Summary: A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.

Top Publications

  1. Beckham C, Light H, Nissan T, Ahlquist P, Parker R, Noueiry A. Interactions between brome mosaic virus RNAs and cytoplasmic processing bodies. J Virol. 2007;81:9759-68 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the accumulation of BMV RNAs in P bodies may be an important step in RNA replication complex assembly for BMV, and possibly for other positive-strand RNA viruses...
  2. Yi G, Vaughan R, Yarbrough I, Dharmaiah S, Kao C. RNA binding by the brome mosaic virus capsid protein and the regulation of viral RNA accumulation. J Mol Biol. 2009;391:314-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These results better define how the BMV CP can interact with RNA and regulate different viral processes...
  3. Chen J, Noueiry A, Ahlquist P. An alternate pathway for recruiting template RNA to the brome mosaic virus RNA replication complex. J Virol. 2003;77:2568-77 pubmed
    ..Interaction with nascent 2a also may be involved in 1a recruitment of 2a polymerase to membranes...
  4. Lee W, Ahlquist P. Membrane synthesis, specific lipid requirements, and localized lipid composition changes associated with a positive-strand RNA virus RNA replication protein. J Virol. 2003;77:12819-28 pubmed
    ..This localized UFA depletion helps to explain why BMV RNA replication is more sensitive than cell growth to reduced UFA levels. The results imply that 1a preferentially interacts with one or more types of membrane lipids...
  5. Kushner D, Lindenbach B, Grdzelishvili V, Noueiry A, Paul S, Ahlquist P. Systematic, genome-wide identification of host genes affecting replication of a positive-strand RNA virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15764-9 pubmed
    ..The results further illuminate virus and cell pathways. Further refinement of virus screening likely will reveal contributions from additional host genes...
  6. Schwartz M, Chen J, Lee W, Janda M, Ahlquist P. Alternate, virus-induced membrane rearrangements support positive-strand RNA virus genome replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11263-8 pubmed
  7. Michel J, Ivanovska I, Gibbons M, Klug W, Knobler C, Wuite G, et al. Nanoindentation studies of full and empty viral capsids and the effects of capsid protein mutations on elasticity and strength. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:6184-9 pubmed
    ..These calculations capture the features of the reversible indentation region and allow Young's moduli and relative strengths to be estimated for the empty capsids...
  8. Figlerowicz M. Role of RNA structure in non-homologous recombination between genomic molecules of brome mosaic virus. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:1714-23 pubmed
    ..Moreover, it was shown that both short homologous sequences and a hairpin structure have to accompany a double-stranded region to target non-homologous crossovers in a site-specific manner...
  9. Chen J, Noueiry A, Ahlquist P. Brome mosaic virus Protein 1a recruits viral RNA2 to RNA replication through a 5' proximal RNA2 signal. J Virol. 2001;75:3207-19 pubmed
    ..These results support and expand the conclusion that 1a-induced BMV RNA stabilization and membrane association reflect early, 1a-mediated steps in viral RNA replication...

More Information

Publications104 found, 100 shown here

  1. Damayanti T, Tsukaguchi S, Mise K, Okuno T. cis-acting elements required for efficient packaging of brome mosaic virus RNA3 in barley protoplasts. J Virol. 2003;77:9979-86 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the efficient packaging of RNA4 without RNA3 in B3Cmp-infected cells implies the presence of an element in the 3a ORF of BMV RNA3 that regulates the copackaging of RNA3 and RNA4...
  2. Choi S, Hema M, Gopinath K, Santos J, Kao C. Replicase-binding sites on plus- and minus-strand brome mosaic virus RNAs and their roles in RNA replication in plant cells. J Virol. 2004;78:13420-9 pubmed
    ..These results identify the replicase-binding sites in all of the BMV RNAs and suggest that the recognition of RNA3 is different from that of RNA1 and RNA2...
  3. Zhu J, Gopinath K, Murali A, Yi G, Hayward S, Zhu H, et al. RNA-binding proteins that inhibit RNA virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3129-34 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the effects of Pus4 suggest that the CAM-containing RNA motif provides a regulatory link between RNA replication and encapsidation...
  4. Karran R, Hudak K. Depurination within the intergenic region of Brome mosaic virus RNA3 inhibits viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:7230-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support a role of the intergenic region in controlling negative-strand RNA synthesis and contribute new insight into the effect of depurination by PAP on BMV replication...
