Summary: A genus in the family TOMBUSVIRIDAE mostly found in temperate regions. Some species infecting legumes (FABACEAE) are reported from tropical areas. Most viruses are soil-borne, but some are transmitted by the fungus Olpidium radicale and others by beetles. Carnation mottle virus is the type species.

Top Publications

  1. Rajendran K, Pogany J, Nagy P. Comparison of turnip crinkle virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase preparations expressed in Escherichia coli or derived from infected plants. J Virol. 2002;76:1707-17 pubmed
    ..Further comparison of the single-component recombinant TCV RdRp and the multicomponent plant TCV RdRp will help dissect the functions of various components of the TCV replicase...
  2. Waterhouse P, Fusaro A. Plant science. Viruses face a double defense by plant small RNAs. Science. 2006;313:54-5 pubmed
  3. Zhou T, Fan Z, Li H, Wong S. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus p27 and its isoforms affect symptom expression and potentiate virus movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2006;19:948-57 pubmed
    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV), a member of the genus Carmovirus, encodes p27 (27-kDa protein) and two other in-frame isoforms (p25 and p22.5) that are coterminal at the carboxyl end...
  4. Yoshii M, Nishikiori M, Tomita K, Yoshioka N, Kozuka R, Naito S, et al. The Arabidopsis cucumovirus multiplication 1 and 2 loci encode translation initiation factors 4E and 4G. J Virol. 2004;78:6102-11 pubmed
  5. Nagy P, Pogany J. Partial purification and characterization of Cucumber necrosis virus and Tomato bushy stunt virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerases: similarities and differences in template usage between tombusvirus and carmovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Virology. 2000;276:279-88 pubmed
    ..1999, EMBO J. 18, 5653-5665) does not stimulate tombusvirus RdRp activity. Taken together, these results suggest that template usage by the tombusvirus and carmovirus RdRps are similar, but not identical.
  6. Ke J, Schmidt T, Chase E, Bozarth R, Smith T. Structure of Cowpea mottle virus: a consensus in the genus Carmovirus. Virology. 2004;321:349-58 pubmed
    Cowpea mottle virus (CPMoV) is a T = 3 virus that belongs to Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family. Here, we report the crystal structure of CPMoV determined to a resolution of 7.0 angstroms...
  7. Azevedo J, Garcia D, Pontier D, Ohnesorge S, Yu A, Garcia S, et al. Argonaute quenching and global changes in Dicer homeostasis caused by a pathogen-encoded GW repeat protein. Genes Dev. 2010;24:904-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The likely widespread occurrence and expected consequences of GW protein mimicry on host silencing pathways are discussed in the context of innate and adaptive immunity in plants and metazoans. ..
  8. Cao M, Ye X, Willie K, Lin J, Zhang X, Redinbaugh M, et al. The capsid protein of Turnip crinkle virus overcomes two separate defense barriers to facilitate systemic movement of the virus in Arabidopsis. J Virol. 2010;84:7793-802 pubmed publisher
    ..These results illustrate that efficient long-distance movement of TCV requires both functions afforded by the CP...
  9. Harvey J, Lewsey M, Patel K, Westwood J, Heimstädt S, Carr J, et al. An antiviral defense role of AGO2 in plants. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e14639 pubmed publisher
    ..Plants encode multiple AGO proteins but, in Arabidopsis, only AGO1 is known to have an antiviral role...

More Information

Publications104 found, 100 shown here

  1. Thomas C, Leh V, Lederer C, Maule A. Turnip crinkle virus coat protein mediates suppression of RNA silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana. Virology. 2003;306:33-41 pubmed
    All of the protein products of Turnip crinkle virus (TCV; Tombusviridae, Carmovirus) were tested for their ability to suppress RNA silencing of a reporter gene after transient expression in Agrobacterium-infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana ..
  2. Ho T, Pallett D, Rusholme R, Dalmay T, Wang H. A simplified method for cloning of short interfering RNAs from Brassica juncea infected with Turnip mosaic potyvirus and Turnip crinkle carmovirus. J Virol Methods. 2006;136:217-23 pubmed Turnip mosaic potyvirus (TuMV, the family Potyviridae), or doubly infected with TuMV and Turnip crinkle carmovirus (TCV, the family Tombusviridae) were investigated...
