Summary: Genus of non-oncogenic retroviruses which establish persistent infections in many animal species but are considered non-pathogenic. Its species have been isolated from primates (including humans), cattle, cats, hamsters, horses, and sea lions. Spumaviruses have a foamy or lace-like appearance and are often accompanied by syncytium formation. SIMIAN FOAMY VIRUS is the type species.

Top Publications

  1. Khan A, Sears J, Muller J, Galvin T, Shahabuddin M. Sensitive assays for isolation and detection of simian foamy retroviruses. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:2678-86 pubmed
  2. Si Y, Pulliam A, Linka Y, Ciccone S, Leurs C, Yuan J, et al. Overnight transduction with foamyviral vectors restores the long-term repopulating activity of Fancc-/- stem cells. Blood. 2008;112:4458-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These data could have implications for future gene therapy trials for FA patients. ..
  3. Maertens G, Hare S, Cherepanov P. The mechanism of retroviral integration from X-ray structures of its key intermediates. Nature. 2010;468:326-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results resolve the structural basis for retroviral DNA integration and provide a framework for the design of INs with altered target sequences. ..
  4. Yap M, Lindemann D, Stanke N, Reh J, Westphal D, Hanenberg H, et al. Restriction of foamy viruses by primate Trim5alpha. J Virol. 2008;82:5429-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This region most likely corresponds to the capsid of conventional retroviruses. Due to their unique replication strategy, FVs should provide a valuable new system to examine the mechanism of retroviral restriction by Trim5alpha. ..
  5. Ohmine K, Li Y, Bauer T, Hickstein D, Russell D. Tracking of specific integrant clones in dogs treated with foamy virus vectors. Hum Gene Ther. 2011;22:217-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we show that copy number estimates of these specific proviruses based on linker-mediated PCR results are different from those obtained by quantitative PCR, but can provide a qualitative assessment of provirus levels. ..
  6. Cherepanov P, Maertens G, Hare S. Structural insights into the retroviral DNA integration apparatus. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2011;21:249-56 pubmed publisher
  7. Alke A, Schwantes A, Kido K, Flötenmeyer M, Flugel R, Lochelt M. The bet gene of feline foamy virus is required for virus replication. Virology. 2001;287:310-20 pubmed
    ..In both cell types, the Bel 2/Bet mutations resulted in a reduced release of FFV particles. The results indicate that FFV Bet is required for efficient virus replication. The functions of the Bel 2 and Bet proteins are discussed. ..
  8. Mergia A, Heinkelein M. Foamy virus vectors. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2003;277:131-59 pubmed
    ..This chapter reviews specific features of foamy virus vector systems and recent advances in the development and use of these vectors. ..
  9. Geiselhart V, Bastone P, Kempf T, Schn lzer M, L chelt M. Furin-mediated cleavage of the feline foamy virus Env leader protein. J Virol. 2004;78:13573-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we show that FFV Elp carries an N-linked oligosaccharide that is not conserved among the known foamy viruses...

More Information

Publications107 found, 100 shown here

  1. An D, Hyun U, Shin C. Characterization of nuclear localization signals of the prototype foamy virus integrase. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1680-4 pubmed publisher
  2. Müllers E, Stirnnagel K, Kaulfuss S, Lindemann D. Prototype foamy virus gag nuclear localization: a novel pathway among retroviruses. J Virol. 2011;85:9276-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PFV Gag nuclear localization follows a novel pathway among orthoretroviral Gag proteins. ..
  3. Swiersy A, Wiek C, Zentgraf H, Lindemann D. Characterization and manipulation of foamy virus membrane interactions. Cell Microbiol. 2013;15:227-36 pubmed publisher
  4. Patton G, Morris S, Chung W, Bieniasz P, McClure M. Identification of domains in gag important for prototypic foamy virus egress. J Virol. 2005;79:6392-9 pubmed
  5. Delebecque F, Susp ne R, Calattini S, Casartelli N, Sa b A, Froment A, et al. Restriction of foamy viruses by APOBEC cytidine deaminases. J Virol. 2006;80:605-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In infected hosts, the persistence strategy employed by FV might be based on low levels of replication, as well as avoidance of cells expressing large amounts of active cytidine deaminases...
  6. Brooks J, Merks H, Fournier J, Boneva R, Sandstrom P. Characterization of blood-borne transmission of simian foamy virus. Transfusion. 2007;47:162-70 pubmed
    ..The demonstration of transmissibility of SFV through whole-blood transfusion, in an NHP model, contributes to the understanding of potential risks associated with blood donation by SFV-infected humans. ..
