simian immunodeficiency virus


Summary: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.

Top Publications

  1. Reimann K, Li J, Veazey R, Halloran M, Park I, Karlsson G, et al. A chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus expressing a primary patient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate env causes an AIDS-like disease after in vivo passage in rhesus monkeys. J Virol. 1996;70:6922-8 pubmed
    The utility of the simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques (SIVmac) model of AIDS has been limited by the genetic divergence of the envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and the SIVs...
  2. Daniel M, Kirchhoff F, Czajak S, Sehgal P, Desrosiers R. Protective effects of a live attenuated SIV vaccine with a deletion in the nef gene. Science. 1992;258:1938-41 pubmed
    Vaccine protection against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the related simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in animal models is proving to be a difficult task...
  3. Regier D, Desrosiers R. The complete nucleotide sequence of a pathogenic molecular clone of simian immunodeficiency virus. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1990;6:1221-31 pubmed
    The complete nucleotide sequence of an infectious clone of simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques, SIVmac239, has been determined...
  4. Zhang Z, Schuler T, Zupancic M, Wietgrefe S, Staskus K, Reimann K, et al. Sexual transmission and propagation of SIV and HIV in resting and activated CD4+ T cells. Science. 1999;286:1353-7 pubmed
    In sexual transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus, and early and later stages of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection, both viruses were found to replicate predominantly in CD4(+) T cells at the portal of entry and ..
  5. Goetze R, Kim D, Schinazi R, Kim B. A CRISPR/Cas9 approach reveals that the polymerase activity of DNA polymerase β is dispensable for HIV-1 infection in dividing and nondividing cells. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:14016-14025 pubmed publisher
    ..Next, when we compared transduction using HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus in control and Pol β-KO cells, the loss of the Pol β expression did not affect transduction ..
  6. Berchtold S, Ries J, Hornung U, Aepinus C. Exchange of functional domains between Rev proteins of HIV-1 and SIVmac239 results in a dominant negative phenotype. Virology. 1994;204:436-41 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, M10 was not able to inhibit the function of either Rev protein on SIVmac239 RRE, whereas a corresponding SIVmac239 Rev mutant (SIV M10) was a transdominant inhibitor of SIVmac239 Rev function on its homologous RRE. ..
  7. Manrique S, Sauter D, Horenkamp F, Lülf S, Yu H, Hotter D, et al. Endocytic sorting motif interactions involved in Nef-mediated downmodulation of CD4 and CD3. Nat Commun. 2017;8:442 pubmed publisher
    ..5?Å resolution. This provides a basis for a structural model, where a hydrophobic crevice in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Nef targets a dileucine motif in CD4 and a tyrosine-based motif in CD3...
  8. Menon V, Ayala V, Rangaswamy S, Kalisz I, Whitney S, Galmin L, et al. DNA prime/protein boost vaccination elicits robust humoral response in rhesus macaques using oligomeric simian immunodeficiency virus envelope and Advax delta inulin adjuvant. J Gen Virol. 2017;98:2143-2155 pubmed publisher
  9. Jasinska A, Schmitt C, Service S, Cantor R, Dewar K, Jentsch J, et al. Systems biology of the vervet monkey. ILAR J. 2013;54:122-43 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Karlsson G, Halloran M, Schenten D, Lee J, Racz P, Tenner Racz K, et al. The envelope glycoprotein ectodomains determine the efficiency of CD4+ T lymphocyte depletion in simian-human immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques. J Exp Med. 1998;188:1159-71 pubmed
    ..These studies identify the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein ectodomains as determinants of CD4(+) T lymphocyte loss in vivo and provide a foundation for studying pathogenic mechanisms. ..
  2. Kestler H, Kodama T, Ringler D, Marthas M, Pedersen N, Lackner A, et al. Induction of AIDS in rhesus monkeys by molecularly cloned simian immunodeficiency virus. Science. 1990;248:1109-12 pubmed
    ..An infectious molecular clone of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) was identified that induces AIDS in common rhesus monkeys in a time frame suitable for ..
