simian retroviruses


Summary: Classes of retroviruses for which monkeys or apes are hosts. Those isolated from the West African green monkey and the Asian rhesus macaque monkey are of particular interest because of their similarities to viruses causing cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans.

Top Publications

  1. Lillehoj E, Ford G, Bachmann S, Schroder J, Torrey E, Yolken R. Serum antibodies reactive with non-human primate retroviruses identified in acute onset schizophrenia. J Neurovirol. 2000;6:492-7 pubmed
    ..7% of the unaffected controls (P<0.009, Fisher's Exact Test). These studies are consistent with the occurrence of retrovirus replication in some individuals who are undergoing their first episode of schizophrenia...
  2. Marracci G, Avery N, Shiigi S, Couch G, Palmer H, Pilcher K, et al. Molecular cloning and cell-specific growth characterization of polymorphic variants of type D serogroup 2 simian retroviruses. Virology. 1999;261:43-58 pubmed
    b>Simian retroviruses (SRVs), the etiological agent of a spontaneous Simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, endemically infects large percentages of Asian macaques housed in biomedical research colonies and severely compromises the ..
  3. Kewalramani V, Panganiban A, Emerman M. Spleen necrosis virus, an avian immunosuppressive retrovirus, shares a receptor with the type D simian retroviruses. J Virol. 1992;66:3026-31 pubmed
    ..spleen necrosis virus (SNV), is about 50% identical in amino acid sequence to the envelope of the type D simian retroviruses. Although SNV does not productively infect primate or murine cells, the receptor for SNV is present on a ..
  4. Murphy H, Miller M, Ramer J, Travis D, Barbiers R, Wolfe N, et al. Implications of simian retroviruses for captive primate population management and the occupational safety of primate handlers. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2006;37:219-33 pubmed
    ..b>Simian retroviruses, including simian immunodeficiency virus, simian type D retrovirus, simian T-lymphotropic virus, and gibbon ..
  5. Schillaci M, Jones Engel L, Engel G, Fuentes A. Characterizing the threat to the blood supply associated with nonoccupational exposure to emerging simian retroviruses. Transfusion. 2008;48:398-401 pubmed
  6. Pienkowska M, Seth A. Detection of squirrel monkey retroviral sequences in interferon samples. J Hepatol. 1998;28:396-403 pubmed
    ..Thus it is important to determine if these retroviral sequences are present in interferon preparations purified from human cell lines...
  7. Clapham P, Weber J, Whitby D, McIntosh K, Dalgleish A, Maddon P, et al. Soluble CD4 blocks the infectivity of diverse strains of HIV and SIV for T cells and monocytes but not for brain and muscle cells. Nature. 1989;337:368-70 pubmed
    ..Soluble CD4 prevents HIV infection of T-lymphocytic and myelomonocytic cell lines, but neither sCD4 nor anti-CD4 antibodies inhibit infection of glioma and rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines. ..
  8. Roodman S, Woon M, Hoffmann J, Theodorakis P, Wu H, Tsai C. Interleukin-6 and retroperitoneal fibromatosis from SRV-2-infected macaques with simian AIDS. J Med Primatol. 1991;20:201-5 pubmed
    ..IL-6 mRNA levels increased approximately five-fold in RF cells incubated with exogenous SRV-2. In RF cells, SRV-2 functions to increase IL-6 mRNA and protein production and presumably serves as autocrine growth factor. ..
  9. Uphoff C, Denkmann S, Steube K, Drexler H. Detection of EBV, HBV, HCV, HIV-1, HTLV-I and -II, and SMRV in human and other primate cell lines. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2010;2010:904767 pubmed publisher
    ..Six cell lines were SMRV-infected. Newly established cell lines should be tested for EBV infections to detect B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCL). B-LCLs established with EBV from cell line B95-8 should be tested for SMRV infections. ..

More Information


  1. Dezzutti C, Frazier D, Huff L, Stromberg P, Olsen R. Subunit vaccine protects Macaca nemestrina (pig-tailed macaque) against simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type I challenge. Cancer Res. 1990;50:5687S-5691S pubmed
    ..The data presented here demonstrate that the vaccine was successful in protecting Macaca nemestrina from simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type I infection. ..