  7. German A, Harbour D, Helps C, Gruffydd Jones T. Is feline foamy virus really apathogenic?. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2008;123:114-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation of the significance of these changes is warranted before FFV is developed as a vector for gene delivery. ..
  8. Yu S, Lujan P, Jackson D, Emerman M, Linial M. The DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX6 is required for efficient encapsidation of a retroviral genome. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002303 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a unique role for a highly conserved cellular protein of RNA metabolism in specifically re-locating to the site of viral assembly for its function as a catalyst in retroviral RNA packaging. ..
  9. Lee E, Sinicrope A, Jackson D, Yu S, Linial M. Foamy virus Pol protein expressed as a Gag-Pol fusion retains enzymatic activities, allowing for infectious virus production. J Virol. 2012;86:5992-6001 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that enzymes encoded by PFV pol (protease, reverse transcriptase, and integrase) are enzymatically active if they are synthesized as part of a Gag-Pol protein. ..
  10. Josephson N, Vassilopoulos G, Trobridge G, Priestley G, Wood B, Papayannopoulou T, et al. Transduction of human NOD/SCID-repopulating cells with both lymphoid and myeloid potential by foamy virus vectors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:8295-300 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate for the first time that human pluripotent (lympho-myeloid) hematopoietic stem cells repopulate NOD/SCID mice and can be efficiently transduced by FV vectors. ..
  11. Kido K, Bannert H, Gronostajski R, Flügel R. Bel1-mediated transactivation of the spumaretroviral internal promoter is repressed by nuclear factor I. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:11836-42 pubmed
    ..BRE oligodeoxynucleotides in competition experiments with the authentic IP.BRE. Cotransfection of the infectious spumavirus DNA genome with a human NFI-X1 expression plasmid into cell cultures greatly reduced the expression of viral ..
  12. Stenbak C, Linial M. Role of the C terminus of foamy virus Gag in RNA packaging and Pol expression. J Virol. 2004;78:9423-30 pubmed
    ..Thus, the C terminus of FV Gag was found to be responsible for RNA packaging, as well as being involved in the expression, cleavage, and incorporation of the Pol protein. ..
  13. Trobridge G, Horn P, Beard B, Kiem H. Large animal models for foamy virus vector gene therapy. Viruses. 2012;4:3572-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these studies suggest that FV vectors should be highly effective for several human hematopoietic diseases, including those that will require relatively high percentages of gene-modified cells to achieve clinical benefit. ..
  14. Epstein M. Simian retroviral infections in human beings. Lancet. 2004;364:138-9; author reply 139-40 pubmed
  15. Switzer W, Salemi M, Shanmugam V, Gao F, Cong M, Kuiken C, et al. Ancient co-speciation of simian foamy viruses and primates. Nature. 2005;434:376-80 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that SFVs might have co-speciated with Old World primates for at least 30 million years, making them the oldest known vertebrate RNA viruses. ..
  16. Lochelt M. Foamy virus transactivation and gene expression. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2003;277:27-61 pubmed
  17. Tan J, Qiao W, Xu F, Han H, Chen Q, Geng Y. Dimerization of BTas is required for the transactivational activity of bovine foamy virus. Virology. 2008;376:236-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest the dimerization region is necessary for the transactivational function of BTas and is crucial to the replication of BFV. ..
  18. Morianos I, Siapati E, Pongas G, Vassilopoulos G. Comparative analysis of FV vectors with human ?- or ?-globin gene regulatory elements for the correction of ?-thalassemia. Gene Ther. 2012;19:303-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that FV vectors with the ?-globin HS40 element can be used as alternative but equally efficient vehicles for human ?-globin gene expression for the genetic correction of ?-thalassemia. ..
  19. Heneine W, Schweizer M, Sandstrom P, Folks T. Human infection with foamy viruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2003;277:181-96 pubmed
    ..Additional studies are needed to better define the prevalence and natural history of SFV in humans. ..
  20. Kong X, Yu H, Xuan C, Wang J, Chen Q, Geng Y. The requirements and mechanism for capsid assembly and budding of bovine foamy virus. Arch Virol. 2005;150:1677-84 pubmed
    ..The results also showed that addition of a Myr-membrane targeting signal to the C-terminus of Gag could restore the budding from plasma membrane, implying that Myr-membrane targeting signal could substitute for Env protein in budding. ..