  3. Metzner K, Jin X, Lee F, Gettie A, Bauer D, Di Mascio M, et al. Effects of in vivo CD8(+) T cell depletion on virus replication in rhesus macaques immunized with a live, attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine. J Exp Med. 2000;191:1921-31 pubmed
    The role of CD8(+) T lymphocytes in controlling replication of live, attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) was investigated as part of a vaccine study to examine the correlates of protection in the SIV/rhesus macaque model...
  4. Reitter J, Means R, Desrosiers R. A role for carbohydrates in immune evasion in AIDS. Nat Med. 1998;4:679-84 pubmed
    Rhesus monkeys were infected with mutant forms of simian immunodeficiency virus lacking dual combinations of the 4th, 5th and 6th sites for N-linked glycosylation in the external envelope glycoprotein of the virus...
  5. Flaherty M, Hauer D, Mankowski J, Zink M, Clements J. Molecular and biological characterization of a neurovirulent molecular clone of simian immunodeficiency virus. J Virol. 1997;71:5790-8 pubmed
    To identify the molecular determinants of neurovirulence, we constructed an infectious simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) molecular clone, SIV/17E-Fr, that contained the 3' end of a neurovirulent strain of SIV, SIV/17E-Br, derived by in ..
  6. Tsai C, Follis K, Sabo A, Beck T, Grant R, Bischofberger N, et al. Prevention of SIV infection in macaques by (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine. Science. 1995;270:1197-9 pubmed
    ..with the antiviral compound (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine (PMPA) was tested against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in macaques as a model for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
  7. Julg B, Sok D, Schmidt S, Abbink P, Newman R, Broge T, et al. Protective Efficacy of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies with Incomplete Neutralization Activity against Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Rhesus Monkeys. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
  8. Ke R, Cong M, Li D, García Lerma J, Perelson A. On the Death Rate of Abortively Infected Cells: Estimation from Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
  9. Fellinger C, Gardner M, Bailey C, Farzan M. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac239, but Not SIVmac316, Binds and Utilizes Human CD4 More Efficiently than Rhesus CD4. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections, but they are not natural hosts of HIV-1 or any simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)...
  10. Fujino M, Sato H, Okamura T, Uda A, Takeda S, Ahmed N, et al. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Targeting of CXCR3+ CD4+ T Cells in Secondary Lymphoid Organs Is Associated with Robust CXCL10 Expression in Monocyte/Macrophage Subsets. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    Glycosylation of Env defines pathogenic properties of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)...
  11. Bebenek K, Beard W, Darden T, Li L, Prasad R, Luton B, et al. A minor groove binding track in reverse transcriptase. Nat Struct Biol. 1997;4:194-7 pubmed
  12. Almond N, Kent K, Cranage M, Rud E, Clarke B, Stott E. Protection by attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus in macaques against challenge with virus-infected cells. Lancet. 1995;345:1342-4 pubmed
    ..Eight cynomolgus macaques infected with attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) were challenged (four each) with cell-free and cell-associated SIV...
  13. Burns D, Desrosiers R. Envelope sequence variation, neutralizing antibodies, and primate lentivirus persistence. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1994;188:185-219 pubmed
    ..1992; Wei and Cresswell 1992).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  14. Palermo R, Tisoncik Go J, Korth M, Katze M. Old world monkeys and new age science: the evolution of nonhuman primate systems virology. ILAR J. 2013;54:166-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, we will review the use of -omics approaches in studies of simian immunodeficiency virus and respiratory virus pathogenesis and vaccine development, emphasizing the acute and innate responses ..
  15. Finkel T, Tudor Williams G, Banda N, Cotton M, Curiel T, Monks C, et al. Apoptosis occurs predominantly in bystander cells and not in productively infected cells of HIV- and SIV-infected lymph nodes. Nat Med. 1995;1:129-34 pubmed
    ..These data have implications for pathogenesis and therapy, namely, arguing that rational drug therapy may involve combination agents targeting viral replication in infected cells and apoptosis of uninfected cells. ..