  2. Malley A, Torres J, Benjamini E, Pangares N, Axthelm M. Characterization of T cell epitopes on the envelope glycoprotein of simian retrovirus 1 and 2 (SRV-1 and SRV-2) in several mouse strains. Mol Immunol. 1992;29:999-1004 pubmed
  3. Tan W, Felber B, Zolotukhin A, Pavlakis G, Schwartz S. Efficient expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 L1 protein in epithelial cells by using Rev and the Rev-responsive element of human immunodeficiency virus or the cis-acting transactivation element of simian retrovirus type 1. J Virol. 1995;69:5607-20 pubmed
    ..This regulated expression may allow virus production in terminally differentiated epithelial cells and is probably a conserved and important mechanism for HPV expression. ..
  4. Tang H, Xu Y, Wong Staal F. Identification and purification of cellular proteins that specifically interact with the RNA constitutive transport elements from retrovirus D. Virology. 1997;228:333-9 pubmed
    ..Both proteins have been partially purified. The nature of these proteins and their roles in RNA intracellular trafficking are currently under investigation...
  5. Torres J, Werner L, Malley A, Benjamin E. Neutralization epitope in the envelope glycoprotein of simian retrovirus-1 (SRV-1) and identification of the virus receptor. J Med Primatol. 1991;20:218-21 pubmed
    ..The virus receptor was immunoprecipitated from Raji cells using gp70 as the ligand. Antibodies to peptide 142-167 inhibit the immunoprecipitation, indicating that the receptor recognizes residues 142-167 of the viral envelope protein. ..
  6. Moscona A, Peluso R. Fusion properties of cells infected with human parainfluenza virus type 3: receptor requirements for viral spread and virus-mediated membrane fusion. J Virol. 1992;66:6280-7 pubmed
    ..We compare the outcome of HPF3 infection in the presence of excess neuraminidase with that of another paramyxovirus (simian virus 5) and provide evidence that these two viruses differ in their receptor requirements for mediating fusion. ..
  7. Lerche N, Osborn K. Simian retrovirus infections: potential confounding variables in primate toxicology studies. Toxicol Pathol. 2003;31 Suppl:103-10 pubmed
    ..Adequate prestudy viral screening is critical to exclude retrovirus-infected primates from toxicologic research protocols and prevent potential confounding of research results. ..
  8. Brack Werner R, Barton D, Werner T, Foellmer B, Leib Mösch C, Francke U, et al. Human SSAV-related endogenous retroviral element: LTR-like sequence and chromosomal localization to 18q21. Genomics. 1989;4:68-75 pubmed
    ..By means of Southern blotting and in situ hybridization, the sequence was mapped to chromosome 18 band q21...
  9. Werner T, Brack Werner R, Leib Mösch C, Backhaus H, Erfle V, Hehlmann R. S71 is a phylogenetically distinct human endogenous retroviral element with structural and sequence homology to simian sarcoma virus (SSV). Virology. 1990;174:225-38 pubmed
    ..Use of these may facilitate large-scale phylogenetic evaluation of C-type retroviral elements and allow rapid classification of new elements...
  10. Tsai C, Roodman S, Woon M. Mesenchymoproliferative disorders (MPD) in simian AIDS associated with SRV-2 infection. J Med Primatol. 1990;19:189-202 pubmed
    ..Xenograft and allograft transplantation of cultured cells produced MPD lesions in the recipients. The data suggest that SRV-2 plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of MPD in macaques. ..
  11. Rosenblum L, Weiss R, McClure M. Virus load and sequence variation in simian retrovirus type 2 infection. J Virol. 2000;74:3449-54 pubmed
    ..No clear picture emerged from these results, which indicate that the variables of SRV-2 infection are complex, differ from those for lentivirus infection, and are not distinctly related to disease outcome. ..
  12. Switzer W, Tang S, Zheng H, Shankar A, Sprinkle P, Sullivan V, et al. Dual Simian Foamy Virus/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections in Persons from Côte d'Ivoire. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0157709 pubmed publisher
    Zoonotic transmission of simian retroviruses in West-Central Africa occurring in primate hunters has resulted in pandemic spread of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs)...