  21. Romen F, Backes P, Materniak M, Sting R, Vahlenkamp T, Riebe R, et al. Serological detection systems for identification of cows shedding bovine foamy virus via milk. Virology. 2007;364:123-31 pubmed
    ..The implications of these findings for the potential interspecies transmission of BFV to humans will be discussed. ..
  22. Matthes D, Wiktorowicz T, Zahn J, Bodem J, Stanke N, Lindemann D, et al. Basic residues in the foamy virus Gag protein. J Virol. 2011;85:3986-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The paucity of lysines in FV Gag proteins may be a consequence of preventing proteasomal Gag degradation. ..
  23. Nowrouzi A, Dittrich M, Klanke C, Heinkelein M, Rammling M, Dandekar T, et al. Genome-wide mapping of foamy virus vector integrations into a human cell line. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1339-47 pubmed
    ..In summary, it is shown that the integration pattern of FVs appears to be unique compared with those of other retroviral genera. ..
  24. Lindemann D, Rethwilm A. Foamy virus biology and its application for vector development. Viruses. 2011;3:561-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will summarize the current knowledge of FV biology and the development as a gene transfer system. ..
  25. Murray S, Picker L, Axthelm M, Hudkins K, Alpers C, Linial M. Replication in a superficial epithelial cell niche explains the lack of pathogenicity of primate foamy virus infections. J Virol. 2008;82:5981-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding can also explain the highly efficient transmission of FVs among NHPs. ..
  26. Ho Y, Schnabel V, Swiersy A, Stirnnagel K, Lindemann D. A small-molecule-controlled system for efficient pseudotyping of prototype foamy virus vectors. Mol Ther. 2012;20:1167-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar to other retroviral vectors, this FV pseudotyping system now enables adaptation of cell-specific targeting approaches for FVs. ..
  27. Bastone P, Lochelt M. Kinetics and characteristics of replication-competent revertants derived from self-inactivating foamy virus vectors. Gene Ther. 2004;11:465-73 pubmed
    ..Thus, FV-based SIN vectors require additional genetic modifications in order to avoid RCRs. ..
  28. Kiem H, Allen J, Trobridge G, Olson E, Keyser K, Peterson L, et al. Foamy-virus-mediated gene transfer to canine repopulating cells. Blood. 2007;109:65-70 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that FV vectors should be useful for stem-cell gene therapy, particularly for applications in which short transduction protocols are critical. ..
  29. Weikel J, Lochelt M, Truyen U. Demonstration of feline foamy virus in experimentally infected cats by immunohistochemistry. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2003;50:415-7 pubmed
    ..The method described opens new ways to explore the in vivo replication and tissue specificity of FFV and its possible role in disease. ..
  30. Trobridge G, Beard B, Wu R, Ironside C, Malik P, Kiem H. Stem cell selection in vivo using foamy vectors cures canine pyruvate kinase deficiency. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45173 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to providing a potential cure for patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency, in vivo selection using foamy vectors with MGMTP140K has broad potential for several hematopoietic diseases including hemoglobinopathies. ..
  31. Goepfert P, Shaw K, Wang G, Bansal A, Edwards B, Mulligan M. An endoplasmic reticulum retrieval signal partitions human foamy virus maturation to intracytoplasmic membranes. J Virol. 1999;73:7210-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the dilysine motif of HFV imposes a partial restriction on the site of viral maturation but is not necessary for viral infectivity. ..
  32. Leurs C, Jansen M, Pollok K, Heinkelein M, Schmidt M, Wissler M, et al. Comparison of three retroviral vector systems for transduction of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice repopulating human CD34+ cord blood cells. Hum Gene Ther. 2003;14:509-19 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that vectors based on FVs warrant further investigation and development for medical use. ..
  33. Lee E, Kuppers D, Horn M, Roy J, May C, Linial M. A premature termination codon mutation at the C terminus of foamy virus Gag downregulates the levels of spliced pol mRNA. J Virol. 2008;82:1656-64 pubmed
    ..The results also suggest that normal pol splicing utilizes a suboptimal splice site seen for other spliced mRNAs in most retroviruses, in that introduced exonic enhancer elements can increase splicing efficiency. ..
