latency in patients on antiretroviral therapy. Nature. 2012;487:482-5 pubmed publisher
  45. Heslin D, Murcia P, Arnaud F, Van Doorslaer K, Palmarini M, Lenz J. A single amino acid substitution in a segment of the CA protein within Gag that has similarity to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 blocks infectivity of a human endogenous retrovirus K provirus in the human genome. J Virol. 2009;83:1105-14 pubmed publisher
    ..component for the production of retrovirus particles, we investigated the abilities of Gag from two HERV-K proviruses to support production of virus-like particles and viral infectivity...
  46. Shan L, Deng K, Shroff N, Durand C, Rabi S, Yang H, et al. Stimulation of HIV-1-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes facilitates elimination of latent viral reservoir after virus reactivation. Immunity. 2012;36:491-501 pubmed publisher
    ..Efforts to purge the latent reservoir have focused on reactivating latent proviruses without inducing global T cell activation...
  47. Subramanian R, Wildschutte J, Russo C, Coffin J. Identification, characterization, and comparative genomic distribution of the HERV-K (HML-2) group of human endogenous retroviruses. Retrovirology. 2011;8:90 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, this expression is upregulated in many tumors ranging from breast and ovarian tissues to lymphomas and melanomas, as well as schizophrenia, rheumatoid arthritis, and other disorders...
  48. Flockerzi A, Ruggieri A, Frank O, Sauter M, Maldener E, Kopper B, et al. Expression patterns of transcribed human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K(HML-2) loci in human tissues and the need for a HERV Transcriptome Project. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:354 pubmed publisher
    ..HERV transcripts are found in every human tissue. Expression of proviruses of the HERV-K(HML-2) family has been associated with development of human tumors, in particular germ cell tumors ..
  49. de Oliveira M, Vieira M, Primo J, Siqueira I, Carvalho E, Farre L, et al. Flower cells in patients with infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1. J Clin Virol. 2010;48:288-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH) is a severe childhood form of eczema that may progress to adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL)...
  50. Ho Y, Shan L, Hosmane N, Wang J, Laskey S, Rosenbloom D, et al. Replication-competent noninduced proviruses in the latent reservoir increase barrier to HIV-1 cure. Cell. 2013;155:540-51 pubmed publisher
    Antiretroviral therapy fails to cure HIV-1 infection because latent proviruses persist in resting CD4(+) T cells...
  51. Cingoz O, Paprotka T, Delviks Frankenberry K, Wildt S, HU W, Pathak V, et al. Characterization, mapping, and distribution of the two XMRV parental proviruses. J Virol. 2012;86:328-38 pubmed publisher
    ..multiple approaches that led to the identification of PreXMRV-2, as well as the distribution of both parental proviruses among different mouse species, are described...
  52. Herrmann Hoesing L, Noh S, White S, Snekvik K, Truscott T, Knowles D. Peripheral ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels correlate with and predict histological tissue lesion severity in naturally infected sheep. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:551-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that peripheral OPP provirus levels quantitatively contribute more to the development of histological lesions than the systemic anti-SU antibody host immune response...
  53. Gutierrez G, Alvarez I, Politzki R, Lomónaco M, Dus Santos M, Rondelli F, et al. Natural progression of Bovine Leukemia Virus infection in Argentinean dairy cattle. Vet Microbiol. 2011;151:255-63 pubmed publisher
  54. Blazkova J, Trejbalova K, Gondois Rey F, Halfon P, Philibert P, Guiguen A, et al. CpG methylation controls reactivation of HIV from latency. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000554 pubmed publisher
    ..Tight but incomplete control of HIV-1 latency by CpG methylation might have important implications for strategies aimed at eradicating HIV-1 infection...
  55. Margolis D. Mechanisms of HIV latency: an emerging picture of complexity. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2010;7:37-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Interrupting processes that maintain latency may allow therapeutic attack of this primary form of persistent HIV infection, but a better understanding of relevant mechanisms in vivo is needed...
  56. Gifford R, Katzourakis A, Tristem M, Pybus O, Winters M, Shafer R. A transitional endogenous lentivirus from the genome of a basal primate and implications for lentivirus evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20362-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery of pSIVgml illustrates the utility of endogenous sequences for the study of contemporary retroviruses and indicates that primate lentiviruses may be considerably older and more broadly distributed than previously thought...
  57. Olindo S, Belrose G, Gillet N, Rodriguez S, Boxus M, Verlaeten O, et al. Safety of long-term treatment of HAM/TSP patients with valproic acid. Blood. 2011;118:6306-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Walking Time Test improved rapidly after VPA discontinuation. We conclude that long-term treatment with VPA is safe in HAM/TSP...
  58. Contreras X, Schweneker M, Chen C, McCune J, Deeks S, Martin J, et al. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid reactivates HIV from latently infected cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:6782-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In part, these latent proviruses account for the rebound in viral replication observed after treatment interruption...
  59. Primo J, Siqueira I, Nascimento M, Oliveira M, Farre L, Carvalho E, et al. High HTLV-1 proviral load, a marker for HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, is also detected in patients with infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2009;42:761-4 pubmed
    ..Since proviral load is associated with neurological disability, these data support the view that IDH patients are at high risk of developing HAM/TSP...
  60. Leung D, Dong K, Maksakova I, Goyal P, Appanah R, Lee S, et al. Lysine methyltransferase G9a is required for de novo DNA methylation and the establishment, but not the maintenance, of proviral silencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:5718-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, de novo DNA methylation of newly integrated proviruses is impaired in the G9a(-/-) line, phenocopying proviral DNA methylation and silencing defects observed in Dnmt3a-..
  61. Gillet N, Cook L, Laydon D, Hlela C, Verdonck K, Alvarez C, et al. Strongyloidiasis and infective dermatitis alter human T lymphotropic virus-1 clonality in vivo. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003263 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that strongyloidiasis and IDH increase the risk of development of HTLV-1-associated diseases by increasing the rate of infection of new clones and the abundance of existing HTLV-1⁺ clones. ..
  62. Feng Y, Chelico L. Intensity of deoxycytidine deamination of HIV-1 proviral DNA by the retroviral restriction factor APOBEC3G is mediated by the noncatalytic domain. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:11415-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The data demonstrate that the balance between the jumping and sliding of Apo3G is needed for efficient mutational inactivation of HIV-1...
  63. Casartelli N, Guivel Benhassine F, Bouziat R, Brandler S, Schwartz O, Moris A. The antiviral factor APOBEC3G improves CTL recognition of cultured HIV-infected T cells. J Exp Med. 2010;207:39-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Enzymatically inactive A3G mutants failed to enhance CTL activation. We also engineered proviruses bearing premature stop codons in their genome as scars of A3G editing...