  3. Venugopal S, Jeong R, Mandal M, Zhu S, Chandra Shekara A, Xia Y, et al. Enhanced disease susceptibility 1 and salicylic acid act redundantly to regulate resistance gene-mediated signaling. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000545 pubmed publisher
    ..The functional redundancy with SA was specific to EDS1. Results presented here redefine our understanding of the roles of EDS1 and SA in plant defense...
  4. Endres M, Gregory B, Gao Z, Foreman A, Mlotshwa S, Ge X, et al. Two plant viral suppressors of silencing require the ethylene-inducible host transcription factor RAV2 to block RNA silencing. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000729 pubmed publisher
    ..RAV2 is required for suppression of RNA silencing by two unrelated plant viral proteins, potyvirus HC-Pro and carmovirus P38...
  5. Deleris A, Gallego Bartolome J, Bao J, Kasschau K, Carrington J, Voinnet O. Hierarchical action and inhibition of plant Dicer-like proteins in antiviral defense. Science. 2006;313:68-71 pubmed
    ..These findings define a molecular framework for studying antiviral silencing and defense in plants...
  6. Kareem K, Taiwo M. Interactions of viruses in Cowpea: effects on growth and yield parameters. Virol J. 2007;4:15 pubmed
    ..unrelated viruses: Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV), genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture on growth and yield of cultivars ..
  7. Zhou Y, Ryabov E, Zhang X, Hong Y. Influence of viral genes on the cell-to-cell spread of RNA silencing. J Exp Bot. 2008;59:2803-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the plant cellular trafficking machinery could hijack functional viral proteins to permit cell-to-cell movement of RNA silencing...
  8. Jeong R, Chandra Shekara A, Kachroo A, Klessig D, Kachroo P. HRT-mediated hypersensitive response and resistance to Turnip crinkle virus in Arabidopsis does not require the function of TIP, the presumed guardee protein. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2008;21:1316-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Strikingly, the mutation in TIP resulted in increased replication of TCV and Cucumber mosaic virus, suggesting that TIP may play a role in basal resistance but is not required for HRT-mediated signaling...
  9. Qu F, Ye X, Morris T. Arabidopsis DRB4, AGO1, AGO7, and RDR6 participate in a DCL4-initiated antiviral RNA silencing pathway negatively regulated by DCL1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:14732-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results resolve several key steps in the antiviral RNA silencing pathway and provide a basis for further in-depth analysis...
  10. Guan H, Carpenter C, Simon A. Analysis of cis-acting sequences involved in plus-strand synthesis of a turnip crinkle virus-associated satellite RNA identifies a new carmovirus replication element. Virology. 2000;268:345-54 pubmed
    ..which contains the minus-strand 3'-end sequence "3'-OH-CC(1-2)(A/U)(A/U)(A/U)" found in all carmovirus RNAs...
  11. Huang M, Koh D, Weng L, Chang M, Yap Y, Zhang L, et al. Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus, a new member of the genus Carmovirus: evidence for the presence and expression of two novel open reading frames. J Virol. 2000;74:3149-55 pubmed
    ..Based on virion morphology and genome organization, we propose that HCRSV be classified as a new member of the genus Carmovirus in family Tombusviridae.
  12. Cooley M, Pathirana S, Wu H, Kachroo P, Klessig D. Members of the Arabidopsis HRT/RPP8 family of resistance genes confer resistance to both viral and oomycete pathogens. Plant Cell. 2000;12:663-76 pubmed
    ..Expression of the TCV coat protein gene in seedlings containing HRT resulted in massive necrosis and death, indicating that the avirulence factor detected by the HRT-encoded protein is the TCV coat protein...
  13. Liang X, Lucy A, Ding S, Wong S. The p23 protein of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus is indispensable for host-specific replication. J Virol. 2002;76:12312-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, we show that p23 does not bind nucleic acids in vitro and does not act as a suppressor of posttranscriptional gene silencing in transgenic tobacco carrying a green fluorescent protein...
  14. Chandra Shekara A, Gupte M, Navarre D, Raina S, Raina R, Klessig D, et al. Light-dependent hypersensitive response and resistance signaling against Turnip Crinkle Virus in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2006;45:320-34 pubmed
    ..Light was also required for N gene-mediated HR and resistance to Tobacco Mosaic Virus, suggesting that it is an important factor which may be generally required during defense signaling...