  13. Lerche N, Switzer W, Yee J, Shanmugam V, Rosenthal A, Chapman L, et al. Evidence of infection with simian type D retrovirus in persons occupationally exposed to nonhuman primates. J Virol. 2001;75:1783-9 pubmed
    ..for antibodies to SRV was performed as part of an ongoing study looking for evidence of infection with simian retroviruses among persons occupationally exposed to nonhuman primates (NHPs). Of 231 persons tested, 2 (0...
  14. Middleton P, Miller S, Ross J, Steel C, Guy K. Insertion of SMRV-H viral DNA at the c-myc gene locus of a BL cell line and presence in established cell lines. Int J Cancer. 1992;52:451-4 pubmed
    ..New insertions of the genome were produced spontaneously in these cells. The origins of the type-D retrovirus and its implications for workers in the field are discussed. ..
  15. Saito K, Lackner A, Markey S, Heyes M. Cerebral cortex and lung indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase activity is increased in type-D retrovirus infected macaques. Brain Res. 1991;540:353-6 pubmed
    ..Such increases provide a mechanism to accelerate the formation of kynurenine pathway metabolites in both systemic tissues and the central nervous system. ..
  16. Higuchi Y, Miyahara Y, Kawano M, Tsurudome M, Matsumura H, Kusagawa S, et al. Sequence analysis of the large (L) protein of simian virus 5. J Gen Virol. 1992;73 ( Pt 4):1005-10 pubmed
    ..The L protein of SV5 was detected in purified virions using antiserum directed against an oligopeptide corresponding to the N-terminal region. ..
  17. ten Dam E, Brierley I, Inglis S, Pleij C. Identification and analysis of the pseudoknot-containing gag-pro ribosomal frameshift signal of simian retrovirus-1. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:2304-10 pubmed
  18. Lokeshwar V, Huang S, Huang J. Intracellular turnover, novel secretion, and mitogenically active intracellular forms of v-sis gene product in simian sarcoma virus-transformed cells. Implications for intracellular loop autocrine transformation. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:1665-75 pubmed
  19. Donehower L, Bohannon R, Ford R, Gibbs R. The use of primers from highly conserved pol regions to identify uncharacterized retroviruses by the polymerase chain reaction. J Virol Methods. 1990;28:33-46 pubmed
    ..Our PCR assay identified the retrovirus as being highly similar to Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV) and simian retrovirus 1, which are closely related immunosuppressive type D viruses that cause simian AIDS. ..
  20. Fukumoto H, Hishima T, Hasegawa H, Saeki H, Kuroda M, Katano H. Evaluation of Vero-cell-derived simian endogenous retrovirus infection in humans by detection of viral genome in clinicopathological samples and commercialized vaccines and by serology of Japanese general population. Vaccine. 2016;34:2700-6 pubmed publisher
    ..SERV) was identified in Vero cells (SERVagm-Vero), with homology to exogenously transmitted, pathogenic simian retroviruses (SRVs)...
  21. Chen Z, Ben K, Tian B, Zheng Y. Serological survey of a captive macaque colony in China for antibodies to simian type D retroviruses. J Med Primatol. 1992;21:377-80 pubmed
    ..Of these monkeys, 104 were seropositive by ELISA; only 23 were confirmed by Western blot. The true positive reaction to SRV was found in 15 of 463 (3.2%) M. mulatta and eight of eleven (72.7%) M. assamensis. ..
  22. Alpers C, Tsai C, Hudkins K, Cui Y, Kuller L, Benveniste R, et al. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in primates infected with a simian immunodeficiency virus. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1997;13:413-24 pubmed
    ..They also indicate the variable pathology that can be seen in primate infections of distinct retrovirus types, each of which produces a simian immunodeficiency state that resembles human AIDS. ..
  23. Grant R, Windsor S, Malinak C, Bartz C, Sabo A, Benveniste R, et al. Characterization of infectious type D retrovirus from baboons. Virology. 1995;207:292-6 pubmed
    ..The homologies in the p27 segment were 91-94% and the homologies in the gp20 segment were 72-75%. ..