  34. Pacheco B, Finzi A, McGee Estrada K, Sodroski J. Species-specific inhibition of foamy viruses from South American monkeys by New World Monkey TRIM5{alpha} proteins. J Virol. 2010;84:4095-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, TRIM5alpha has potentially shaped the evolution of SFVs in NWM hosts. Conversely, SFVs may have influenced the evolution of TRIM5 variants in New World primates. ..
  35. Lee E, Stenbak C, Linial M. Foamy virus assembly with emphasis on pol encapsidation. Viruses. 2013;5:886-900 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, a mutant in which Pol is expressed as an orthoretroviral-like Gag-Pol fusion protein is discussed. We also discuss temporal regulation of the protease, reverse transcriptase and integrase activities of WT FV Pol. ..
  36. Beard B, Keyser K, Trobridge G, Peterson L, Miller D, Jacobs M, et al. Unique integration profiles in a canine model of long-term repopulating cells transduced with gammaretrovirus, lentivirus, or foamy virus. Hum Gene Ther. 2007;18:423-34 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that gammaretroviral vectors may have the highest intrinsic risk, but also emphasize that no vector system can be defined as "safe" based solely on integration profile...
  37. Meiering C, Linial M. Reactivation of a complex retrovirus is controlled by a molecular switch and is inhibited by a viral protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:15130-5 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that viral transcription is regulated by a sensitive switch, and that Bet functions as a negative regulator of basal IP activity...
  38. Santos Velazquez J, Kim B. Deoxynucleoside triphosphate incorporation mechanism of foamy virus (FV) reverse transcriptase: implications for cell tropism of FV. J Virol. 2008;82:8235-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These three RTs, however, show similar catalytic activities. In conclusion, PFV RT displays mechanistic distinctions in comparison to HIV-1 RT and shares close similarity to MuLV RT...
  39. Schwantes A, Ortlepp I, Lochelt M. Construction and functional characterization of feline foamy virus-based retroviral vectors. Virology. 2002;301:53-63 pubmed
    ..However, genetic rearrangements also occurred leading to the concomitant loss of marker gene expression...
  40. Delelis O, Petit C, Leh H, Mbemba G, Mouscadet J, Sonigo P. A novel function for spumaretrovirus integrase: an early requirement for integrase-mediated cleavage of 2 LTR circles. Retrovirology. 2005;2:31 pubmed
    ..We observe here that integration of a retrovirus from the spumavirus family depends mainly on the quantity of viral DNA produced...
  41. Jones Engel L, Engel G, Schillaci M, Rompis A, Putra A, Suaryana K, et al. Primate-to-human retroviral transmission in Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1028-35 pubmed
    ..This study raises concerns that persons who work at or live around monkey temples are at risk for infection with SFV...
  42. Bodem J, Kräusslich H, Rethwilm A. Acetylation of the foamy virus transactivator Tas by PCAF augments promoter-binding affinity and virus transcription. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:259-63 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that acetylation of the FV transactivator Tas may be an effective means to regulate virus transcription...
  43. Gharwan H, Hirata R, Wang P, Richard R, Wang L, Olson E, et al. Transduction of human embryonic stem cells by foamy virus vectors. Mol Ther. 2007;15:1827-33 pubmed
    ..Thus, FV vectors are promising tools for the genetic modification of hESCs...
  44. Zhadina M, Bieniasz P. Functional interchangeability of late domains, late domain cofactors and ubiquitin in viral budding. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001153 pubmed publisher
  45. Bodem J, L chelt M, Delius H, Fl gel R. Detection of subgenomic cDNAs and mapping of feline foamy virus mRNAs reveals complex patterns of transcription. Virology. 1998;244:417-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, cDNAs from FeFV-infected cells were directly amplified by PCR without RT reactions and found to correspond to genomic and to a subset of different subgenomic FeFV mRNAs...
  46. Russell R, Critchley R, Vassaux G, McClure M. Human foamy virus integrase fails to catalyse the integration of a circular DNA molecule containing an LTR junction sequence. Gene Ther. 2002;9:1326-32 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results show that the HFV IN is not able to integrate a circular molecule containing an LTR junction and, hence, the technique is not exploitable as a tool to produce hybrid vectors for gene therapy...
  47. Roy J, Linial M. Role of the foamy virus Pol cleavage site in viral replication. J Virol. 2007;81:4956-62 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, Pol encapsidation is significantly reduced in some of the mutants...