  16. Le Grand R, Vaslin B, Larghero J, Neidez O, Thiebot H, Sellier P, et al. Post-exposure prophylaxis with highly active antiretroviral therapy could not protect macaques from infection with SIV/HIV chimera. AIDS. 2000;14:1864-6 pubmed
  17. Daniel M, Li Y, Naidu Y, Durda P, Schmidt D, Troup C, et al. Simian immunodeficiency virus from African green monkeys. J Virol. 1988;62:4123-8 pubmed
    b>Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) was isolated from the total peripheral blood mononuclear cell population and the monocyte-macrophage adherent cell population of three seropositive green monkeys originating from Kenya...
  18. Ovejero C, Affranchino J, Gonzalez S. Analysis of the functional compatibility of SIV capsid sequences in the context of the FIV gag precursor. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177297 pubmed publisher
    ..e., an N-terminal domain joined by a flexible linker to a C-terminal domain, their functional exchange between these different lentiviruses is strictly dependent on the context of the recipient Gag precursor...
  19. Ai Y, Ma J, Wang X. Clues for two-step virion infectivity factor regulation by core binding factor beta. J Gen Virol. 2017;98:1113-1121 pubmed publisher
    ..distribution pattern and increased the stability of two primate lentiviral Vifs, HIV-1 Vif and Macaca simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac) Vif...
  20. Del Prete G, Keele B, Fode J, Thummar K, Swanstrom A, Rodriguez A, et al. A single gp120 residue can affect HIV-1 tropism in macaques. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006572 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings should facilitate the design of HIV-1 Env proteins for use in non-human primate models and thus expedite the development of clinically relevant reagents for testing interventions against HIV-1...
  21. Matsuda K, Riddick N, Lee C, Puryear S, Wu F, Lafont B, et al. A SIV molecular clone that targets the CNS and induces neuroAIDS in rhesus macaques. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006538 pubmed publisher
    ..We isolated a strain of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), SIVsm804E, which induces neuroAIDS in a high proportion of rhesus macaques and identified ..
  22. Arthur L, Bess J, Chertova E, Rossio J, Esser M, Benveniste R, et al. Chemical inactivation of retroviral infectivity by targeting nucleocapsid protein zinc fingers: a candidate SIV vaccine. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998;14 Suppl 3:S311-9 pubmed
    ..We have extended our studies of zinc finger targeted inactivation to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and evaluated the feasibility of applying the procedures to large scale (>30 l) production ..
  23. Swan Z, Bouwer A, Wonderlich E, Barratt Boyes S. Persistent accumulation of gut macrophages with impaired phagocytic function correlates with SIV disease progression in macaques. Eur J Immunol. 2017;47:1925-1935 pubmed publisher
  24. Balzarini J, Weeger M, Camarasa M, De Clercq E, Uberla K. Sensitivity/resistance profile of a simian immunodeficiency virus containing the reverse transcriptase gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) toward the HIV-1-specific non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;211:850-6 pubmed
    ..virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors, we recently constructed a hybrid simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/HIV-1 in which the RT gene of SIV was replaced by the RT gene of HIV-1...
  25. Hudson L, Liu J, Nath A, Jones M, Raghavan R, Narayan O, et al. Detection of the human immunodeficiency virus regulatory protein tat in CNS tissues. J Neurovirol. 2000;6:145-55 pubmed
    ..extracts from the brains of rhesus macaques with encephalitis due to a chimeric strain of HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SHIV). Our observations support the role of Tat in the neuropathogenesis of HIV and SHIV encephalitis. ..
  26. Ashorn P, McQuade T, Thaisrivongs S, Tomasselli A, Tarpley W, Moss B. An inhibitor of the protease blocks maturation of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses and spread of infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:7472-6 pubmed blocking HIV-1 replication in human lymphocytes and also inhibited HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus proteases, demonstrating that it has broad activity...
  27. Julg B, Pegu A, Abbink P, Liu J, Brinkman A, Molloy K, et al. Virological Control by the CD4-Binding Site Antibody N6 in Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Monkeys. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..The occurrence of viral escape variants in an N6-LS-monotreated animal, however, argues for the need to maximize breadth and antiviral efficacy by combining bnAbs for therapeutic indications. ..