  24. Tsai C, Sligh J, Yarnall M, Follis K, Roodman S. Monoclonal antibodies to type D retrovirus (SRV-2). J Med Primatol. 1989;18:175-83 pubmed
    ..Anti-p44 MoAb showed inhibition of syncytium formation by both SRV-1- and SRV-2-infected Raji cells. ..
  25. Miller D, Miller A. Inhibitors of retrovirus infection are secreted by several hamster cell lines and are also present in hamster sera. J Virol. 1993;67:5346-52 pubmed
    ..Inhibitory factors are also present in the sera of Chinese and Syrian hamsters but were not detected in bovine serum. These results suggest the presence of specific factors that function to inhibit retrovirus infection in hamsters. ..
  26. Imamova L, Kzhyshkowska Y, Ostashkin A, Itkes A, Il in K. Human spontaneous laryngeal carcinoma HEp-2 cells are chronically infected with SRV-1 virus, a variant of simian type D retrovirus. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2000;129:584-6 pubmed
    ..A type D retrovirus chronically persisting in HEp-2 cells from human laryngeal carcinoma was analyzed by PCR and sequenced. This virus is most similar to SRV-1 and probably represents one of its subtypes. ..
  27. Okabayash S, Ohno C, Yasutomi Y. Acute megakaryocytic leukaemia (AMKL)-like disease in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). J Comp Pathol. 2009;140:212-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This would appear to be the first report of AMKL-like disease in non-human primates. This monkey was infected with simian retrovirus type D and it is possible that this viral infection was associated with the development of neoplasia. ..
  28. Szabo B, Toth F, Kiss J, Kiss A, Rak K. Antiretroviral immune response and plasma interferon in different phases of chronic granulocytic leukemia. Leuk Res. 1993;17:311-23 pubmed
    ..Follow up studies of four patients confirmed this stage-specific distribution of antiretroviral immune and interferon response. ..
  29. Tabernero C, Zolotukhin A, Valentin A, Pavlakis G, Felber B. The posttranscriptional control element of the simian retrovirus type 1 forms an extensive RNA secondary structure necessary for its function. J Virol. 1996;70:5998-6011 pubmed
    ..These data further support our in vitro mutagenesis data and demonstrate the importance of the sequence and structure of the SRV-1 CTE for appropriate function. ..
  30. Lackner A, Moore P, Marx P, Munn R, Gardner M, Lowenstine L. Immunohistochemical localization of type D retrovirus serotype 1 in the digestive tract of rhesus monkeys with simian AIDS. J Med Primatol. 1990;19:339-49 pubmed
    ..This revealed that both epithelial and lymphoid cells of the digestive tract are commonly infected by this immunosuppressive type D retrovirus. ..
  31. Moazed T, Thouless M. Viral persistence of simian type D retrovirus (SRV-2/W) in naturally infected pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina). J Med Primatol. 1993;22:382-9 pubmed
    ..In V-Ab+ macaques, provirus was detected in bone marrow and/or ileocecal junction, confirming the presence of provirus in V-Ab+ animals. ..
  32. Lerche N, Marx P, Gardner M. Elimination of type D retrovirus infection from group-housed rhesus monkeys using serial testing and removal. Lab Anim Sci. 1991;41:123-7 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that elimination of type D retroviruses from rhesus macaque colonies is feasible, and that the objective of establishing and maintaining retrovirus-free colonies is realistic and achievable. ..
  33. Sung D, Kang H. Mutational analysis of the RNA pseudoknot involved in efficient ribosomal frameshifting in simian retrovirus-1. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:1369-72 pubmed
    ..Our mutational data suggest that SRV-1 pseudoknot adopts similar structural features common to other efficient frameshifting pseudoknots as observed in MMTV and FIV. ..
  34. Georges Courbot M, Moisson P, Leroy E, Pingard A, Nerrienet E, Dubreuil G, et al. Occurrence and frequency of transmission of naturally occurring simian retroviral infections (SIV, STLV, and SRV) at the CIRMF Primate Center, Gabon. J Med Primatol. 1996;25:313-26 pubmed
    ..SIV infection was also more frequent in male than female mandrills and sexual transmission appeared to be a rare event. No SRV infection was observed in macaques...