  15. Truniger V, Nieto C, Gonzalez Ibeas D, Aranda M. Mechanism of plant eIF4E-mediated resistance against a Carmovirus (Tombusviridae): cap-independent translation of a viral RNA controlled in cis by an (a)virulence determinant. Plant J. 2008;56:716-27 pubmed publisher
  16. Meng C, Chen J, Ding S, Peng J, Wong S. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein inhibits trans-acting small interfering RNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:2349-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The reduced accumulation of ta-siRNA might result from the interference of HCRSV CP with Dicer-like protein(s), responsible for the generation of dsRNA in ta-siRNA biogenesis...
  17. Shi Y, Ryabov E, van Wezel R, Li C, Jin M, Wang W, et al. Suppression of local RNA silencing is not sufficient to promote cell-to-cell movement of Turnip crinkle virus in Nicotiana benthamiana. Plant Signal Behav. 2009;4:15-22 pubmed
    ..inhibited TCV/GFPDeltaCP-mediated RNA silencing, but did not facilitate intercellular spread of the chimaeric carmovirus. However, TMV and TMVDeltaCP prevented the initiation of RNA silencing by TCV/GFPDeltaCP and caused TCV/..
  18. Qu F, Ren T, Morris T. The coat protein of turnip crinkle virus suppresses posttranscriptional gene silencing at an early initiation step. J Virol. 2003;77:511-22 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that TCV CP functions to suppress RNA silencing at an early initiation step, likely by interfering the function of the Dicer-like RNase in plants...
  19. Diaz J, Bernal J, Moriones E, Aranda M. Nucleotide sequence and infectious transcripts from a full-length cDNA clone of the carmovirus Melon necrotic spot virus. Arch Virol. 2003;148:599-607 pubmed
    ..Also, the nucleotide and amino acid sequences comparisons showed a distant relationship of MNSV-Malpha5 with other known MNSV isolates...
  20. Morales M, Orjeda G, Nieto C, van Leeuwen H, Monfort A, Charpentier M, et al. A physical map covering the nsv locus that confers resistance to Melon necrotic spot virus in melon (Cucumis melo L.). Theor Appl Genet. 2005;111:914-22 pubmed
    Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) is a member of the genus Carmovirus, which produces severe yield losses in melon and cucumber crops...
  21. Cheng C, Panavas T, Luo G, Nagy P. Heterologous RNA replication enhancer stimulates in vitro RNA synthesis and template-switching by the carmovirus, but not by the tombusvirus, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: implication for modular evolution of RNA viruses. Virology. 2005;341:107-21 pubmed
    ..elements on complementary RNA synthesis and template-switching by the tombus- (Cucumber necrosis virus, CNV), carmovirus (Turnip crinkle virus, TCV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) RdRps in vitro...
  22. Kang H, Kuhl J, Kachroo P, Klessig D. CRT1, an Arabidopsis ATPase that interacts with diverse resistance proteins and modulates disease resistance to turnip crinkle virus. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;3:48-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, CRT1 interacts with HRT, SSI4, and two other R proteins, RPS2 and Rx. These data identify CRT1 as an important mediator of defense signaling triggered by distinct classes of R proteins...
  23. Yuan X, Shi K, Young M, Simon A. The terminal loop of a 3' proximal hairpin plays a critical role in replication and the structure of the 3' region of Turnip crinkle virus. Virology. 2010;402:271-80 pubmed publisher
  24. Gao R, Ng F, Liu P, Wong S. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein upregulates sulfur metabolism genes for enhanced pathogen defense. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2012;25:1574-83 pubmed publisher
    ..It will be interesting if such interaction applies generally to other host-pathogen interactions that will lead to enhanced pathogen defense...
  25. Ryabov E, van Wezel R, Walsh J, Hong Y. Cell-to-Cell, but not long-distance, spread of RNA silencing that is induced in individual epidermal cells. J Virol. 2004;78:3149-54 pubmed
    ..TCV coinfection arrested TCV-GFPDeltaCP-mediated local induction of RNA silencing. Possible mechanisms involved in cell-to-cell and long-distance spread of RNA silencing are discussed...
  26. Diaz J, Nieto C, Moriones E, Truniger V, Aranda M. Molecular characterization of a Melon necrotic spot virus strain that overcomes the resistance in melon and nonhost plants. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2004;17:668-75 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrated that this genomic region contains the determinant for the unique ability of the isolate MNSV-264 to infect noncucurbit hosts (Nicotiana benthamiana and Gomphrena globosa)...
