hiv 2

Summary

Summary: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.

Top Publications

  1. Sourial S, Nilsson C, Wärnmark A, Achour A, Harris R. Deletion of the V1/V2 region does not increase the accessibility of the V3 region of recombinant gp125. Curr HIV Res. 2006;4:229-37 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that the V3 region is accessible in HIV-2 gp125 and thus may not require interaction with CD4 to induce conformational reorientation of the V1/V2 region. ..
  2. Kono K, Bozek K, Domingues F, Shioda T, Nakayama E. Impact of a single amino acid in the variable region 2 of the Old World monkey TRIM5alpha SPRY (B30.2) domain on anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 2 activity. Virology. 2009;388:160-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the combination of V1 with other variable regions of SPRY is important in anti-HIV-2 activity of primate TRIM5alpha. ..
  3. Månsson F, Biague A, da Silva Z, Dias F, Nilsson L, Andersson S, et al. Prevalence and incidence of HIV-1 and HIV-2 before, during and after a civil war in an occupational cohort in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. AIDS. 2009;23:1575-82 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no evidence of a protective effect of HIV-2 against HIV-1 infection. ..
  4. Humphrey J, Nathoo K, Hargrove J, Iliff P, Mutasa K, Moulton L, et al. HIV-1 and HIV-2 prevalence and associated risk factors among postnatal women in Harare, Zimbabwe. Epidemiol Infect. 2007;135:933-42 pubmed
    ..Prevalent HIV-1 infection is associated with financial insecurity and weak psychosocial support. The ZVITAMBO study apparently spanned the peak of the HIV-1 epidemic among reproductive women in Harare. ..
  5. Jallow S, Kaye S, Alabi A, Aveika A, Sarge Njie R, Sabally S, et al. Virological and immunological response to Combivir and emergence of drug resistance mutations in a cohort of HIV-2 patients in The Gambia. AIDS. 2006;20:1455-8 pubmed
  6. Blaak H, van der Ende M, Boers P, Schuitemaker H, Osterhaus A. In vitro replication capacity of HIV-2 variants from long-term aviremic individuals. Virology. 2006;353:144-54 pubmed
    ..The relatively low replicative capacity of HIV-2 variants from aviremic individuals likely contributes to the low viral load and benign course of infection in these individuals. ..
  7. Tienen C, Van der Loeff M, Zaman S, Vincent T, Sarge Njie R, Peterson I, et al. Two distinct epidemics: the rise of HIV-1 and decline of HIV-2 infection between 1990 and 2007 in rural Guinea-Bissau. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;53:640-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast with what has been observed in other sub-Saharan countries, HIV-1 prevalence is lower in younger age groups than older age groups. ..
  8. Marcelino J, Barroso H, Gonçalves F, Silva S, Novo C, Gomes P, et al. Use of a new dual-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect and characterize the human antibody response to the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 envelope gp125 and gp36 glycoproteins. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:607-11 pubmed
    ..Both polypeptides showed 100% specificity. Clinical sensitivity was 100% for rgp36 and 93.4% for rpC2-C3. ELISA-HIV2 may be used for the specific diagnosis and confirmation of HIV-2 infection. ..
  9. Onyango C, Leligdowicz A, Yokoyama M, Sato H, Song H, Nakayama E, et al. HIV-2 capsids distinguish high and low virus load patients in a West African community cohort. Vaccine. 2010;28 Suppl 2:B60-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide new insights into HIV-2 pathogenesis...

More Information

Publications70

  1. Schindler M, Munch J, Kutsch O, Li H, Santiago M, Bibollet Ruche F, et al. Nef-mediated suppression of T cell activation was lost in a lentiviral lineage that gave rise to HIV-1. Cell. 2006;125:1055-67 pubmed
    ..This function was lost during viral evolution in a lineage that gave rise to HIV-1 and may have predisposed the simian precursor of HIV-1 for greater pathogenicity in humans...
  2. Goujon C, Rivière L, Jarrosson Wuilleme L, Bernaud J, Rigal D, Darlix J, et al. SIVSM/HIV-2 Vpx proteins promote retroviral escape from a proteasome-dependent restriction pathway present in human dendritic cells. Retrovirology. 2007;4:2 pubmed
    ..However, since the requirement for Vpx is specific for DCs and not for other non-dividing cell types, this suggests that Vpx may play a role other than nuclear import...