  48. Boyer P, Stenbak C, Hoberman D, Linial M, Hughes S. In vitro fidelity of the prototype primate foamy virus (PFV) RT compared to HIV-1 RT. Virology. 2007;367:253-64 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the higher polymerase activity of PFV RT could contribute to the ability of the enzyme to jump to the same or a different template...
  49. Valkov E, Gupta S, Hare S, Helander A, Roversi P, McClure M, et al. Functional and structural characterization of the integrase from the prototype foamy virus. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:243-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we characterized the in vitro activity of the prototype foamy virus (PFV) IN from the Spumavirus genus and determined the three-dimensional structure of its catalytic core domain (CCD)...
  50. Eastman S, Linial M. Identification of a conserved residue of foamy virus Gag required for intracellular capsid assembly. J Virol. 2001;75:6857-64 pubmed
  51. Verschoor E, Langenhuijzen S, Bontjer I, Fagrouch Z, Niphuis H, Warren K, et al. The phylogeography of orangutan foamy viruses supports the theory of ancient repopulation of Sumatra. J Virol. 2004;78:12712-6 pubmed
    ..Combined analysis of host mitochondrial DNA and SFV phylogeny provided evidence for the hypothesis of the repopulation of Sumatra by orangutans from Borneo...
  52. Duda A, Lüftenegger D, Pietschmann T, Lindemann D. Characterization of the prototype foamy virus envelope glycoprotein receptor-binding domain. J Virol. 2006;80:8158-67 pubmed
  53. Life R, Lee E, Eastman S, Linial M. Mutations in the amino terminus of foamy virus Gag disrupt morphology and infectivity but do not target assembly. J Virol. 2008;82:6109-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analyses indicate that the amino terminus of Gag contains an Env interaction domain that is critical for bona fide egress of assembled capsids...
  54. Tobaly Tapiero J, Bittoun P, Lehmann Che J, Delelis O, Giron M, De The H, et al. Chromatin tethering of incoming foamy virus by the structural Gag protein. Traffic. 2008;9:1717-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus highlight a new function of the structural foamy Gag protein as the main tether between incoming subviral complexes and host chromatin prior to integration...
  55. Wang J, Tan J, Guo H, Zhang Q, Jia R, Xu X, et al. Bovine foamy virus transactivator BTas interacts with cellular RelB to enhance viral transcription. J Virol. 2010;84:11888-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study demonstrates the existence of a positive-feedback circuit in which BFV utilizes the host's NF-?B pathway through the RelB protein for efficient viral transcription...
  56. Renne R, Friedl E, Schweizer M, Fleps U, Turek R, Neumann Haefelin D. Genomic organization and expression of simian foamy virus type 3 (SFV-3). Virology. 1992;186:597-608 pubmed
    ..Analysis of phylogenetic trees confirms the classification of foamy viruses as a subfamily of retroviruses, distinct from the lentiviruses and oncoviruses...
  57. Berg A, Pietschmann T, Rethwilm A, Lindemann D. Determinants of foamy virus envelope glycoprotein mediated resistance to superinfection. Virology. 2003;314:243-52 pubmed
    ..This implies that all of them use the same receptor molecules for viral entry...
  58. Patton G, Erlwein O, McClure M. Cell-cycle dependence of foamy virus vectors. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:2925-30 pubmed
    ..Quiescent human CD34+ progenitor cells were transduced as efficiently by PFV as by HIV vectors (40-50 %) when transduction was assayed after the cells were allowed to cycle...
  59. Bastone P, Romen F, Liu W, Wirtz R, Koch U, Josephson N, et al. Construction and characterization of efficient, stable and safe replication-deficient foamy virus vectors. Gene Ther. 2007;14:613-20 pubmed
    ..This finding indicates that the viral promoters are in fact non-functional, pointing to a highly advantageous safety profile of these new FFV-ubi-lacZ-SIN vectors...
  60. Lehmann Che J, Renault N, Giron M, Roingeard P, Clave E, Tobaly Tapiero J, et al. Centrosomal latency of incoming foamy viruses in resting cells. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e74 pubmed
    ..Incoming foamy retroviruses can stably persist at the centrosome, awaiting cell stimulation to initiate capsid cleavage, nuclear import, and viral gene expression...
  61. Hyun U, Lee D, Shin C. Minimal size of prototype foamy virus integrase for nuclear localization. Acta Virol. 2011;55:169-74 pubmed
    ..The results revealed that a maximum karyophilicity was exhibited by a region longer than the previously described one of 29 aa (aa 306-334), in particular by a 64 aa region (aa 289-352) with Arg341 and Lys349 as critical determinants...