  27. Chandra Shekara A, Venugopal S, Barman S, Kachroo A, Kachroo P. Plastidial fatty acid levels regulate resistance gene-dependent defense signaling in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7277-82 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the 18:1-regulated pathway may be specifically targeted during pathogen infection and that altering 18:1 levels may serve as a unique strategy for promoting disease resistance...
  28. Li C, Zhang K, Zeng X, Jackson S, Zhou Y, Hong Y. A cis element within flowering locus T mRNA determines its mobility and facilitates trafficking of heterologous viral RNA. J Virol. 2009;83:3540-8 pubmed publisher
  29. Genov s A, Navarro J, Pall s V. A self-interacting carmovirus movement protein plays a role in binding of viral RNA during the cell-to-cell movement and shows an actin cytoskeleton dependent location in cell periphery. Virology. 2009;395:133-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The involvement of the RNA-binding capabilities and the subcellular location of the p7A in the intracellular and intercellular virus movement is discussed...
  30. Jeong R, Chandra Shekara A, Barman S, Navarre D, Klessig D, Kachroo A, et al. Cryptochrome 2 and phototropin 2 regulate resistance protein-mediated viral defense by negatively regulating an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:13538-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that CRY2/PHOT2 negatively regulate the proteasome-mediated degradation of HRT, likely via COP1, and blue-light relieves this repression resulting in HRT degradation...
  31. Meng C, Chen J, Peng J, Wong S. Host-induced avirulence of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus mutants correlates with reduced gene-silencing suppression activity. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:451-9 pubmed
    ..This is different from another virus in the genus Carmovirus, Turnip crinkle virus (TCV), the CP of which strongly suppresses dsRNA-induced PTGS...
  32. Serra Soriano M, Antonio Navarro J, Pallas V. Dissecting the multifunctional role of the N-terminal domain of the Melon necrotic spot virus coat protein in RNA packaging, viral movement and interference with antiviral plant defence. Mol Plant Pathol. 2017;18:837-849 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, unlike other carmovirus CPs, the R-domain and the arm region of MNSV CP have acquired, in addition to other essential functions such as ..
  33. Wong C, Carson R, Carr J. Chemically induced virus resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana is independent of pathogenesis-related protein expression and the NPR1 gene. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2002;15:75-81 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the existence of this virus-specific branch may be widespread among plants. ..
  34. Guo R, Lin W, Zhang J, Simon A, Kushner D. Structural plasticity and rapid evolution in a viral RNA revealed by in vivo genetic selection. J Virol. 2009;83:927-39 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that two highly distinct RNA conformations in the H4a and H4b region can mediate satC fitness in protoplasts. ..
  35. Ren Y, Wong S, Lim L. In vitro-reassembled plant virus-like particles for loading of polyacids. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2749-54 pubmed
    ..The conditions applied to disassembly-reassembly of the virions did not change the structural conformation of the CP. HCRSV-derived VLPs may provide a promising nano-sized protein cage for delivery of anionic drug molecules. ..
  36. Jin H, Zhu J. A viral suppressor protein inhibits host RNA silencing by hooking up with Argonautes. Genes Dev. 2010;24:853-6 pubmed publisher
  37. Martínez Gil L, Sauri A, Vilar M, Pallas V, Mingarro I. Membrane insertion and topology of the p7B movement protein of Melon Necrotic Spot Virus (MNSV). Virology. 2007;367:348-57 pubmed
    ..Finally, the topology of a putative p14 movement protein was established by replacing the amber stop codon located between p7A and p7B. ..
  38. Saunders K, Lomonossoff G. The Generation of Turnip Crinkle Virus-Like Particles in Plants by the Transient Expression of Wild-Type and Modified Forms of Its Coat Protein. Front Plant Sci. 2015;6:1138 pubmed publisher
    Turnip crinkle virus (TCV), a member of the genus carmovirus of the Tombusviridae family, has a genome consisting of a single positive-sense RNA molecule that is encapsidated in an icosahedral particle composed of 180 copies of a single ..
  39. Monaghan J, Li X. R protein activation: another player revealed. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;3:9-10 pubmed publisher
    ..CRT1 interacts with an array of R proteins in vivo, suggesting that it plays a role in R protein activation. ..
  40. Zhu S, Jeong R, Venugopal S, Lapchyk L, Navarre D, Kachroo A, et al. SAG101 forms a ternary complex with EDS1 and PAD4 and is required for resistance signaling against turnip crinkle virus. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002318 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that EDS1, PAD4 and SAG101 also perform independent functions in HRT-mediated resistance. ..