  28. Feder A, Kline C, Polacino P, Cottrell M, Kashuba A, Keele B, et al. A spatio-temporal assessment of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) evolution reveals a highly dynamic process within the host. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006358 pubmed publisher
    ..impacts its emergence, we examined serial sequences from four macaques infected with RT-SHIVmne027, a simian immunodeficiency virus encoding HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), and treated with RT inhibitors...
  29. Lisziewicz J, Sun D, Smythe J, Lusso P, Lori F, Louie A, et al. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by regulated expression of a polymeric Tat activation response RNA decoy as a strategy for gene therapy in AIDS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:8000-4 pubmed
    ..was infected (transduced) with the TAR-Rib recombinant retrovirus and challenged with either HIV-1 or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)...
  30. Brown E, Dowell K, Boesch A, Normandin E, Mahan A, Chu T, et al. Multiplexed Fc array for evaluation of antigen-specific antibody effector profiles. J Immunol Methods. 2017;443:33-44 pubmed publisher
    ..To this end we have developed a high throughput biophysical platform capable of simultaneously evaluating many dimensions of the antibody effector response. ..
  31. Reeves R, Kang G, Li H, Li Q. Depletion of lamina propria innate lymphoid cells in simian immunodeficiency virus infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014;30:1160-1 pubmed publisher
  32. Hirsch V, Dapolito G, Johnson P, Elkins W, London W, Montali R, et al. Induction of AIDS by simian immunodeficiency virus from an African green monkey: species-specific variation in pathogenicity correlates with the extent of in vivo replication. J Virol. 1995;69:955-67 pubmed
    ..The availability of a pathogenic molecular clone will provide a useful model for the study of viral and host factors that influence pathogenicity. ..
  33. Joag S, Stephens E, Adams R, Foresman L, Narayan O. Pathogenesis of SIVmac infection in Chinese and Indian rhesus macaques: effects of splenectomy on virus burden. Virology. 1994;200:436-46 pubmed
  34. Marx P, Spira A, Gettie A, Dailey P, Veazey R, Lackner A, et al. Progesterone implants enhance SIV vaginal transmission and early virus load. Nat Med. 1996;2:1084-9 pubmed
    b>Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) can cross the intact vaginal epithelium to establish a systemic infection in macaques (mac)...
  35. Tsai C, Follis K, Beck T, Sabo A, Bischofberger N, Dailey P. Effects of (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine monotherapy on chronic SIV infection in macaques. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1997;13:707-12 pubmed a reverse transcriptase inhibitor of retroviruses and has been shown to be effective against acute simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in macaques...
  36. Walker B, Ahmed R, Plotkin S. Moving ahead an HIV vaccine: use both arms to beat HIV. Nat Med. 2011;17:1194-5 pubmed publisher
  37. Lori F, Lewis M, Xu J, Varga G, Zinn D, Crabbs C, et al. Control of SIV rebound through structured treatment interruptions during early infection. Science. 2000;290:1591-3 pubmed
    In a randomized controlled trial with acute simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques, both highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and HAART with fixed-schedule structured treatment interruption (STI-HAART; alternating ..
  38. Uberla K, Stahl Hennig C, Bottiger D, Mätz Rensing K, Kaup F, Li J, et al. Animal model for the therapy of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:8210-4 pubmed
    ..To develop an animal model for the therapy of the HIV-1 infection with RT inhibitors, the RT of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) was replaced by the RT of HIV-1...
  39. Arthur L, Bess J, Sowder R, Benveniste R, Mann D, Chermann J, et al. Cellular proteins bound to immunodeficiency viruses: implications for pathogenesis and vaccines. Science. 1992;258:1935-8 pubmed
    ..peptides present in sucrose density gradient-purified human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)...
  40. Vinton C, Ortiz A, Calantone N, Mudd J, Deléage C, Morcock D, et al. Cytotoxic T Cell Functions Accumulate When CD4 Is Downregulated by CD4+ T Cells in African Green Monkeys. J Immunol. 2017;198:4403-4412 pubmed publisher
  41. Gao F, Bailes E, Robertson D, Chen Y, Rodenburg C, Michael S, et al. Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes. Nature. 1999;397:436-41 pubmed
    ..t. troglodytes is the primary reservoir for HIV-1 and has been the source of at least three independent introductions of SIVcpz into the human population...