  35. Anderson D, Torres J. Simian retrovirus receptor and neutralization mechanism by antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein. Viral Immunol. 1999;12:47-56 pubmed
    Type D simian retroviruses (SRV) cause an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in monkeys...
  36. Li B, Axthelm M, Machida C. Simian retrovirus serogroup 5: partial gag-prt sequence and viral RNA distribution in an infected rhesus macaque. Virus Genes. 2000;21:241-8 pubmed
  37. Bosch M, Earl P, Fargnoli K, Picciafuoco S, Giombini F, Wong Staal F, et al. Identification of the fusion peptide of primate immunodeficiency viruses. Science. 1989;244:694-7 pubmed
  38. Eglitis M, Eiden M, Wilson C. Gibbon ape leukemia virus and the amphotropic murine leukemia virus 4070A exhibit an unusual interference pattern on E36 Chinese hamster cells. J Virol. 1993;67:5472-7 pubmed
    ..These results imply the existence of a receptor on E36 cells that interacts with both GaLV and A-MLV...
  39. Chiu C, Mitra R, Chiu I. Exchange of genetic sequences of long terminal repeat and the env gene by a promiscuous primate type D retrovirus. Virus Res. 2003;96:107-11 pubmed
  40. Bielefeldt Ohmann H, Barouch D, Bakke A, Bruce A, Durning M, Grant R, et al. Intestinal stromal tumors in a simian immunodeficiency virus-infected, simian retrovirus-2 negative rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). Vet Pathol. 2005;42:391-6 pubmed
    ..The animal was negative for simian retroviruses, SRV-1, -2, and -5...
  41. Chen X, Kang H, Shen L, Chamorro M, Varmus H, Tinoco I. A characteristic bent conformation of RNA pseudoknots promotes -1 frameshifting during translation of retroviral RNA. J Mol Biol. 1996;260:479-83 pubmed
    ..The requirement for a precise pseudoknot conformation for efficient frameshifting strongly implies that a specific interaction occurs between the viral RNA pseudoknot and the host protein-synthesizing machinery...
  42. Offit P. The rotavirus vaccine. J Clin Virol. 1998;11:155-9 pubmed
    ..Rotavirus gastroenteritis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide...
  43. Fikes J, O Sullivan M. Localized retroperitoneal fibromatosis causing intestinal obstruction in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Vet Pathol. 1995;32:713-6 pubmed
    ..This case represents an unusual presentation of localized retroperitoneal fibromatosis in which the lesion produced intestinal obstruction and death...
  44. Van Rompay K. Antiretroviral drug studies in nonhuman primates: a valid animal model for innovative drug efficacy and pathogenesis experiments. AIDS Rev. 2005;7:67-83 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, well-designed drug studies in nonhuman primates can continue to provide a solid scientific basis to advance our scientific knowledge and to guide future clinical trials...
  45. van Kuyk R, Acevedo R, Torres J, Levy N, Planelles V, Munn R, et al. Characterization of rhesus macaque B-lymphoblastoid cell lines infected with simian type D retrovirus. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1991;7:899-909 pubmed
    ..Investigations on the interactions of SRV-1 with B cells will be useful for elucidating mechanisms involved in the immunopathogenesis of primate retroviruses...
  46. Torres J, Werner L, Malley A, Benjamini E. The induction of neutralizing antibodies by synthetic peptides of the envelope protein of type D simian retrovirus-1 (SRV-1). Mol Immunol. 1991;28:907-13 pubmed
    It has been recently demonstrated that two serotypes of type D simian retroviruses, namely SRV-1 and SRV-2, exhibit extensive immunological cross-reactivity but do not exhibit cross-reactivity at the level of neutralizing antibodies...
  47. Ilyinskii P, Daniel M, Lerche N, Desrosiers R. Antibodies to type D retrovirus in talapoin monkeys. J Gen Virol. 1991;72 ( Pt 2):453-6 pubmed
    ..Talapoins are the only African non-human primates that have so far shown evidence for type D retrovirus infection. Thus, talapoin monkeys appear to be a reservoir of type D retrovirus infection...