  5. Liu L, Westler W, den Boon J, Wang X, Diaz A, Steinberg H, et al. An amphipathic alpha-helix controls multiple roles of brome mosaic virus protein 1a in RNA replication complex assembly and function. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000351 pubmed publisher
  6. Schwartz M, Chen J, Janda M, Sullivan M, den Boon J, Ahlquist P. A positive-strand RNA virus replication complex parallels form and function of retrovirus capsids. Mol Cell. 2002;9:505-14 pubmed
  7. Choi Y, Rao A. Packaging of brome mosaic virus RNA3 is mediated through a bipartite signal. J Virol. 2003;77:9750-7 pubmed
  8. Grdzelishvili V, Garcia Ruiz H, Watanabe T, Ahlquist P. Mutual interference between genomic RNA replication and subgenomic mRNA transcription in brome mosaic virus. J Virol. 2005;79:1438-51 pubmed
  9. Ali A, Roossinck M. Rapid and efficient purification of Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus by sucrose cushion ultracentrifugation. J Virol Methods. 2007;141:84-6 pubmed
    ..RNA extracted from purified CCMV particles showed all four RNA components by agarose gel electrophoresis. Both purified virus particles and RNA were biologically active and initiated successful infection upon inoculation to cowpea...
  10. Sandoval C, Pogany J, Bujarski J, Romero J. Use of a defective RNA of broad bean mottle bromovirus for stable gene expression in legumes. Arch Virol. 2008;153:1755-8 pubmed publisher
    A viral vector that expressed foreign genes was engineered using a cDNA clone of broad bean mottle bromovirus (BBMV) defective interfering (DI) RNA...
  11. den Boon J, Chen J, Ahlquist P. Identification of sequences in Brome mosaic virus replicase protein 1a that mediate association with endoplasmic reticulum membranes. J Virol. 2001;75:12370-81 pubmed
  12. Brumfield S, Willits D, Tang L, Johnson J, Douglas T, Young M. Heterologous expression of the modified coat protein of Cowpea chlorotic mottle bromovirus results in the assembly of protein cages with altered architectures and function. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:1049-53 pubmed
    ..Expression of the structural protein of Cowpea chlorotic mottle bromovirus (CCMV) using the yeast-based Pichia pastoris heterologous expression system resulted in the assembly of ..
  13. Annamalai P, Rao A. Replication-independent expression of genome components and capsid protein of brome mosaic virus in planta: a functional role for viral replicase in RNA packaging. Virology. 2005;338:96-111 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrated that packaging of BMV genomic RNAs is not replication dependent whereas expression of a functional viral replicase plays an active role in increasing specificity of RNA packaging...
  14. Daniel M, Tsvetkova I, Quinkert Z, Murali A, De M, Rotello V, et al. Role of surface charge density in nanoparticle-templated assembly of bromovirus protein cages. ACS Nano. 2010;4:3853-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The current work furnishes evidence of a critical surface charge density for assembly through an analysis aimed at decoupling the surface charge and the core size...
  15. Wang X, Diaz A, Hao L, Gancarz B, den Boon J, Ahlquist P. Intersection of the multivesicular body pathway and lipid homeostasis in RNA replication by a positive-strand RNA virus. J Virol. 2011;85:5494-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Among other points, these findings show the potential for blocking viral RNA replication by modulating lipid synthesis at multiple levels...
  16. Diaz A, Gallei A, Ahlquist P. Bromovirus RNA replication compartment formation requires concerted action of 1a's self-interacting RNA capping and helicase domains. J Virol. 2012;86:821-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These and other findings shed light on the roles and interactions of 1a domains in replication compartment formation and support prior results suggesting that 1a induces replication vesicles by forming a capsid-like interior shell...
  17. Haasnoot P, Brederode F, Olsthoorn R, Bol J. A conserved hairpin structure in Alfamovirus and Bromovirus subgenomic promoters is required for efficient RNA synthesis in vitro. RNA. 2000;6:708-16 pubmed
    ..Using RNA templates corresponding to the sgp of brome mosaic virus (BMV; genus Bromovirus, family Bromoviridae) and purified BMV RdRp, evidence was obtained indicating that also in BMV RNA a triloop ..