  41. Ciuffreda P, Rubino L, Russo M. Molecular cloning and complete nucleotide sequence of galinsoga mosaic virus genomic RNA. Arch Virol. 1998;143:173-80 pubmed
    ..revealed the presence of a sequence with local hydrophobicity and hydrophobic moment characteristic of mitochondrial targeting sequence which may explain the origin of the carmovirus-induced multivesicular bodies from mitochondria.
  42. Suzuki S, Hase S, Takahashi H, Ikegami M. The genome organization of pea stem necrosis virus and its assignment to the genus Carmovirus. Intervirology. 2002;45:160-3 pubmed
    ..The 38-proximal ORF encodes a 38-kD (p38) capsid protein. Comparison of the genome organization with that of other viruses justifies the assignment of PSNV to the genus Carmovirus.
  43. Wada Y, Tanaka H, Yamashita E, Kubo C, Ichiki Uehara T, Nakazono Nagaoka E, et al. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus determined at 2.8 A resolution. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2008;64:8-13 pubmed
    ..8 A resolution. Although MNSV is classified into the genus Carmovirus of the family Tombusviridae, the three-dimensional structure of MNSV showed a higher degree of similarity to ..
  44. Rico P, Hernandez C. Characterization of the subgenomic RNAs produced by Pelargonium flower break virus: Identification of two novel RNAs species. Virus Res. 2009;142:100-7 pubmed publisher
    Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV), a member of the genus Carmovirus, has a single-stranded positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) of 3.9kb...
  45. Nagy P, Simon A. In vitro characterization of late steps of RNA recombination in turnip crinkle virus.II. The role of the priming stem and flanking sequences. Virology. 1998;249:393-405 pubmed
    Turnip crinkle carmovirus (TCV) has a uniquely high recombination frequency and nonrandom cross-over site distribution among the recombining TCV-associated satellite RNAs...
  46. Alejska M, Kurzynska Kokorniak A, Broda M, Kierzek R, Figlerowicz M. How RNA viruses exchange their genetic material. Acta Biochim Pol. 2001;48:391-407 pubmed
    ..That is why in this review we present and thoroughly discuss all results concerning nonhomologous recombination in BMV that have been obtained until now. ..
  47. Wang J, Simon A. 3'-End stem-loops of the subviral RNAs associated with turnip crinkle virus are involved in symptom modulation and coat protein binding. J Virol. 2000;74:6528-37 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the ability to attenuate symptoms was correlated with weakened binding of TCV CP to the hairpin structure. ..
  48. Portal O, Cabrera D, Sanchez A, Darías A, Gonzalez J, Gomez R. Molecular characterization of two Cuban isolates of the papaya ringspot virus by means of coat protein analysis. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2006;71:1203-5 pubmed
  49. Cheng A, Speir J, Yuan Y, Johnson J, Wong S. Preliminary X-ray data analysis of crystalline hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2009;65:589-93 pubmed publisher
    ..chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV)...
  50. Miras M, Truniger V, Querol Audi J, Aranda M. Analysis of the interacting partners eIF4F and 3'-CITE required for Melon necrotic spot virus cap-independent translation. Mol Plant Pathol. 2017;18:635-648 pubmed publisher
    We have shown previously that the translation of Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV, family Tombusviridae, genus Carmovirus) RNAs is controlled by a 3'-cap-independent translation enhancer (CITE), which is genetically and functionally ..
  51. Ryabov E. Construction of infectious cDNA clones for RNA viruses: Turnip crinkle virus. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;451:491-502 pubmed publisher
  52. McCormack J, Yuan X, Yingling Y, Kasprzak W, Zamora R, Shapiro B, et al. Structural domains within the 3' untranslated region of Turnip crinkle virus. J Virol. 2008;82:8706-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a framework for determining how interconnected elements participate in processes that require 3' untranslated region sequences such as translation and replication. ..
  53. Koh D, Liu D, Wong S. A six-nucleotide segment within the 3' untranslated region of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus plays an essential role in translational enhancement. J Virol. 2002;76:1144-53 pubmed
    ..The control elements have yet to be analyzed for members of the genus Carmovirus, a small group of plant viruses with positive-sense RNA genomes...