  3. Lanchy J, Lodmell J. An extended stem-loop 1 is necessary for human immunodeficiency virus type 2 replication and affects genomic RNA encapsidation. J Virol. 2007;81:3285-92 pubmed
    ..Sequestration of part of the packaging signal into SL1 may be a means of regulating its presentation during the replication cycle...
  4. Song H, Nakayama E, Yokoyama M, Sato H, Levy J, Shioda T. A single amino acid of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 capsid affects its replication in the presence of cynomolgus monkey and human TRIM5alphas. J Virol. 2007;81:7280-5 pubmed
    ..Mutagenesis studies indicated that the single amino acid at the 120th position indeed affected the sensitivity of the virus to CM TRIM5alpha...
  5. Mboto C, Fielder M, Davies Russell A, Jewell A. Prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2, hepatitis C and co-infection in The Gambia. West Afr J Med. 2009;28:16-9 pubmed
  6. Hamel D, Sankale J, Eisen G, Meloni S, Mullins C, Gueye Ndiaye A, et al. Twenty years of prospective molecular epidemiology in Senegal: changes in HIV diversity. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007;23:1189-96 pubmed
    ..This 20-year prospective serological and sequence analysis of HIV viruses reveals a complex and changing HIV epidemic in Senegal...
  7. Cavaleiro R, Brunn G, Albuquerque A, Victorino R, Platt J, Sousa A. Monocyte-mediated T cell suppression by HIV-2 envelope proteins. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:3435-44 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that the HIV-2 envelope immunosuppressive properties limit bursts of T cell activation, thus reducing viremia and contributing to the slow rate of disease progression that characterizes HIV-2 disease...
  8. L Hernault A, Greatorex J, Crowther R, Lever A. Dimerisation of HIV-2 genomic RNA is linked to efficient RNA packaging, normal particle maturation and viral infectivity. Retrovirology. 2007;4:90 pubmed
    ..In this study, we analysed the role of the HIV-2 packaging signal in genomic RNA dimerisation in vivo and its implication in viral replication...
  9. Nowroozalizadeh S, Månsson F, da Silva Z, Repits J, Dabo B, Pereira C, et al. Studies on toll-like receptor stimuli responsiveness in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. Cytokine. 2009;46:325-31 pubmed publisher
    ..However, their effects on the responsiveness of innate immunity are less well known. Here, we report on toll-like receptor (TLR) stimuli responsiveness in HIV-1 or HIV-2 infections...
  10. Santiago M, Range F, Keele B, Li Y, Bailes E, Bibollet Ruche F, et al. Simian immunodeficiency virus infection in free-ranging sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys) from the Taï Forest, Côte d'Ivoire: implications for the origin of epidemic human immunodeficiency virus type 2. J Virol. 2005;79:12515-27 pubmed
  11. McCutchan F. Global epidemiology of HIV. J Med Virol. 2006;78 Suppl 1:S7-S12 pubmed
  12. Rodes B, Toro C, Sheldon J, Jimenez V, Mansinho K, Soriano V. High rate of proV47A selection in HIV-2 patients failing lopinavir-based HAART. AIDS. 2006;20:127-9 pubmed
    ..6% of protease inhibitor (PI)-experienced patients but absent in all PI-naive patients. Its selection may be a common mutational pathway for developing resistance to lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV-2...
  13. Noble B, Abada P, Nunez Iglesias J, Cannon P. Recruitment of the adaptor protein 2 complex by the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 envelope protein is necessary for high levels of virus release. J Virol. 2006;80:2924-32 pubmed
  14. Cullen B. Role and mechanism of action of the APOBEC3 family of antiretroviral resistance factors. J Virol. 2006;80:1067-76 pubmed
  15. Strappe P, Hampton D, Brown D, Cachon Gonzalez B, Caldwell M, Fawcett J, et al. Identification of unique reciprocal and non reciprocal cross packaging relationships between HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV reveals an efficient SIV/HIV-2 lentiviral vector system with highly favourable features for in vivo testing and clinical usage. Retrovirology. 2005;2:55 pubmed
    ..Cross-packaged vectors expressing GFP were assessed for RNA packaging, viral vector titre and their ability to transduce rat primary glial cell cultures and human neural stem cells...