  18. Baumstark T, Ahlquist P. The brome mosaic virus RNA3 intergenic replication enhancer folds to mimic a tRNA TpsiC-stem loop and is modified in vivo. RNA. 2001;7:1652-70 pubmed
  19. Olsthoorn R, Bruyere A, Dzianott A, Bujarski J. RNA recombination in brome mosaic virus: effects of strand-specific stem-loop inserts. J Virol. 2002;76:12654-62 pubmed
    A model system of a single-stranded trisegment Brome mosaic bromovirus (BMV) was used to analyze the mechanism of homologous RNA recombination...
  20. Tomita Y, Mizuno T, Diez J, Naito S, Ahlquist P, Ishikawa M. Mutation of host DnaJ homolog inhibits brome mosaic virus negative-strand RNA synthesis. J Virol. 2003;77:2990-7 pubmed
  21. Zhang X, Kim C, Sivakumaran K, Kao C. Stable RNA structures can repress RNA synthesis in vitro by the brome mosaic virus replicase. RNA. 2003;9:555-65 pubmed
    ..The results characterize another potential mechanism whereby the BMV replicase can specifically recognize BMV RNAs...
  22. Tang J, Johnson J, Dryden K, Young M, Zlotnick A, Johnson J. The role of subunit hinges and molecular "switches" in the control of viral capsid polymorphism. J Struct Biol. 2006;154:59-67 pubmed
    ..These results show that capsid geometry is flexible and may readily adapt to new requirements as the virus evolves...
  23. Figlerowicz M, Bibiłło A. RNA motifs mediating in vivo site-specific nonhomologous recombination in (+) RNA virus enforce in vitro nonhomologous crossovers with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. RNA. 2000;6:339-51 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that HIV-RT utilizes the same or a very similar mechanism as BMV replicase to change nonhomologous RNA templates in a site-specific manner...
  24. Willits D, Zhao X, Olson N, Baker T, Zlotnick A, Johnson J, et al. Effects of the cowpea chlorotic mottle bromovirus beta-hexamer structure on virion assembly. Virology. 2003;306:280-8 pubmed
    The X-ray crystal structure of Cowpea chlorotic mottle bromovirus (CCMV) revealed a unique tubular structure formed by the interaction of the N-termini from six coat protein subunits at each three-fold axis of the assembled virion...
  25. Urbanowicz A, Alejska M, Formanowicz P, Blazewicz J, Figlerowicz M, Bujarski J. Homologous crossovers among molecules of brome mosaic bromovirus RNA1 or RNA2 segments in vivo. J Virol. 2005;79:5732-42 pubmed
    ..demonstrated frequent homologous crossovers among molecules of the RNA3 segment in the tripartite brome mosaic bromovirus (BMV) RNA genome (A. Bruyere, M. Wantroba, S. Flasinski, A. Dzianott, and J. J. Bujarski, J. Virol...
  26. Mas A, Alves Rodrigues I, Noueiry A, Ahlquist P, Diez J. Host deadenylation-dependent mRNA decapping factors are required for a key step in brome mosaic virus RNA replication. J Virol. 2006;80:246-51 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results suggest that the Lsm1p-7p/Pat1p/Dhh1p complex that transfers cellular mRNAs from translation to degradation might act as a key regulator in the switch from BMV RNA translation to replication...
  27. Speir J, Bothner B, Qu C, Willits D, Young M, Johnson J. Enhanced local symmetry interactions globally stabilize a mutant virus capsid that maintains infectivity and capsid dynamics. J Virol. 2006;80:3582-91 pubmed
    ..e., fivefold, twofold, quasi-threefold axes). The result is a particle that is still dynamic but insensitive to high salt due to a new series of bonds that are resistant to high ionic strength and preserve the overall particle structure...
  28. Wierzchoslawski R, Bujarski J. Efficient in vitro system of homologous recombination in brome mosaic bromovirus. J Virol. 2006;80:6182-7 pubmed
    Recent in vivo studies have revealed that the subgenomic promoter (sgp) in brome mosaic bromovirus (BMV) RNA3 supports frequent homologous recombination events (R. Wierzchoslawski, A. Dzianott, and J. Bujarski, J. Virol...
  29. Diaz A, Wang X, Ahlquist P. Membrane-shaping host reticulon proteins play crucial roles in viral RNA replication compartment formation and function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:16291-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest possible RHP roles in the bodies and necks of replication vesicles. ..
