primate lentiviruses


Summary: A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce immunodeficiencies in primates, including humans.

Top Publications

  1. Arhel N, Lehmann M, Clauss K, Nienhaus G, Piguet V, Kirchhoff F. The inability to disrupt the immunological synapse between infected human T cells and APCs distinguishes HIV-1 from most other primate lentiviruses. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:2965-75 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 and other primate lentiviruses use their Nef proteins to manipulate the T cell/APC contact zone, the immunological synapse (IS)...
  2. Tristem M, Purvis A, Quicke D. Complex evolutionary history of primate lentiviral vpr genes. Virology. 1998;240:232-7 pubmed
  3. Lim E, Malik H, Emerman M. Ancient adaptive evolution of tetherin shaped the functions of Vpu and Nef in human immunodeficiency virus and primate lentiviruses. J Virol. 2010;84:7124-34 pubmed publisher
    ..However, viruses have evolved antagonists of Tetherin, including the Vpu and Nef proteins of primate lentiviruses. Like other host genes subject to viral antagonism, primate Tetherin genes have evolved under positive ..
  4. Gifford R, Katzourakis A, Tristem M, Pybus O, Winters M, Shafer R. A transitional endogenous lentivirus from the genome of a basal primate and implications for lentivirus evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20362-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis places gray mouse lemur prosimian immunodeficiency virus (pSIVgml) basal to all known primate lentiviruses and, consistent with this, its genomic organization is intermediate between the nonprimate lentiviruses and ..
  5. Bergamaschi A, David A, Le Rouzic E, Nisole S, Barré Sinoussi F, Pancino G. The CDK inhibitor p21Cip1/WAF1 is induced by FcgammaR activation and restricts the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and related primate lentiviruses in human macrophages. J Virol. 2009;83:12253-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results point to a role of p21 as an inhibitory factor of lentiviral infection in macrophages and to its implication in FcgammaR-mediated restriction...
  6. Specht A, DeGottardi M, Schindler M, Hahn B, Evans D, Kirchhoff F. Selective downmodulation of HLA-A and -B by Nef alleles from different groups of primate lentiviruses. Virology. 2008;373:229-37 pubmed
    ..of HIV-1, as well as those from SIVcpz, the precursor of HIV-1, and a variety of other highly divergent primate lentiviruses. In conclusion, our data indicate that Nef's ability to selectively downregulate HLA-A and -B alleles to ..
  7. Planelles V, Jowett J, Li Q, Xie Y, Hahn B, Chen I. Vpr-induced cell cycle arrest is conserved among primate lentiviruses. J Virol. 1996;70:2516-24 pubmed
    ..demonstrate that induction of cell cycle arrest is a conserved function of members of two other groups of primate lentiviruses, HIV-2/simian immunodeficiency virus strain sm (SIVsm)/SIVmac and SIVagm...
  8. Yang S, Lopez L, Hauser H, Exline C, Haworth K, Cannon P. Anti-tetherin activities in Vpu-expressing primate lentiviruses. Retrovirology. 2010;7:13 pubmed publisher
    ..However, tetherin restriction is also counteracted by primate lentiviruses that do not express a Vpu protein, where anti-tetherin functions are provided by either the Env protein (..
  9. Komano J, Miyauchi K, Matsuda Z, Yamamoto N. Inhibiting the Arp2/3 complex limits infection of both intracellular mature vaccinia virus and primate lentiviruses. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:5197-207 pubmed
    ..the existence of an Arp2/3 complex-dependent event during the early phase of the life cycles of both primate lentiviruses and IMV...