  48. Apetrei C, Marx P. Simian retroviral infections in human beings. Lancet. 2004;364:137-8; author reply 139-40 pubmed
  49. Paramastri Y, Wallace J, Salleng K, Wilkinson L, Malarkey D, Cline J. Intracranial lymphomas in simian retrovirus-positive Macaca fascicularis. Vet Pathol. 2002;39:399-402 pubmed
    ..2) had a pulmonary infection with Mycobacterium avium, suggesting that immunosuppression was present. These cases represent a unique and previously undescribed type of solitary lymphoma in SRV-infected macaques...
  50. Lairmore M, Lerche N, Schultz K, Stone C, Brown B, Hermann L, et al. SIV, STLV-I and type D retrovirus antibodies in captive rhesus macaques and immunoblot reactivity to SIV p27 in human and rhesus monkey sera. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1990;6:1233-8 pubmed
    ..These results also illustrate a potential problem in the testing of human sera for antibodies against simian retroviruses and demonstrate the need for caution in the interpretation of immunoblot results.
  51. Rubio N, Cuesta A. Lack of cross-reaction between myelin basic proteins and putative demyelinating virus envelope proteins. Mol Immunol. 1989;26:663-8 pubmed
    ..In the human situation, antibodies against SV5 and measles viruses, both etiologically linked with multiple sclerosis, also failed to recognize MBP. These results rule out molecular mimicry as a cause of demyelination...
  52. Brankin B, Wisdom G, Allen I, Hawkins S, Cosby S. Antibodies to simian virus 5 in patients with multiple sclerosis and other neurological disorders. J Neurol Sci. 1989;89:181-7 pubmed
    ..Simian virus 5 antibodies and measles antibodies showed a weak correlation and it is suggested that the elevated levels of the former are a manifestation of the increased antiviral response found in some MS patients...
  53. Hadwiger Fangmeier A, Niemann H, Tamura T. Inhibition of glycosylation processing alters the growth parameters of cells transformed by the oncogene of simian sarcoma virus. Arch Virol. 1989;104:339-45 pubmed
    ..The inhibitor did not change cell morphology, but specific growth parameters such as serum- and anchorage-independence were lost...
  54. Ruff K, Puetter A, Levy L. Growth regulation of simian and human AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines by TGF-beta1 and IL-6. BMC Cancer. 2007;7:35 pubmed
  55. Berman N, Marcario J, Yong C, Raghavan R, Raymond L, Joag S, et al. Microglial activation and neurological symptoms in the SIV model of NeuroAIDS: association of MHC-II and MMP-9 expression with behavioral deficits and evoked potential changes. Neurobiol Dis. 1999;6:486-98 pubmed
    ..Thus, increases in MHC-II and MMP-9 expression are associated with development of cognitive and motor deficits, alterations in evoked potentials, and rapid disease progression...
  56. Brody B, Hunter E, Kluge J, Lasarow R, Gardner M, Marx P. Protection of macaques against infection with simian type D retrovirus (SRV-1) by immunization with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the envelope glycoproteins of either SRV-1 or Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (SRV-3). J Virol. 1992;66:3950-4 pubmed
    ..These findings are consistent with the known degree of serologic and genetic relatedness of these three SRV strains...
  57. O Sullivan M, Anderson D, Lund J, Brown W, Green S, Young N, et al. Clinical and epidemiological features of simian parvovirus infection in cynomolgus macaques with severe anemia. Lab Anim Sci. 1996;46:291-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that SPV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe anemia in monkeys...
  58. Lerche N, Cotterman R, Dobson M, Yee J, Rosenthal A, Heneine W. Screening for simian type-D retrovirus infection in macaques, using nested polymerase chain reaction. Lab Anim Sci. 1997;47:263-8 pubmed
    ..Nested PCR is a sensitive and specific assay for simultaneous screening for infection with serotypes 1, 2, and 3 of simian type D retrovirus, and is a powerful tool for rapid screening and surveillance in macaque colonies...