  30. Gancarz B, Hao L, He Q, Newton M, Ahlquist P. Systematic identification of novel, essential host genes affecting bromovirus RNA replication. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23988 pubmed publisher
    ..Investigating the diverse functions of these newly identified essential host genes should advance our understanding of BMV-host interactions and normal cellular pathways, and suggest new modes of virus control...
  31. Lee W, Ishikawa M, Ahlquist P. Mutation of host delta9 fatty acid desaturase inhibits brome mosaic virus RNA replication between template recognition and RNA synthesis. J Virol. 2001;75:2097-106 pubmed
    ..The strong unsaturated fatty acid dependence also demonstrates that modulating fatty acid balance can be an effective antiviral strategy...
  32. Choi Y, Dreher T, Rao A. tRNA elements mediate the assembly of an icosahedral RNA virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:655-60 pubmed
    ..We discuss the likely roles of the TLS in early stages of virion assembly...
  33. Noueiry A, Diez J, Falk S, Chen J, Ahlquist P. Yeast Lsm1p-7p/Pat1p deadenylation-dependent mRNA-decapping factors are required for brome mosaic virus genomic RNA translation. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:4094-106 pubmed
  34. Picard D, Kao C, Hudak K. Pokeweed antiviral protein inhibits brome mosaic virus replication in plant cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:20069-75 pubmed
    ..These novel activities are distinct from the PAP-induced reduction of viral RNA translation and represent new targets for the inhibition of viral infection...
  35. Wang X, Lee W, Watanabe T, Schwartz M, Janda M, Ahlquist P. Brome mosaic virus 1a nucleoside triphosphatase/helicase domain plays crucial roles in recruiting RNA replication templates. J Virol. 2005;79:13747-58 pubmed
    ..The possibility that, similar to some double-stranded RNA viruses, the 1a NTPase/helicase-like domain may be involved in importing viral RNAs into a preformed replication compartment is discussed...
  36. Zlotnick A, Aldrich R, Johnson J, Ceres P, Young M. Mechanism of capsid assembly for an icosahedral plant virus. Virology. 2000;277:450-6 pubmed
  37. Shapka N, Nagy P. The AU-rich RNA recombination hot spot sequence of Brome mosaic virus is functional in tombusviruses: implications for the mechanism of RNA recombination. J Virol. 2004;78:2288-300 pubmed
    ..In summary, evidence is presented that a tombusvirus can use the recombination signal of BMV. This supports the idea that common AU-rich recombination signals might promote interviral recombination between unrelated viruses...
  38. Felden B, Florentz C, Westhof E, Giege R. Transfer RNA identity rules and conformation of the tyrosine tRNA-like domain of BMV RNA imply additional charging by histidine and valine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;243:426-34 pubmed
    ..Biological necessity of specific or non specific aminoacylation will be discussed. ..
  39. Johnson J, Tang J, Nyame Y, Willits D, Young M, Zlotnick A. Regulating self-assembly of spherical oligomers. Nano Lett. 2005;5:765-70 pubmed
    ..Altering the assembly path of "spherical" particles is a means of controlling the distribution of products, which has broad applicability to self-assembly reactions. ..
  40. Mello A, Clark A, Perry K. Capsid protein of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus is a determinant for vector transmission by a beetle. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:545-51 pubmed publisher
    Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is a bromovirus transmitted by species of chrysomelid beetles, including the spotted cucumber beetle, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardii Barber...
  41. Harries P, Palanichelvam K, Bhat S, Nelson R. Tobacco mosaic virus 126-kDa protein increases the susceptibility of Nicotiana tabacum to other viruses and its dosage affects virus-induced gene silencing. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2008;21:1539-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings illustrate the sensitivity of host plants to relatively small changes in suppressor dosage and have implications for those interested in enhancing silencing phenotypes in tobacco and other species through VIGS...
  42. Kononova O, Snijder J, Brasch M, Cornelissen J, Dima R, Marx K, et al. Structural transitions and energy landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus capsid mechanics from nanomanipulation in vitro and in silico. Biophys J. 2013;105:1893-903 pubmed publisher
    ..This emerging picture illuminates how unique physico-chemical properties of protein nanoshells help define their structure and morphology, and determine their viruses' biological function. ..