More Information


  1. Kirchhoff F. Immune evasion and counteraction of restriction factors by HIV-1 and other primate lentiviruses. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;8:55-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, primate lentiviruses, such as HIV-1, have acquired several "accessory" genes that antagonize antiviral host ..
  2. Simon F, Souquiere S, Damond F, Kfutwah A, Makuwa M, Leroy E, et al. Synthetic peptide strategy for the detection of and discrimination among highly divergent primate lentiviruses. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2001;17:937-52 pubmed
    ..inexpensive, and highly sensitive and specific strategy for the detection and lineage differentiation of primate lentiviruses (PIV-ELISA)...
  3. Schindler M, Munch J, Kutsch O, Li H, Santiago M, Bibollet Ruche F, et al. Nef-mediated suppression of T cell activation was lost in a lentiviral lineage that gave rise to HIV-1. Cell. 2006;125:1055-67 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that nef alleles from the great majority of primate lentiviruses, including HIV-2, downmodulate TCR-CD3 from infected T cells, thereby blocking their responsiveness to ..
  4. Piguet V, Trono D. The Nef protein of primate lentiviruses. Rev Med Virol. 1999;9:111-20 pubmed
    The Nef protein of primate lentiviruses acts as an important virulence factor in vivo both in monkeys and in humans...
  5. Li H, Wang S, Kong R, Ding W, Lee F, Parker Z, et al. Envelope residue 375 substitutions in simian-human immunodeficiency viruses enhance CD4 binding and replication in rhesus macaques. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E3413-22 pubmed publisher the CD4-binding pocket and is under strong positive evolutionary pressure across the broad spectrum of primate lentiviruses. SHIVs containing primary or transmitted/founder HIV-1 subtype A, B, C, or D Envs with genotypic variants ..
  6. Zheng W, Ling L, Li Z, Wang H, Rui Y, Gao W, et al. Conserved Interaction of Lentiviral Vif Molecules with HIV-1 Gag and Differential Effects of Species-Specific Vif on Virus Production. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..b>IMPORTANCE The conserved Vif accessory proteins of primate lentiviruses HIV-1, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and BIV all form ubiquitin ligase complexes to target host ..
  7. Baig T, Strong C, Lodmell J, Lanchy J. Regulation of primate lentiviral RNA dimerization by structural entrapment. Retrovirology. 2008;5:65 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite their sequence differences, all three lentiviral RNAs tested in this study showed a local regulation of dimerization through the stabilization of SL1. ..
  8. Deforges J, de Breyne S, Ameur M, Ulryck N, Chamond N, Saaidi A, et al. Two ribosome recruitment sites direct multiple translation events within HIV1 Gag open reading frame. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:7382-7400 pubmed publisher
    ..It allows us to propose original hypotheses about the IRES physiological role and conservation among primate lentiviruses.
  9. Yoshikawa R, Izumi T, Yamada E, Nakano Y, Misawa N, Ren F, et al. A Naturally Occurring Domestic Cat APOBEC3 Variant Confers Resistance to Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. J Virol. 2016;90:474-85 pubmed publisher
    ..One example is primate APOBEC3G, which potently restricts the replication of primate lentiviruses (e.g...
  10. Foley B, Leitner T, Paraskevis D, Peeters M. Primate immunodeficiency virus classification and nomenclature: Review. Infect Genet Evol. 2016;46:150-158 pubmed publisher
    ..This review outlines the nomenclature system for primate lentiviruses and provides an update on new findings since the last review was written in 2000.
  11. Perrone R, Lavezzo E, Palu G, Richter S. Conserved presence of G-quadruplex forming sequences in the Long Terminal Repeat Promoter of Lentiviruses. Sci Rep. 2017;7:2018 pubmed publisher
    ..G4s in the 5'-LTR U3 region were completely conserved in primate lentiviruses. A G4 was also present in a cattle-infecting lentivirus...
  12. Wilkins J, Zheng Y, Yu J, Liang C, Liu S. Nonhuman Primate IFITM Proteins Are Potent Inhibitors of HIV and SIV. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0156739 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that, similar to human IFITM, nonhuman primate IFITM proteins inhibit HIV and other primate lentiviruses. While some nonhuman primate IFITM proteins are more potent than human counterparts to inhibit HIV-1, they ..
  13. Yoshikawa R, Izumi T, Nakano Y, Yamada E, Moriwaki M, Misawa N, et al. Small ruminant lentiviral Vif proteins commonly utilize cyclophilin A, an evolutionarily and structurally conserved protein, to degrade ovine and caprine APOBEC3 proteins. Microbiol Immunol. 2016;60:427-36 pubmed publisher
    ..for APOBEC3 degradation, Vifs utilize mammalian proteins such as core-binding factor beta (CBFB; for primate lentiviruses) or cyclophilin A (CYPA; for Maedi-Visna virus [MVV])...
  14. Exline C, Yang S, Haworth K, Rengarajan S, Lopez L, Droniou M, et al. Determinants in HIV-2 Env and tetherin required for functional interaction. Retrovirology. 2015;12:67 pubmed publisher
    ..The primate lentiviruses have evolved several counteracting mechanisms which, in the case of HIV-2, is a function of its Env protein...
  15. Rainho J, Martins M, Cunyat F, Watkins I, Watkins D, Stevenson M. Nef Is Dispensable for Resistance of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macrophages to CD8+ T Cell Killing. J Virol. 2015;89:10625-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This study has implications for viral persistence and suggests that macrophages may afford primate lentiviruses some degree of protection from immune surveillance...