  59. Benveniste R, Hill R, Knott W, Tsai C, Kuller L, Morton W. Detection of serum antibodies in Ethiopian baboons that cross-react with SIV, HTLV-I, and type D retroviral antigens. J Med Primatol. 1993;22:124-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, 20% of these baboons had antibodies that cross-reacted with HTLV-I viral antigens. These data suggest that wild-caught baboons are infected with retroviruses only partially related to known primate viral isolates...
  60. Hara M, Kikuchi T, Ono F, Takano J, Ageyama N, Fujimoto K, et al. Survey of captive cynomolgus macaque colonies for SRV/D infection using polymerase chain reaction assays. Comp Med. 2005;55:145-9 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, SRV/D-T was detected in 11 of 49 animals (22.5%) in the conventional colony. SRV/D-T was the only SRV/D subtype detected. Consequently, SRV/D-T is the major SRV/D subtype present in cynomolgus monkeys at TPC...
  61. Hammerle C, Schiødt M, Lackner A, Armitage G, Daniels T, Greenspan J. Langerhans cells in oral mucosa of rhesus monkeys before and after infection by simian retrovirus-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1993;76:742-5 pubmed
    ..Thus systemic infection of rhesus monkeys with either simian retrovirus-1 or simian immunodeficiency virus does not lead to a significant change in the number of Langerhans cells in oral mucosal epithelium...
  62. Chastel C, Charmot G. [Bacterial and viral epidemics of zoonotic origin; the role of hunting and cutting up wild animals]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2004;97:207-12 pubmed
    ..SARS is another possible example of the zoonotic risks represented by the sale, handling and cutting up Chinese wild animals such as Himalayan civets for culinary purposes...
  63. Heyes M, Gravell M, London W, Eckhaus M, Vickers J, Yergey J, et al. Sustained increases in cerebrospinal fluid quinolinic acid concentrations in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) naturally infected with simian retrovirus type-D. Brain Res. 1990;531:148-58 pubmed
    ..The neuropathologic significance of these increases in CSF QUIN remains to be determined...
  64. Arnold B, Hepler R, Keller P. One-step fluorescent probe product-enhanced reverse transcriptase assay. Biotechniques. 1998;25:98-106 pubmed
    ..This newly enhanced fluorescent PERT assay can play an important role in the high-throughput detection of retroviral infection and characterization of RT activity...
  65. Okayama A, Korber B, Chen Y, Allan J, Lee T, Shioiri S, et al. Unusual pattern of antibodies to human T-cell leukemia virus type-I in family members of adult T-cell leukemia patients. Blood. 1991;78:3323-9 pubmed
    ..DNA samples from lymphocytes of four individuals with antibody reactivity only to HTLV-I tax were tested in polymerase chain reaction experiments; no HTLV-I or -II DNA was detected...
  66. Tailor C, Nouri A, Zhao Y, Takeuchi Y, Kabat D. A sodium-dependent neutral-amino-acid transporter mediates infections of feline and baboon endogenous retroviruses and simian type D retroviruses. J Virol. 1999;73:4470-4 pubmed
    The type D simian retroviruses cause immunosuppression in macaques and have been reported as a presumptive opportunistic infection in a patient with AIDS...
  67. Calvignac S. [Alternative methods for the study of simian retroviral genetic diversity]. Med Sci (Paris). 2008;24:577-8 pubmed publisher
  68. Wolfe N, Switzer W, Carr J, Bhullar V, Shanmugam V, Tamoufe U, et al. Naturally acquired simian retrovirus infections in central African hunters. Lancet. 2004;363:932-7 pubmed
    ..We investigated zoonotic infection in individuals living in central Africa...
  69. Saavedra C, Felber B, Izaurralde E. The simian retrovirus-1 constitutive transport element, unlike the HIV-1 RRE, uses factors required for cellular mRNA export. Curr Biol. 1997;7:619-28 pubmed
    ..In type D retroviruses, such as the simian retrovirus type 1 (SRV-1), however, genomic RNA is exported by cellular factor(s) that interact with a conserved cis-acting RNA element, the constitutive transport element (CTE)...