  43. Garmann R, Comas Garcia M, Gopal A, Knobler C, Gelbart W. The assembly pathway of an icosahedral single-stranded RNA virus depends on the strength of inter-subunit attractions. J Mol Biol. 2014;426:1050-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations establish a protocol for the efficient in vitro assembly of CCMV VLPs and suggest potential strategies that the virus may employ in vivo. ..
  44. Vaughan R, Tragesser B, Ni P, Ma X, Dragnea B, Kao C. The tripartite virions of the brome mosaic virus have distinct physical properties that affect the timing of the infection process. J Virol. 2014;88:6483-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The ease of RNA release is also correlated with the more rapid accumulation of that RNA in infected plants. Our study identified a novel role for capsid-RNA interactions in the regulation of a viral infection. ..
  45. Scheets K. Maize chlorotic mottle machlomovirus and wheat streak mosaic rymovirus concentrations increase in the synergistic disease corn lethal necrosis. Virology. 1998;242:28-38 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that there are genes in both MCMV and WSMV which directly or indirectly affect the replication and/or spread of the other virus in CLN...
  46. Noueiry A, Ahlquist P. Brome mosaic virus RNA replication: revealing the role of the host in RNA virus replication. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2003;41:77-98 pubmed
    ..Characterizing the functions of these host factors is revealing basic aspects of virus RNA replication and helping to define the normal functions of these factors in the host. ..
  47. Fujita M, Mise K, Kajiura Y, Dohi K, Furusawa I. Nucleic acid-binding properties and subcellular localization of the 3a protein of brome mosaic bromovirus. J Gen Virol. 1998;79 ( Pt 5):1273-80 pubmed
    Brome mosaic bromovirus (BMV) 3a protein is required for cell-to-cell movement of the virus in host plants. The BMV 3a protein (B3a) was produced in Escherichia coli using an expression vector...
  48. Okinaka Y, Mise K, Suzuki E, Okuno T, Furusawa I. The C terminus of brome mosaic virus coat protein controls viral cell-to-cell and long-distance movement. J Virol. 2001;75:5385-90 pubmed
    ..The specificity of certain mutations for viral movement in two different plant species is evidence for the involvement of host-specific factors. ..
  49. Garriga D, Diez J, Oliva B. Modeling the helicase domain of Brome mosaic virus 1a replicase. J Mol Model. 2004;10:382-92 pubmed
    ..The helicase mechanism was corroborated by the model and this supports the hypothesis that BMV 1a should have helicase activity. ..
  50. Annamalai P, Rofail F, DeMason D, Rao A. Replication-coupled packaging mechanism in positive-strand RNA viruses: synchronized coexpression of functional multigenome RNA components of an animal and a plant virus in Nicotiana benthamiana cells by agroinfiltration. J Virol. 2008;82:1484-95 pubmed
    ..Taken together, we propose that the transcription of CP mRNA from homologous replication and its translation must be synchronized to confer packaging specificity...
  51. Dohi K, Mise K, Furusawa I, Okuno T. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex of Brome mosaic virus: analysis of the molecular structure with monoclonal antibodies. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:2879-90 pubmed
  52. Annamalai P, Rao A. Dispensability of 3' tRNA-like sequence for packaging cowpea chlorotic mottle virus genomic RNAs. Virology. 2005;332:650-8 pubmed
    ..Based on the differential prerequisites identified in this study for the assembly of BMV and CCMV, we hypothesize that the adaptive condition for movement in monocotyledonous host has made packaging a necessary co-requirement for BMV. ..
  53. Mukherjee S, Pfeifer C, Johnson J, Liu J, Zlotnick A. Redirecting the coat protein of a spherical virus to assemble into tubular nanostructures. J Am Chem Soc. 2006;128:2538-9 pubmed
    ..Critical to redirecting assembly are the weak interprotein association energy inherent to virus assembly and the relatively rigid nature of the double-stranded DNA scaffold at their core. ..
  54. Kim C, Tinoco I. Structural and thermodynamic studies on mutant RNA motifs that impair the specificity between a viral replicase and its promoter. J Mol Biol. 2001;307:827-39 pubmed
    ..Based on this study, we conclude that the key structural motif in the triloop recognized by the replicase is a solution-exposed, 5'-adenine base in the triloop that is clamped to the stem helix, which is called a clamped adenine motif. ..