  54. Nagy P, Pogany J, Simon A. In vivo and in vitro characterization of an RNA replication enhancer in a satellite RNA associated with turnip crinkle virus. Virology. 2001;288:315-24 pubmed
  55. McCormack J, Simon A. Biased hypermutagenesis associated with mutations in an untranslated hairpin of an RNA virus. J Virol. 2004;78:7813-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the hairpin may also function as an RNA chaperone to properly fold the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. ..
  56. Ren T, Qu F, Morris T. The nuclear localization of the Arabidopsis transcription factor TIP is blocked by its interaction with the coat protein of Turnip crinkle virus. Virology. 2005;331:316-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that TIP might be a transcription factor involved in regulating the defense response of Arabidopsis to TCV and that its normal role is compromised by interaction with the invading viral CP...
  57. Vasudevan A, Oh T, Park J, Lakshmi S, Choi B, Kim S, et al. Characterization of resistance mechanism in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana containing Turnip crinkle virus coat protein. Plant Cell Rep. 2008;27:1731-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The transgenic plants containing TCV-CP seem to be a model system to study viral protection mediated by a combination of protein and RNA silencing. ..
  58. Ren T, Qu F, Morris T. HRT gene function requires interaction between a NAC protein and viral capsid protein to confer resistance to turnip crinkle virus. Plant Cell. 2000;12:1917-26 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that TIP is an essential component in the TCV resistance response pathway. ..
  59. Liang X, Lee B, Wong S. Covariation in the capsid protein of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus induced by serial passaging in a host that restricts movement leads to avirulence in its systemic host. J Virol. 2002;76:12320-4 pubmed
    ..The observed interdependence among the three amino acids leading to avirulence in kenaf may have implications for structural or functional relationships in this virus-host interaction...
  60. Genoves A, Navarro J, Pallas V. Functional analysis of the five melon necrotic spot virus genome-encoded proteins. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2371-80 pubmed
    ..Finally, the presence of p42 also produced an enhancing effect on local spread similar to that of potyviral helper component proteinase (HC-Pro), probably due to its RNA silencing-suppression ability. ..
  61. Navarro J, Genoves A, Climent J, Sauri A, Martínez Gil L, Mingarro I, et al. RNA-binding properties and membrane insertion of Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) double gene block movement proteins. Virology. 2006;356:57-67 pubmed
    Advances in structural and biochemical properties of carmovirus movement proteins (MPs) have only been obtained in p7 and p9 from Carnation mottle virus (CarMV)...
  62. Ohki T, Sako I, Kanda A, Mochizuki T, Honda Y, Tsuda S. A new strain of Melon necrotic spot virus that is unable to systemically infect Cucumis melo. Phytopathology. 2008;98:1165-70 pubmed publisher
    ..A spherical virus (W-isolate), about 30 nm in diameter like a carmovirus, was isolated from watermelons with necrotic symptoms...
  63. Yuan X, Shi K, Meskauskas A, Simon A. The 3' end of Turnip crinkle virus contains a highly interactive structure including a translational enhancer that is disrupted by binding to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. RNA. 2009;15:1849-64 pubmed publisher
  64. Kuhlmann M, Chattopadhyay M, Stupina V, Gao F, Simon A. An RNA Element That Facilitates Programmed Ribosomal Readthrough in Turnip Crinkle Virus Adopts Multiple Conformations. J Virol. 2016;90:8575-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide evidence that the phylogenetically conserved RSE of the carmovirus Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) adopts an alternative, smaller structure that extends an upstream conserved hairpin ..
  65. Navarro J, Pallas V. An Update on the Intracellular and Intercellular Trafficking of Carmoviruses. Front Plant Sci. 2017;8:1801 pubmed publisher
    ..block proteins (DGBp1 and DGBp2), have been involved in the movement throughout the plant of some members of carmovirus genera...
  66. Kong Q, Oh J, Carpenter C, Simon A. The coat protein of turnip crinkle virus is involved in subviral RNA-mediated symptom modulation and accumulation. Virology. 1997;238:478-85 pubmed
    ..Sat-RNA D had no effect on the symptoms of mutant or wild-type TCV. The accumulation of TCV subviral RNAs in plants and protoplasts was also found to be strongly influenced by the presence or absence of the wild-type TCV CP. ..
  67. Vilar M, Sauri A, Monné M, Marcos J, von Heijne G, Perez Paya E, et al. Insertion and topology of a plant viral movement protein in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:23447-52 pubmed
    ..The 9-kDa MP from carnation mottle carmovirus (CarMV) contains two potential transmembrane domains...