  16. Price A, Marzetta F, Lammers M, Ylinen L, Schaller T, Wilson S, et al. Active site remodeling switches HIV specificity of antiretroviral TRIMCyp. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:1036-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal the complex molecular, structural and thermodynamic changes that underlie the ongoing evolutionary race between virus and host...
  17. Månsson F, Alves A, Silva Z, Dias F, Andersson S, Biberfeld G, et al. Trends of HIV-1 and HIV-2 prevalence among pregnant women in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa: possible effect of the civil war 1998 1999. Sex Transm Infect. 2007;83:463-7 pubmed
    ..To examine specifically the trends of HIV prevalence from antenatal surveys in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau in 1987-2004, and whether the civil war in 1998-1999 could have an effect on HIV prevalence levels after the conflict...
  18. Holmgren B, da Silva Z, Vastrup P, Larsen O, Andersson S, Ravn H, et al. Mortality associated with HIV-1, HIV-2, and HTLV-I single and dual infections in a middle-aged and older population in Guinea-Bissau. Retrovirology. 2007;4:85 pubmed
    ..The present study compares mortality associated with HIV-1, HIV-2, and HTLV-I single and dual infections in individuals over 35 years of age within an urban community-based cohort in Guinea-Bissau...
  19. Parreira R, Monteiro F, Padua E, Piedade J, Venenno T, Paixao M, et al. Natural polymorphisms of HIV type 2 pol sequences from drug-naive individuals. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006;22:1178-82 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, interpretation of genotypic data with four available algorithms, developed for interpretation of HIV-1 sequence data, suggested nonoverlapping profiles of drug resistance...
  20. Foxall R, Soares R, Albuquerque A, Cortesão C, Victorino R, Sousa A. Increased frequency of CD25dimCD4+ T-cells in HIV-2 infection, a naturally occurring attenuated form of HIV-1. Clin Immunol. 2008;127:158-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of the underlying mechanisms regulating this population in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections may provide a rational for novel therapeutic strategies...
  21. Duvall M, Lore K, Blaak H, Ambrozak D, Adams W, Santos K, et al. Dendritic cells are less susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection than to HIV-1 infection. J Virol. 2007;81:13486-98 pubmed
  22. Fernández Romero J, Thorn M, Turville S, Titchen K, Sudol K, Li J, et al. Carrageenan/MIV-150 (PC-815), a combination microbicide. Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34:9-14 pubmed
  23. Ricci E, Herbreteau C, Decimo D, Schaupp A, Datta S, Rein A, et al. In vitro expression of the HIV-2 genomic RNA is controlled by three distinct internal ribosome entry segments that are regulated by the HIV protease and the Gag polyprotein. RNA. 2008;14:1443-55 pubmed publisher
    ..This regulation is exerted both at the level of protein production and also on the selection of the AUG initiation site which changes the ratio at which the three different Gag isoforms are produced...
  24. James L, Sargueil B. RNA secondary structure of the feline immunodeficiency virus 5'UTR and Gag coding region. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:4653-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we observed footprints of Gag protein on each side of the initiation codon, this sheds light on the role of the sequences required for encapsidation...
  25. Marchant D, Neil S, McKnight A. Human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 have different replication kinetics in human primary macrophage culture. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:411-8 pubmed
    ..HIV-1, however, continued to produce infectious virions at a lower, but steady, rate throughout the course of infection. These results may have implications for the lower pathogenesis and viral-load characteristics of HIV-2 infection...
  26. Hare S, Shun M, Gupta S, Valkov E, Engelman A, Cherepanov P. A novel co-crystal structure affords the design of gain-of-function lentiviral integrase mutants in the presence of modified PSIP1/LEDGF/p75. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000259 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide structural basis for the high affinity lentiviral IN-LEDGF interaction and pave the way for development of LEDGF-based targeting technologies for gene therapy...
  27. Rodes B, Sheldon J, Toro C, Cuevas L, Perez Pastrana E, Herrera I, et al. Quantitative detection of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A RNA by the Nuclisens EasyQ Assay (version 1.1). J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:88-92 pubmed
    ..In summary, EasyQ was shown to be reliable for the measurement of plasma HIV-2 subtype A RNA levels and may be a feasible tool for routine clinical monitoring of HIV-2 subtype A-infected patients...