  55. Wang L, Lane L, Smith D. Detecting structural changes in viral capsids by hydrogen exchange and mass spectrometry. Protein Sci. 2001;10:1234-43 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that protein fragmentation/amide hydrogen exchange is a useful tool for probing structural changes in viral capsids. ..
  56. Dohi K, Mori M, Furusawa I, Mise K, Okuno T. Brome mosaic virus replicase proteins localize with the movement protein at infection-specific cytoplasmic inclusions in infected barley leaf cells. Arch Virol. 2001;146:1607-15 pubmed
    ..The inclusions were oval or amorphous, and contained electron-lucent regions. Electron microscopic autoradiography showed that the inclusions were sites of [3H]uridine incorporation, suggesting that they are sites of viral RNA synthesis...
  57. Haasnoot P, Olsthoorn R, Bol J. The Brome mosaic virus subgenomic promoter hairpin is structurally similar to the iron-responsive element and functionally equivalent to the minus-strand core promoter stem-loop C. RNA. 2002;8:110-22 pubmed
    ..Additional sequence elements of the minus-strand promoter are proposed to direct the RdRp to the initiation site at the 3' end of the genomic RNA. ..
  58. Burns K, Mukherjee S, Keef T, Johnson J, Zlotnick A. Altering the energy landscape of virus self-assembly to generate kinetically trapped nanoparticles. Biomacromolecules. 2010;11:439-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The extrusion of all-pentamer capsids from the hexagonal lattice of the rod demonstrates the importance of the starting state for controlled assembly. ..
  59. Wojtkowiak A, Siek A, Alejska M, Jarmołowski A, Szweykowska Kulinska Z, Figlerowicz M. RNAi and viral vectors as useful tools in the functional genomics of plants. Construction of BMV-based vectors for RNA delivery into plant cells. Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2002;7:511-22 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the construction of four brome mosaic virus-based vectors, which, as our preliminary data indicate, can be used to transfer RNA into barley cells. ..
  60. Fujisaki K, Kaido M, Mise K, Okuno T. Use of Spring beauty latent virus to identify compatible interactions between bromovirus components required for virus infection. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:1367-75 pubmed
    Spring beauty latent virus (SBLV) is a member of the genus Bromovirus, and is closely related to Brome mosaic virus (BMV) and Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV)...
  61. Gago S, de la Peña M, Flores R. A kissing-loop interaction in a hammerhead viroid RNA critical for its in vitro folding and in vivo viability. RNA. 2005;11:1073-83 pubmed
    ..Preservation of a similar kissing-loop interaction in two hammerhead viroids with an overall low sequence similarity suggests that it facilitates in vivo the adoption and stabilization of a compact folding critical for viroid viability. ..
  62. Chen C, Kwak E, Stein B, Kao C, Dragnea B. Packaging of gold particles in viral capsids. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2005;5:2029-33 pubmed
    ..self-assembly conditions known to result in generating infectious virions have been used in vitro to reassemble bromovirus capsid proteins around negatively charged gold nanoparticles cores...
  63. Calhoun S, Speir J, Rao A. In vivo particle polymorphism results from deletion of a N-terminal peptide molecular switch in brome mosaic virus capsid protein. Virology. 2007;364:407-21 pubmed
    ..Based on these observations, we propose a chaperon-mediated mechanism for the assembly of variant CP in vivo and also hypothesize that (41)KAIKAIA(47) N-proximal peptide functions as a molecular switch in regulating T=3 virion symmetry. ..
  64. Calhoun S, Rao A. Functional analysis of brome mosaic virus coat protein RNA-interacting domains. Arch Virol. 2008;153:231-45 pubmed
    The coat proteins (CP) of cowpea chlorotic mottle (CCMV) and brome mosaic virus (BMV), two members of the genus Bromovirus, share 70% identity at the amino acid (aa) level and contain four highly conserved regions, identified as putative ..
  65. Kostiainen M, Hiekkataipale P, Laiho A, Lemieux V, Seitsonen J, Ruokolainen J, et al. Electrostatic assembly of binary nanoparticle superlattices using protein cages. Nat Nanotechnol. 2013;8:52-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that these magnetic assemblies provide contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging. ..
  66. Lucas R, Kuznetsov Y, Larson S, McPherson A. Crystallization of Brome mosaic virus and T = 1 Brome mosaic virus particles following a structural transition. Virology. 2001;286:290-303 pubmed
    ..In some cases these aberrant particles are incorporated into growing crystals where they are frequently responsible for defect formation. ..