  68. Mochizuki T, Hirai K, Kanda A, Ohnishi J, Ohki T, Tsuda S. Induction of necrosis via mitochondrial targeting of Melon necrotic spot virus replication protein p29 by its second transmembrane domain. Virology. 2009;390:239-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicated that MNSV p29 interacts with the mitochondrial membrane and that p29 may be a virulence factor causing the observed necrosis. ..
  69. Chattopadhyay M, Shi K, Yuan X, Simon A. Long-distance kissing loop interactions between a 3' proximal Y-shaped structure and apical loops of 5' hairpins enhance translation of Saguaro cactus virus. Virology. 2011;417:113-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar PTE can be found in six additional carmoviruses that can putatively form long-distance interactions with 5' hairpins located in comparable positions. ..
  70. Gonzalez Ibeas D, Blanca J, Donaire L, Saladie M, Mascarell Creus A, Caño Delgado A, et al. Analysis of the melon (Cucumis melo) small RNAome by high-throughput pyrosequencing. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:393 pubmed publisher
    ..In plants, they regulate gene expression and heterochromatin assembly, and control protection against virus infection. Much remains to be learned about the role of sRNAs in melon...
  71. Gao F, Kasprzak W, Stupina V, Shapiro B, Simon A. A ribosome-binding, 3' translational enhancer has a T-shaped structure and engages in a long-distance RNA-RNA interaction. J Virol. 2012;86:9828-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The kl-TSS has sequence and structural features conserved with the upper portion of most PTE-type elements, which, with the exception of the PEMV PTE, can engage in similar long-distance RNA-RNA interactions. ..
  72. Sun X, Simon A. Fitness of a turnip crinkle virus satellite RNA correlates with a sequence-nonspecific hairpin and flanking sequences that enhance replication and repress the accumulation of virions. J Virol. 2003;77:7880-9 pubmed
    ..These results support the hypothesis that a sequence-nonspecific plus-strand hairpin brings together flanking CA-rich sequences in the M1H region that confers fitness to satC by reducing the accumulation of stable virions...
  73. Bakker S, Ford R, Barker A, Robottom J, Saunders K, Pearson A, et al. Isolation of an asymmetric RNA uncoating intermediate for a single-stranded RNA plant virus. J Mol Biol. 2012;417:65-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The implication is that the viral RNA and its capsid play multiple roles during primary infections, consistent with ribosome-mediated genome uncoating to avoid host antiviral activity...
  74. Carpenter C, Simon A. In vivo repair of 3'-end deletions in a TCV satellite RNA may involve two abortive synthesis and priming events. Virology. 1996;226:153-60 pubmed
  75. Carpenter C, Simon A. Analysis of sequences and predicted structures required for viral satellite RNA accumulation by in vivo genetic selection. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:2426-32 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the utility of the in vivo selection approach by showing that both sequence and structure contribute to a more active 3'-end region for accumulation of sat-RNA C...
  76. Qu F, Morris T. Cap-independent translational enhancement of turnip crinkle virus genomic and subgenomic RNAs. J Virol. 2000;74:1085-93 pubmed
    ..of translational control elements and cap structures has not been carefully investigated for members of the Carmovirus genus, a group of small icosahedral plant viruses with positive-sense RNA genomes...
  77. Nieto C, Piron F, Dalmais M, Marco C, Moriones E, Gómez Guillamón M, et al. EcoTILLING for the identification of allelic variants of melon eIF4E, a factor that controls virus susceptibility. BMC Plant Biol. 2007;7:34 pubmed
    ..Identification of allelic variants within natural populations by EcoTILLING has become a rapid genotype discovery method...
  78. Manfre A, Simon A. Importance of coat protein and RNA silencing in satellite RNA/virus interactions. Virology. 2008;379:161-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that a functional CP, but not DCL2/DCL4, is required for satC-mediated repression of TCV. In addition, enhancement of satC accumulation in the absence of a functional CP requires DCL2/DCL4...
  79. Powers J, Sit T, Heinsohn C, George C, Kim K, Lommel S. The Red clover necrotic mosaic virus RNA-2 encoded movement protein is a second suppressor of RNA silencing. Virology. 2008;381:277-86 pubmed publisher
    ..This TCV-sGFP assay was used to identify MP as a suppressor of RNA silencing, to delimit essential amino acids for this activity and uncouple silencing and movement functions...