  28. Matheron S, Damond F, Benard A, Taieb A, Campa P, Peytavin G, et al. CD4 cell recovery in treated HIV-2-infected adults is lower than expected: results from the French ANRS CO5 HIV-2 cohort. AIDS. 2006;20:459-62 pubmed
    ..Our results raise the question of the optimal regimen to recommend in HIV-2-infected patients...
  29. Kono K, Song H, Shingai Y, Shioda T, Nakayama E. Comparison of anti-viral activity of rhesus monkey and cynomolgus monkey TRIM5alphas against human immunodeficiency virus type 2 infection. Virology. 2008;373:447-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, a mutagenesis study showed that three amino acid residues TFP at the 339th to 341st positions of Rh TRIM5alpha are important for restricting HIV-2 strains resistant to CM TRIM5alpha...
  30. Duvall M, Precopio M, Ambrozak D, Jaye A, McMichael A, Whittle H, et al. Polyfunctional T cell responses are a hallmark of HIV-2 infection. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:350-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Polyfunctional HIV-specific T cell responses are a hallmark of non-progressive HIV-2 infection and may be related to good clinical outcome in this setting...
  31. Borrego P, Marcelino J, Rocha C, Doroana M, Antunes F, Maltez F, et al. The role of the humoral immune response in the molecular evolution of the envelope C2, V3 and C3 regions in chronically HIV-2 infected patients. Retrovirology. 2008;5:78 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic diversity, divergence, positive selection and glycosylation in the C2V3C3 region were analysed as a function of the number of CD4+ T cells and the anti-C2V3C3 IgG and IgA antibody reactivity..
  32. Jallow S, Vincent T, Leligdowicz A, de Silva T, van Tienen C, Alabi A, et al. Presence of a multidrug-resistance mutation in an HIV-2 variant infecting a treatment-naive individual in Caio, Guinea Bissau. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:1790-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Finding this mutation among a drug-naive population presents an important public health issue that needs to be addressed for treatment to be effective...
  33. Pepin J, Plamondon M, Alves A, Beaudet M, Labbe A. Parenteral transmission during excision and treatment of tuberculosis and trypanosomiasis may be responsible for the HIV-2 epidemic in Guinea-Bissau. AIDS. 2006;20:1303-11 pubmed
    ..We sought to verify the hypothesis that parenteral transmission was the key factor in the building-up of the HIV-2 epidemic...
  34. van der Loeff M, Awasana A, Sarge Njie R, Van Der Sande M, Jaye A, Sabally S, et al. Sixteen years of HIV surveillance in a West African research clinic reveals divergent epidemic trends of HIV-1 and HIV-2. Int J Epidemiol. 2006;35:1322-8 pubmed
    ..The HIV-1 epidemic in West Africa is characterized by a slower rise than that in Eastern and Southern Africa. The HIV-2 epidemic in West Africa may be declining, but few long-term data exist...
  35. Drylewicz J, Matheron S, Lazaro E, Damond F, Bonnet F, Simon F, et al. Comparison of viro-immunological marker changes between HIV-1 and HIV-2-infected patients in France. AIDS. 2008;22:457-68 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the changes over time in viro-immunological markers in HIV-1 and HIV-2-infected patients living in France during natural history and after initiation of the first combination antiretroviral therapy (CART)...
  36. da Silva Z, Oliveira I, Andersen A, Dias F, Rodrigues A, Holmgren B, et al. Changes in prevalence and incidence of HIV-1, HIV-2 and dual infections in urban areas of Bissau, Guinea-Bissau: is HIV-2 disappearing?. AIDS. 2008;22:1195-202 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the changes in HIV prevalence and incidence between 1996 and 2006 in urban areas of Bissau...
  37. Foxall R, Cortesão C, Albuquerque A, Soares R, Victorino R, Sousa A. Gag-specific CD4+ T-cell frequency is inversely correlated with proviral load and directly correlated with immune activation in infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) but not HIV-1. J Virol. 2008;82:9795-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest a potential link between HIV-2-specific CD4 responses, immune activation, and viral control, which may in turn relate to the better prognosis associated with HIV-2 infection...