  67. Wierzchoslawski R, Dzianott A, Kunimalayan S, Bujarski J. A transcriptionally active subgenomic promoter supports homologous crossovers in a plus-strand RNA virus. J Virol. 2003;77:6769-76 pubmed
    ..activity that is supported by a subgenomic promoter (sgp) region in the RNA3 segment of brome mosaic bromovirus (BMV), a tripartite plus-strand RNA virus...
  68. Suci P, Klem M, Douglas T, Young M. Influence of electrostatic interactions on the surface adsorption of a viral protein cage. Langmuir. 2005;21:8686-93 pubmed
    ..The Langmuir model was used to provide a description of the kinetic absorption behavior. ..
  69. Suci P, Berglund D, Liepold L, Brumfield S, Pitts B, Davison W, et al. High-density targeting of a viral multifunctional nanoplatform to a pathogenic, biofilm-forming bacterium. Chem Biol. 2007;14:387-98 pubmed
    ..aureus biofilm. These results demonstrate that multifunctional nanoplatforms based on protein cage architectures have significant potential as tools for both diagnosis and targeted treatment of recalcitrant bacterial infections. ..
  70. Indelicato G, Cermelli P, Salthouse D, Racca S, Zanzotto G, Twarock R. A crystallographic approach to structural transitions in icosahedral viruses. J Math Biol. 2012;64:745-73 pubmed publisher
  71. Petrova E, Nikitin N, Protopopova A, Arkhipenko M, Yaminsky I, Karpova O, et al. The role of the 5'-cap structure in viral ribonucleoproteins assembly from potato virus X coat protein and RNAs. Biochimie. 2013;95:2415-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Presumably, the 5'-cap affects conformational state of the RNA region responsible for the efficient interaction with CP and creates conformational encapsidation signal for vRNP assembly. ..
  72. Ge X, Scott S. The nucleotide sequence of citrus leaf rugose ilarvirus RNA-2. J Gen Virol. 1994;75 ( Pt 10):2841-6 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of the full-length sequence of RNA-2 of an ilarvirus. ..
  73. Alejska M, Kurzynska Kokorniak A, Broda M, Kierzek R, Figlerowicz M. How RNA viruses exchange their genetic material. Acta Biochim Pol. 2001;48:391-407 pubmed
    ..That is why in this review we present and thoroughly discuss all results concerning nonhomologous recombination in BMV that have been obtained until now. ..
  74. Zhang D, Konecny R, Baker N, McCammon J. Electrostatic interaction between RNA and protein capsid in cowpea chlorotic mottle virus simulated by a coarse-grain RNA model and a Monte Carlo approach. Biopolymers. 2004;75:325-37 pubmed
    ..The overall icosahedral shape of the net overlaps with the capsid subunit icosahedral organization. Medium density of RNA is found under the pentamers of the capsid. These findings are consistent with experimental observations. ..
  75. Sasaki N, Kaido M, Okuno T, Mise K. Coat protein-independent cell-to-cell movement of bromoviruses expressing brome mosaic virus movement protein with an adaptation-related amino acid change in the central region. Arch Virol. 2005;150:1231-40 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, we discuss adaptation mechanisms of CCMV(B3a) and the role of the central region of MP in the determination of virus movement mode. ..
  76. Van Vlijmen H, Karplus M. Normal mode calculations of icosahedral viruses with full dihedral flexibility by use of molecular symmetry. J Mol Biol. 2005;350:528-42 pubmed
    ..Fully flexible normal mode calculations of virus capsids are expected to increase our understanding of virus dynamics and thermodynamics, and can be useful in the refinement of cryo-electron microscopy structures of viruses. ..
  77. Lorber B, Adrian M, Witz J, Erhardt M, Harris J. Formation of two-dimensional crystals of icosahedral RNA viruses. Micron. 2008;39:431-46 pubmed
    ..The formation of 2D crystals and the enhancing effect of polyethylene glycol on the self-organisation of virions at the air/water interface are discussed...
  78. Lavelle L, Michel J, Gingery M. The disassembly, reassembly and stability of CCMV protein capsids. J Virol Methods. 2007;146:311-6 pubmed
    ..It was also found that CaCl(2)/RNA precipitation methods do not yield sufficiently pure protein samples. ..