  62. Han G, Worobey M. An endogenous foamy-like viral element in the coelacanth genome. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002790 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest an ancient marine origin of retroviruses and have important implications in understanding foamy virus biology...
  63. Plochmann K, Horn A, Gschmack E, Armbruster N, Krieg J, Wiktorowicz T, et al. Heparan sulfate is an attachment factor for foamy virus entry. J Virol. 2012;86:10028-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Both PFV and FFV infection were inhibited by soluble heparin. Our results show that FVs bind to HS and that this interaction is a pivotal step for viral entry, suggesting that HS is a cellular attachment factor for FVs...
  64. Regad T, Saib A, Lallemand Breitenbach V, Pandolfi P, De The H, Chelbi Alix M. PML mediates the interferon-induced antiviral state against a complex retrovirus via its association with the viral transactivator. EMBO J. 2001;20:3495-505 pubmed
    ..These findings point to a role for PML in transcriptional repression and suggest that PML could play a key role in mediating an IFN-induced antiviral state against a complex retrovirus...
  65. Rethwilm A. The replication strategy of foamy viruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2003;277:1-26 pubmed
    ..A number of experimental findings in favour of the view that foamy viruses are reverse transcribing DNA viruses which integrate into the host cell genome are discussed...
  66. Lee H, Kang S, Shin C. Characterization of the functional domains of human foamy virus integrase using chimeric integrases. Mol Cells. 2005;19:246-55 pubmed
  67. Lochelt M, Romen F, Bastone P, Muckenfuss H, Kirchner N, Kim Y, et al. The antiretroviral activity of APOBEC3 is inhibited by the foamy virus accessory Bet protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:7982-7 pubmed
    ..This is the first report that, in addition to lentiviruses, the foamy viruses also developed APOBEC3-counter-acting proteins...
  68. Delelis O, Brussel A, Sonigo P. Quantification of HFV-integrated DNA in human cells by Alu-LTR real-time PCR. Methods Mol Biol. 2005;304:155-70 pubmed
    ..Sensitivity of this technique allows us to detect as few as 25 copies of HFV-integrated DNA in 50,000 cells...
  69. Williams D. Foamy virus vectors come of age. Mol Ther. 2008;16:635-6 pubmed publisher
  70. Gärtner K, Wiktorowicz T, Park J, Mergia A, Rethwilm A, Scheller C. Accuracy estimation of foamy virus genome copying. Retrovirology. 2009;6:32 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the frequency of FV recombination by template switching (TS) and the cross-packaging ability of different FV strains were analyzed...
  71. Wang J, Tan J, Zhang X, Guo H, Zhang Q, Guo T, et al. BFV activates the NF-kappaB pathway through its transactivator (BTas) to enhance viral transcription. Virology. 2010;400:215-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, this study suggests that BFV activates the NF-kappaB pathway through BTas to enhance viral transcription...
  72. Lukic D, Hotz Wagenblatt A, Lei J, R the A, M hle M, Denner J, et al. Identification of the feline foamy virus Bet domain essential for APOBEC3 counteraction. Retrovirology. 2013;10:76 pubmed publisher
    ..Since feA3 binding and inactivation by Bet are highly correlated, the data support the view that FV Bet prevents A3-mediated restriction of viral replication by creating strong complexes with these proteins...
  73. Lecellier C, Dunoyer P, Arar K, Lehmann Che J, Eyquem S, Himber C, et al. A cellular microRNA mediates antiviral defense in human cells. Science. 2005;308:557-60 pubmed
    ..Therefore, through fortuitous recognition of foreign nucleic acids, cellular microRNAs have direct antiviral effects in addition to their regulatory functions...
  74. Peters K, Wiktorowicz T, Heinkelein M, Rethwilm A. RNA and protein requirements for incorporation of the Pol protein into foamy virus particles. J Virol. 2005;79:7005-13 pubmed
    ..However, enzymatic activities of the protease (PR), RT, or IN are not required. Our results strengthen the view that in FVs, (pre)genomic RNA functions as a bridging molecule between Gag and Pol precursor proteins...
  75. Cartellieri M, Herchenröder O, Rudolph W, Heinkelein M, Lindemann D, Zentgraf H, et al. N-terminal Gag domain required for foamy virus particle assembly and export. J Virol. 2005;79:12464-76 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, at position 50, this region harbors the conserved arginine that is presumably at the center of a signal sequence directing FV Gag proteins to a cytoplasmic assembly site...