  80. Kido K, Tanaka C, Mochizuki T, Kubota K, Ohki T, Ohnishi J, et al. High temperatures activate local viral multiplication and cell-to-cell movement of Melon necrotic spot virus but restrict expression of systemic symptoms. Phytopathology. 2008;98:181-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, MNSV replication in melon cells and local viral movement within leaves following the inoculation of melon protoplasts or cotyledons were more frequent at 25 degrees C than at 15 or 20 degrees C...
  81. Jeong R, Kachroo A, Kachroo P. Blue light photoreceptors are required for the stability and function of a resistance protein mediating viral defense in Arabidopsis. Plant Signal Behav. 2010;5:1504-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These and the fact that PHOT2 interacts directly with the R protein RPS2 suggest that blue-light photoreceptors might be involved in regulation and/or signaling mediated by several R proteins...
  82. Takemoto Y, Kanehira T, Shinohara M, Yamashita S, Hibi T. The nucleotide sequence and genome organization of Japanese iris necrotic ring virus, a new species in the genus Carmovirus. Arch Virol. 2000;145:651-7 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the genomic organization and the predicted amino acid sequences with those of other viruses confirmed that JINRV should be classified as a member of the genus Carmovirus, family Tombusviridae.
  83. Ton J, Van Pelt J, Van Loon L, Pieterse C. Differential effectiveness of salicylate-dependent and jasmonate/ethylene-dependent induced resistance in Arabidopsis. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2002;15:27-34 pubmed
    ..This suggests that SAR and ISR constitute a reinforcement of extant SA- or JA/ET-dependent basal defense responses, respectively...
  84. Lee K, Lim D, Wong S, Dokland T. Purification, crystallization and X-ray analysis of Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2003;59:1481-3 pubmed
    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV), a Carmovirus, occurs worldwide and induces chlorotic ringspots on leaves, stunting and flower distortion in Hibiscus species, including kenaf...
  85. Doan D, Lee K, Laurinmäki P, Butcher S, Wong S, Dokland T. Three-dimensional reconstruction of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus. J Struct Biol. 2003;144:253-61 pubmed
    ..Biochemical analysis confirmed the presence of two protein products: a 37 kDa protein identified as HCRSV CP and a 54 kDa protein that appeared to be of non-HCRSV origin...
  86. Wang H, Wong S. Significance of the 3'-terminal region in minus-strand RNA synthesis of Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:1763-76 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the specific sequence CCC at the 3' terminus and the two SLs structures located in the 3'UTR are essential for efficient minus-strand synthesis of HCRSV...
  87. Zhang X, Wong S. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus upregulates plant sulfite oxidase transcripts and increases sulfate levels in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). J Gen Virol. 2009;90:3042-50 pubmed publisher
  88. Ohki T, Akita F, Mochizuki T, Kanda A, Sasaya T, Tsuda S. The protruding domain of the coat protein of Melon necrotic spot virus is involved in compatibility with and transmission by the fungal vector Olpidium bornovanus. Virology. 2010;402:129-34 pubmed publisher
  89. Ibrahim N, Handa H, Cosset A, Koulintchenko M, Konstantinov Y, Lightowlers R, et al. DNA delivery to mitochondria: sequence specificity and energy enhancement. Pharm Res. 2011;28:2871-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We document here key aspects of the DNA import process, so as to further lay the ground for mitochondrial transfection in intact cells...
  90. Rico P, Hern ndez C. Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of Pelargonium flower break virus. Arch Virol. 2004;149:641-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis conducted with the different viral products confirmed the assignment of PFBV to the genus Carmovirus.
  91. Stupina V, Meskauskas A, McCormack J, Yingling Y, Shapiro B, Dinman J, et al. The 3' proximal translational enhancer of Turnip crinkle virus binds to 60S ribosomal subunits. RNA. 2008;14:2379-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This strong correlation suggests that ribosome entry in the 3' UTR is a key function of the 3' translational enhancer of TCV and that the T-shaped element contains some tRNA-like properties...
  92. Safari M, Koohi Habibi M, Mosahebi G, Dizadji A. Carnation mottle virus, an important viral agent infecting carnation cut-flower crops in Mahallat of Iran. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2009;74:861-5 pubmed
    ..One of the viral agents of this flower is Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) which is the type member of genus Carmovirus and belongs to the Tombusviridae family. It is naturally transmitted by grafting and contacting between plants...