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    ..The irreversible drop in force at small separations is associated with rupturing nearly all of the bonds between capsid proteins in the molecular model, while a buckling transition is observed in continuum models. ..
  80. Tama F, Brooks C. The mechanism and pathway of pH induced swelling in cowpea chlorotic mottle virus. J Mol Biol. 2002;318:733-47 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the pH dependent swelling appears to be triggered by the titration of a single residue with an anomalous pK(a) value in the unswollen particle...
  81. Barends S, Rudinger Thirion J, Florentz C, Giege R, Pleij C, Kraal B. tRNA-like structure regulates translation of Brome mosaic virus RNA. J Virol. 2004;78:4003-10 pubmed
    ..Brome mosaic virus (BMV), a bromovirus, has a tripartite RNA genome with a subgenomic RNA4 for coat protein expression...
  82. Panavas T, Serviene E, Brasher J, Nagy P. Yeast genome-wide screen reveals dissimilar sets of host genes affecting replication of RNA viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:7326-31 pubmed
    ..This finding suggests that virus infection and disease-causing proteins might use or alter similar host pathways and may suggest connections between chronic diseases and prior virus infection...
  83. Wierzchoslawski R, Urbanowicz A, Dzianott A, Figlerowicz M, Bujarski J. Characterization of a novel 5' subgenomic RNA3a derived from RNA3 of Brome mosaic bromovirus. J Virol. 2006;80:12357-66 pubmed
    ..sgRNA4) by initiation from an internal sg promoter in the RNA3 segment was first described for Brome mosaic bromovirus (BMV), a model tripartite positive-sense RNA virus (W. A. Miller, T. W. Dreher, and T. C...
  84. Akamatsu N, Takeda A, Kishimoto M, Kaido M, Okuno T, Mise K. Phosphorylation and interaction of the movement and coat proteins of brome mosaic virus in infected barley protoplasts. Arch Virol. 2007;152:2087-93 pubmed
    ..Both BCP and B3a were detected in a complex immunoprecipitated from BMV-infected protoplasts with anti-B3a antiserum, implying an interaction between BCP and B3a...
  85. Kwon S, Rao A. Emergence of distinct brome mosaic virus recombinants is determined by the polarity of the inoculum RNA. J Virol. 2012;86:5204-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These results contribute to the explanation of the functional role of RNA polarity in recombination mediated by copy choice mechanisms...
  86. Sivakumaran K, Choi S, Hema M, Kao C. Requirements for brome mosaic virus subgenomic RNA synthesis in vivo and replicase-core promoter interactions in vitro. J Virol. 2004;78:6091-101 pubmed
  87. Annamalai P, Rao A. Packaging of brome mosaic virus subgenomic RNA is functionally coupled to replication-dependent transcription and translation of coat protein. J Virol. 2006;80:10096-108 pubmed publisher
  88. Miao Y, Ortoleva P. Molecular dynamics/order parameter extrapolation for bionanosystem simulations. J Comput Chem. 2009;30:423-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The source code of MD/OPX is distributed free of charge at and a web portal will be available via
  89. Ali A, Roossinck M. A simple technique for separation of Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus from Cucumber mosaic virus in natural mixed infections. J Virol Methods. 2008;153:163-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report of a method separating CCMV directly from mixed infections with CMV in cowpea...
  90. Comellas Aragonès M, de la Escosura A, Dirks A, van der Ham A, Fusté Cuñé A, Cornelissen J, et al. Controlled integration of polymers into viral capsids. Biomacromolecules. 2009;10:3141-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These are the first virus-like particles bearing synthetic organic polymers both inside and outside the viral capsid, opening a new route to the synthesis of biohybrid nanostructured materials based on viruses...
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    ..In this way, the capsid proteins can be noncovalently bound to EGFP prior to the induction of the capsid assembly. Up to 15 EGFP proteins can be encapsulated per capsid in a controlled and efficient manner...
  92. Minten I, Wilke K, Hendriks L, van Hest J, Nolte R, Cornelissen J. Metal-ion-induced formation and stabilization of protein cages based on the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus. Small. 2011;7:911-9 pubmed publisher
    ..5. This metal-mediated stabilization methodology is employed to form stable capsids containing multiple proteins at pH 7.5, thereby greatly expanding the scope of the CCMV capsid as a nanoreactor...