  38. Ylinen L, Keckesova Z, Wilson S, Ranasinghe S, Towers G. Differential restriction of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 and simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac by TRIM5alpha alleles. J Virol. 2005;79:11580-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We map the determinant for TRIM5alpha sensitivity to the structure in the capsid protein that recruits CypA into HIV-1 virions. We also make an SIV, mutated at this site, which bypasses restriction in all cells tested...
  39. Baig T, Lanchy J, Lodmell J. HIV-2 RNA dimerization is regulated by intramolecular interactions in vitro. RNA. 2007;13:1341-54 pubmed
  40. Ferns R, Garson J. Development and evaluation of a real-time RT-PCR assay for quantification of cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 2 using a Brome Mosaic Virus internal control. J Virol Methods. 2006;135:102-8 pubmed
    ..The assay described provides an ideal system for studying viral replication in HIV-2 infected patients and for monitoring antiretroviral therapy...
  41. M Barek N, Audoly G, Raoult D, Gluschankof P. HIV-2 Protease resistance defined in yeast cells. Retrovirology. 2006;3:58 pubmed
    ..In order to be able to define the specific mutations in the Protease that confer loss of susceptibility to Protease Inhibitors, we set up an experimental model system based in the expression of the viral protein in yeast...
  42. Ntemgwa M, Brenner B, Oliveira M, Moisi D, Wainberg M. Natural polymorphisms in the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 protease can accelerate time to development of resistance to protease inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:604-10 pubmed
    ..Thus, natural polymorphisms in HIV-2 may facilitate the selection of PI resistance. The increasing incidence of such polymorphisms in drug-naive HIV-1- and HIV-2-infected persons is of concern...
  43. MacNeil A, Sarr A, Sankale J, Meloni S, Mboup S, Kanki P. Direct evidence of lower viral replication rates in vivo in human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection than in HIV-1 infection. J Virol. 2007;81:5325-30 pubmed
  44. Norrgren H, Bamba S, Larsen O, da Silva Z, Aaby P, Koivula T, et al. Increased prevalence of HTLV-1 in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis coinfected with HIV, but not in HIV-negative patients with tuberculosis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;48:607-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Few and inconclusive results have been presented regarding the influence of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) infection on the risk of acquiring tuberculosis (TB)...
  45. Le Tortorec A, Neil S. Antagonism to and intracellular sequestration of human tetherin by the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 envelope glycoprotein. J Virol. 2009;83:11966-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we recapitulated these observations in HIV-2-infected CD4+ T-cell lines, demonstrating that tetherin antagonism and sequestration occur at physiological levels of Env expression during virus replication...
  46. Strong C, Lanchy J, Dieng Sarr A, Kanki P, Lodmell J. A 5'UTR-spliced mRNA isoform is specialized for enhanced HIV-2 gag translation. J Mol Biol. 2009;391:426-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the splicing of both the 5'UTR intron and the C-box element have key roles in regulation of HIV-2 gag translation in vitro and in vivo...
  47. Rowland Jones S, Whittle H. Out of Africa: what can we learn from HIV-2 about protective immunity to HIV-1?. Nat Immunol. 2007;8:329-31 pubmed
    ..Here we review what is known about the basis of viral control in HIV-2 infection...
  48. Ndour C, Batista G, Manga N, Gueye N, Badiane N, Fortez L, et al. [Efficacy and tolerance of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-2 infected patients in Dakar: preliminary study]. Med Mal Infect. 2006;36:111-4 pubmed
    ..The authors had for aim to evaluate the clinical and immunological response as well as the tolerance to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-2 infected patients...
  49. Cavaleiro R, Baptista A, Foxall R, Victorino R, Sousa A. Dendritic cell differentiation and maturation in the presence of HIV type 2 envelope. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009;25:425-31 pubmed publisher
    ..It is plausible to speculate that a reduced ability of the HIV-2 Env to impair myeloid DC function could represent a contributory factor to the relatively benign course of HIV-2 disease...
  50. Nuvor S, Van Der Sande M, Rowland Jones S, Whittle H, Jaye A. Natural killer cell function is well preserved in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection but similar to that of HIV-1 infection when CD4 T-cell counts fall. J Virol. 2006;80:2529-38 pubmed
    ..Enhancement of these functions may be important in immune-based therapy to control HIV disease...