  76. Calattini S, Wanert F, Thierry B, Schmitt C, Bassot S, Saib A, et al. Modes of transmission and genetic diversity of foamy viruses in a Macaca tonkeana colony. Retrovirology. 2006;3:23 pubmed
  77. Lo Y, Tian T, Nadeau P, Park J, Mergia A. The foamy virus genome remains unintegrated in the nuclei of G1/S phase-arrested cells, and integrase is critical for preintegration complex transport into the nucleus. J Virol. 2010;84:2832-42 pubmed publisher
    Foamy viruses are a member of the spumavirus subfamily of retroviruses with unique mechanisms of virus replication...
  78. Nasimuzzaman M, Persons D. Cell Membrane-associated heparan sulfate is a receptor for prototype foamy virus in human, monkey, and rodent cells. Mol Ther. 2012;20:1158-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that cellular HS is a receptor for FV. Identifying FV receptor will enable better understanding of its entry process and optimal use as gene therapy vector to treat inherited and pathogenic diseases...
  79. Cain D, Erlwein O, Grigg A, Russell R, McClure M. Palindromic sequence plays a critical role in human foamy virus dimerization. J Virol. 2001;75:3731-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, efficient dimerization is a critical step for HFV to generate infectious virus, but HFV RNA dimerization is not a prerequisite for packaging...
  80. Lecellier C, Vermeulen W, Bachelerie F, Giron M, Saib A. Intra- and intercellular trafficking of the foamy virus auxiliary bet protein. J Virol. 2002;76:3388-94 pubmed
    ..Finally, these inter- and intracellular movements were also observed for the equine foamy virus Bet protein, strongly suggesting that these remarkable features are conserved among FVs...
  81. Shaw K, Lindemann D, Mulligan M, Goepfert P. Foamy virus envelope glycoprotein is sufficient for particle budding and release. J Virol. 2003;77:2338-48 pubmed
    ..quot; Taken together, our results demonstrated that FV Env alone is sufficient for particle budding. This finding is unique among retroviruses and further demonstrated the similarities between FV and HBV...
  82. Schiffer C, Lecellier C, Mannioui A, Felix N, Nelson E, Lehmann Che J, et al. Persistent infection with primate foamy virus type 1 increases human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cell binding via a Bet-independent mechanism. J Virol. 2004;78:11405-10 pubmed
    ..Given that both viruses infect similar animal species, the issue of whether coinfection with primate foamy viruses interferes with the natural course of lentivirus infections in nonhuman primates should be considered...
  83. Murray S, Linial M. Foamy virus infection in primates. J Med Primatol. 2006;35:225-35 pubmed
    ..As most primates in HIV/SIV research are coinfected with FV, investigation into possible interactions between these viruses is of interest. The use of FV as a vector for gene therapy is also discussed...
  84. Rethwilm A. Foamy virus vectors: an awaited alternative to gammaretro- and lentiviral vectors. Curr Gene Ther. 2007;7:261-71 pubmed
    ..The effectiveness in different preclinical animal models suggests the exploration of foamy virus vectors in human trials...
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    ..Interestingly, the analyses of conserved motifs suggested that FV Envs possessed several specific functional motifs...
  86. Johnson B, Metifiot M, Ferris A, Pommier Y, Hughes S. A homology model of HIV-1 integrase and analysis of mutations designed to test the model. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:2133-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our model can be used to explain the phenotype of previously published HIV-1 IN mutants. We made additional mutants, and the behavior of these new mutants provides additional support for the model...
  87. Lindemann D, Rethwilm A. Characterization of a human foamy virus 170-kilodalton Env-Bet fusion protein generated by alternative splicing. J Virol. 1998;72:4088-94 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, both types of viruses were inactivated to a similar extent by neutralizing sera, indicating that shedding of gp170 probably does not affect the humoral immune response in the infected host...
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    ..Transgene silencing was not observed. Thus vectors based on foamy viruses represent a promising approach for HSC gene therapy. (Blood. 2001;98:604-609)..
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    ..Our study demonstrates the ability of a simian foamy virus vector to transduce the SCID-repopulating cell and offers a promising new gene delivery system for use in hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy...
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    ..We investigated zoonotic infection in individuals living in central Africa...
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