  42. Bailey A, Buechler C, Matson D, Peterson E, Brunner K, Mohns M, et al. Pegivirus avoids immune recognition but does not attenuate acute-phase disease in a macaque model of HIV infection. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006692 pubmed publisher
    ..We sequentially infected cynomolgus macaques with simian pegivirus (SPgV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) to model HIV+HPgV co-infection...
  43. Bolton D, McGinnis K, Finak G, Chattopadhyay P, Gottardo R, Roederer M. Combined single-cell quantitation of host and SIV genes and proteins ex vivo reveals host-pathogen interactions in individual cells. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006445 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we demonstrate that combined quantitation of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation at the single-cell level informs in vivo mechanisms of viral replication and immune evasion. ..
  44. Kristoff J, Haret Richter G, Ma D, Ribeiro R, Xu C, Cornell E, et al. Early microbial translocation blockade reduces SIV-mediated inflammation and viral replication. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:2802-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data suggest that early control of microbial translocation may improve the outcome of HIV infection and limit noninfectious comorbidities associated with AIDS. ..
  45. White S, Renda M, Nam N, Klimatcheva E, Zhu Y, Fisk J, et al. Lentivirus vectors using human and simian immunodeficiency virus elements. J Virol. 1999;73:2832-40 pubmed
    ..We describe a novel lentivirus vector which is based on HIV, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and which we refer to as HIV/SIVpack/G...
  46. Tsai C, Follis K, Sabo A, Grant R, Bartz C, Nolte R, et al. Preexposure prophylaxis with 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine against simian immunodeficiency virus infection in macaques. J Infect Dis. 1994;169:260-6 pubmed
    ..inhibitor, 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (PMEA), was evaluated for efficacy against acute simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in juvenile macaques (Macaca fascicularis)...
  47. Rud E, Cranage M, Yon J, Quirk J, Ogilvie L, Cook N, et al. Molecular and biological characterization of simian immunodeficiency virus macaque strain 32H proviral clones containing nef size variants. J Gen Virol. 1994;75 ( Pt 3):529-43 pubmed
  48. Fennessey C, Pinkevych M, Immonen T, Reynaldi A, Venturi V, Nadella P, et al. Genetically-barcoded SIV facilitates enumeration of rebound variants and estimation of reactivation rates in nonhuman primates following interruption of suppressive antiretroviral therapy. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006359 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of SIVmac239M therefore provides a powerful tool to investigate SIV latency and the frequency of viral reactivation after treatment interruption. ..
  49. Chen Z, Huang Y, Zhao X, Skulsky E, Lin D, Ip J, et al. Enhanced infectivity of an R5-tropic simian/human immunodeficiency virus carrying human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C envelope after serial passages in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina). J Virol. 2000;74:6501-10 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that SHIV(CHN19) has adapted well to grow in macaque cells. This established R5-tropic SHIV(CHN19)/macaque model would be very useful for HIV-1 subtype C vaccine and pathogenesis studies. ..
  50. Overbaugh J, Rudensey L. Alterations in potential sites for glycosylation predominate during evolution of the simian immunodeficiency virus envelope gene in macaques. J Virol. 1992;66:5937-48 pubmed
    ..We have previously demonstrated that variation in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) env is primarily localized in two regions (V1 and V4) during progression to simian AIDS...
  51. Etemad Moghadam B, Sun Y, Nicholson E, Fernandes M, Liou K, Gomila R, et al. Envelope glycoprotein determinants of increased fusogenicity in a pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-KB9) passaged in vivo. J Virol. 2000;74:4433-40 pubmed
  52. Bagby G, Stoltz D, Zhang P, Bohm R, Nelson S. Simian immunodeficiency virus, infection, alcohol, and host defense. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1998;22:193S-195S pubmed
  53. Balzarini J, De Clercq E, Uberla K. SIV/HIV-1 hybrid virus expressing the reverse transcriptase gene of HIV-1 remains sensitive to HIV-1-specific reverse transcriptase inhibitors after passage in rhesus macaques. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1997;15:1-4 pubmed
    ..virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection with HIV-1-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors based on a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), in which the RT gene of SIV was replaced by the RT gene of HIV-1...