  51. Rodriguez S, Sarr A, MacNeil A, Thakore Meloni S, Gueye Ndiaye A, Traoré I, et al. Comparison of heterologous neutralizing antibody responses of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)- and HIV-2-infected Senegalese patients: distinct patterns of breadth and magnitude distinguish HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. J Virol. 2007;81:5331-8 pubmed
  52. Gottlieb G, Hawes S, Kiviat N, Sow P. Differences in proviral DNA load between HIV-1-infected and HIV-2-infected patients. AIDS. 2008;22:1379-80 pubmed publisher
  53. de Silva T, Cotten M, Rowland Jones S. HIV-2: the forgotten AIDS virus. Trends Microbiol. 2008;16:588-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies to date have suggested that both enhanced immune responses and lower viral replication could play a role. We summarize the important findings to date and highlight areas that warrant further exploration...
  54. Belshan M, Mahnke L, Ratner L. Conserved amino acids of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 Vpx nuclear localization signal are critical for nuclear targeting of the viral preintegration complex in non-dividing cells. Virology. 2006;346:118-26 pubmed
    ..Together, these studies map critical residues of the Vpx nuclear localization signal that are required for efficient infection of non-dividing cells...
  55. MacNeil A, Sankale J, Meloni S, Sarr A, Mboup S, Kanki P. Long-term intrapatient viral evolution during HIV-2 infection. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:726-33 pubmed
    ..Conclusions. Viral evolution occurs slowly in HIV-2 infection, which is consistent with the slow disease progression of HIV-2 and supports the notion that viral evolution may be a relevant correlate for disease progression...
  56. Shi Y, Brandin E, Vincic E, Jansson M, Blaxhult A, Gyllensten K, et al. Evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 coreceptor usage, autologous neutralization, envelope sequence and glycosylation. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:3385-96 pubmed
    ..It is proposed here that HIV-2 has a more open and accessible V3 domain than HIV-1, due to differences in glycan packing, and that this may explain its broader coreceptor usage and greater sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies...
  57. Herbreteau C, Weill L, Decimo D, Prévôt D, Darlix J, Sargueil B, et al. HIV-2 genomic RNA contains a novel type of IRES located downstream of its initiation codon. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:1001-7 pubmed
    ..A combination of translation assays and structural studies reveal that sequences located 50 nucleotides downstream of the AUG codon are crucial for IRES activity...
  58. Soares R, Foxall R, Albuquerque A, Cortesão C, Garcia M, Victorino R, et al. Increased frequency of circulating CCR5+ CD4+ T cells in human immunodeficiency virus type 2 infection. J Virol. 2006;80:12425-9 pubmed
    ..Similar levels of proviral DNA were found in the two infection categories. Thus, the reduced viremia and slow rate of CD4 decline that characterize HIV-2 infection seem to be unrelated to coreceptor availability...
  59. Rodes B, Sheldon J, Toro C, Jimenez V, Alvarez M, Soriano V. Susceptibility to protease inhibitors in HIV-2 primary isolates from patients failing antiretroviral therapy. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006;57:709-13 pubmed
    ..Current protease inhibitors (PIs) are designed against HIV-1, and information on their performance against HIV-2 clinical isolates is scarce...
  60. Li L, He L, Tan S, Guo X, Lu H, Qi Z, et al. 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride-modified chicken ovalbumin exhibits potent and broad anti-HIV-1 activity: a potential microbicide for preventing sexual transmission of HIV-1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:1700-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of the widespread availability and established safety profile of OVA, HP-OVA has good potential to be developed as an effective, safe, and affordable microbicide for prevention of HIV sexual transmission...
  61. Ruelle J, Sanou M, Liu H, Vandenbroucke A, Duquenne A, Goubau P. Genetic polymorphisms and resistance mutations of HIV type 2 in antiretroviral-naive patients in Burkina Faso. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007;23:955-64 pubmed
    ..The two resistant strains were unrelated. Our findings imply either that resistant viruses are circulating in Burkina Faso or that some individuals take unsupervised treatment. Both hypotheses present problems...