  70. Mautino M, Keiser N, Morgan R. Improved titers of HIV-based lentiviral vectors using the SRV-1 constitutive transport element. Gene Ther. 2000;7:1421-4 pubmed
    ..Packaging these CTE+ vectors expressing marker genes with a Rev-dependent HIV-1 helper vector yields higher titers than are obtained using a Rev-dependent lentiviral vector...
  71. Lerche N, Yee J, Jennings M. Establishing specific retrovirus-free breeding colonies of macaques: an approach to primary screening and surveillance. Lab Anim Sci. 1994;44:217-21 pubmed
    ..and specific screening tests are now available for use in identifying macaques infected with the exogenous simian retroviruses simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), simian T-lymphotropic virus (STLV), and simian type D retrovirus (SRV/..
  72. Nandi J, Tikute S, Chhangani A, Potdar V, Tiwari Mishra M, Ashtekar R, et al. Natural infection by simian retrovirus-6 (SRV-6) in Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) from two different geographical regions of India. Virology. 2003;311:192-201 pubmed
    ..The study suggests that natural infection by related strains of SRV-6 occurs in wild langurs from different parts of India...
  73. Rasko J, Battini J, Gottschalk R, Mazo I, Miller A. The RD114/simian type D retrovirus receptor is a neutral amino acid transporter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:2129-34 pubmed
  74. Miller A, Garcia J, von Suhr N, Lynch C, Wilson C, Eiden M. Construction and properties of retrovirus packaging cells based on gibbon ape leukemia virus. J Virol. 1991;65:2220-4 pubmed
    ..These simian virus-based packaging cells extend the host range of currently available murine and avian packaging cells and should be useful for efficient gene transfer into higher mammals...
  75. Koo H, Parthasarathi S, Ron Y, Dougherty J. Pseudotyped REV/SRV retroviruses reveal restrictions to infection and host range within members of the same receptor interference group. Virology. 1994;205:345-51 pubmed
    The reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) group of retroviruses and type D simian retroviruses (SRV) belong to the same receptor interference group. The cellular receptor for these viruses has not yet been identified...
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    ..We hypothesize that SRV-6 and SRV-7 probably originated from a progenitor exogenous SRV which recombined with an endogenous SERV in the TM env and pol genes during evolution, based on the phylogenetic analyses...
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    ..Moreover, the findings indicate that the SRV-1 neutralizing antibodies produced by monkeys and at least a certain population of neutralizing antibodies produced by mice recognize the same epitope of SRV-1...
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    ..Similar to the situation for humans, multiparity had a protective effect on infant viability in rhesus macaques...
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    ..8 microM) with low toxicity (TC(50) > 100 microM). The flexible docking of inhibitor 23 to HIV-1 protease active site rationalized the interactions with protease...
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    ..The data also suggest that Rev acts exclusively through the RRE interaction and that it does not have any additional essential function in the life cycle of the virus...
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    ..coli beta-galactosidase gene under a beta-actin internal promoter. In addition, co-culture of ICM cells with virus-producing cells resulted in differentiation of ICM cells into embryoid bodies expressing the marker genes...
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    ..The multiplexed assay provided greater sensitivity, increased stability, and better performance than ELISA...
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    ..The PCR analysis of 39 whole blood samples correctly identified five SRV-1 and nine SRV-2 culture-positive samples. It also detected SRV-2 in two culture-negative blood samples from monkeys from which SRV had been previously isolated...
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    ..It is unknown how long ago in primate evolution the full-length HERV-K proviruses that are in the human genome today were formed...
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    ..Finally, this approach is compared directly to results obtained from a traditional maximum parsimony approach and found to be superior at establishing relationships and identifying instances of transmission...
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    ..Successful infection by the recovered viruses verifies the potential efficacy of the SRV-based system as a research tool for gene transfer of heterologous genes into nonhuman primate cells...
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    ..Restriction endonuclease mapping confirmed the SRV-2C and SRV-5 isolates. In addition, two SRV-2C variants were detected...
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    ..None serum reacted with mouse mammary tumour virus proteins. On the basis of these results we conclude that the expression of antibodies to structural retrovirus proteins is not specific for mammary cancer...
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    ..Together, these data suggest a common biology between RFHVMm infection of macaques and HHV-8 infection and pathogenesis in humans...