  16. Nomaguchi M, Doi N, Sakai Y, Ode H, Iwatani Y, Ueno T, et al. Natural Single-Nucleotide Variations in the HIV-1 Genomic SA1prox Region Can Alter Viral Replication Ability by Regulating Vif Expression Levels. J Virol. 2016;90:4563-4578 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that SA1prox plays a regulatory role in Vif counteraction against APOBEC3G in order to contribute to HIV-1 replication and evolution, and this may be applicable to other primate lentiviruses.
  17. Sauter D, Kirchhoff F. Multilayered and versatile inhibition of cellular antiviral factors by HIV and SIV accessory proteins. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2018;40:3-12 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1, the main causative agent of AIDS, and related primate lentiviruses show a striking ability to efficiently replicate throughout the lifetime of an infected host...
  18. Hrecka K, Hao C, Shun M, Kaur S, Swanson S, Florens L, et al. HIV-1 and HIV-2 exhibit divergent interactions with HLTF and UNG2 DNA repair proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E3921-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Accessory protein Vpr, found in all primate lentiviruses, and its HIV-2/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) SIVsm paralogue Vpx, hijack the CRL4(DCAF1) E3 ubiquitin ..
  19. Swanstrom A, Haggarty B, Jordan A, Romano J, Leslie G, Aye P, et al. Derivation and Characterization of a CD4-Independent, Non-CD4-Tropic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus. J Virol. 2016;90:4966-4980 pubmed publisher
    CD4 tropism is conserved among all primate lentiviruses and likely contributes to viral pathogenesis by targeting cells that are critical for adaptive antiviral immune responses...
  20. Mwimanzi F, Toyoda M, Mahiti M, Mann J, Martin J, Bangsberg D, et al. Resistance of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class B (MHC-B) to Nef-Mediated Downregulation Relative to that of MHC-A Is Conserved among Primate Lentiviruses and Influences Antiviral T Cell Responses in HIV-1-Infected Individuals. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..However, it remains unknown whether this property is common to Nef proteins across primate lentiviruses and how antiviral immune responses may be affected...
  21. Umunnakwe C, Dorman K, Dobbs D, Carpenter S. Identification of a homogenous structural basis for oligomerization by retroviral Rev-like proteins. Retrovirology. 2017;14:40 pubmed publisher
    ..In Rev proteins of primate lentiviruses, the presence of predicted coiled-coil motifs segregated within specific primate lineages: HIV-1 descended ..
  22. DiNapoli S, Hirsch V, Brenchley J. Macrophages in Progressive Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections. J Virol. 2016;90:7596-606 pubmed publisher
    The cells that are targeted by primate lentiviruses (HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus [SIV]) are of intense interest given the renewed effort to identify potential cures for HIV...
  23. Sattentau Q, Stevenson M. Macrophages and HIV-1: An Unhealthy Constellation. Cell Host Microbe. 2016;19:304-10 pubmed publisher
    ..evidence exists for in vitro and, in a tissue-specific manner, in vivo infection of macrophages by the primate lentiviruses HIV-1 and SIV...
  24. Anderson B, Harris R. Transcriptional regulation of APOBEC3 antiviral immunity through the CBF-β/RUNX axis. Sci Adv. 2015;1:e1500296 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have shown that the Vif/CBF-β interaction is specific to the primate lentiviruses HIV-1 and SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), although related nonprimate lentiviruses still require a Vif-..
  25. Reed J, Westergreen N, Barajas B, Ressler D, Phuong D, Swain J, et al. Formation of RNA Granule-Derived Capsid Assembly Intermediates Appears To Be Conserved between Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and the Nonprimate Lentivirus Feline Immunodeficiency Virus. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..A similar assembly pathway has been observed for other primate lentiviruses. Here we asked whether feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a nonprimate lentivirus, also forms RNA granule-..
  26. Zhou X, Delucia M, Ahn J. SLX4-SLX1 Protein-independent Down-regulation of MUS81-EME1 Protein by HIV-1 Viral Protein R (Vpr). J Biol Chem. 2016;291:16936-16947 pubmed publisher
    ..Viral protein R (Vpr), a highly conserved accessory protein in primate lentiviruses, was previously reported to bind SLX4 to mediate down-regulation of MUS81...
  27. Fenyo E, Putkonen P. Broad cross-neutralizing activity in serum is associated with slow progression and low risk of transmission in primate lentivirus infections. Immunol Lett. 1996;51:95-9 pubmed
    ..In view of the differences between HIV-1 and HIV-2 pathogenesis, we suggest that an effective neutralizing antibody response may contribute to a delay in disease progression and to a decrease in risk of transmission...
  28. Cao R, Yan B, Yang H, Zu X, Wen G, Zhong J. Effect of human S100A13 gene silencing on FGF-1 transportation in human endothelial cells. J Formos Med Assoc. 2010;109:632-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, experiments were designed to determine the direct role of S100A13 in FGF-1 protein release and transportation...
  29. Stebbins J, Towler E, Tennant M, Deckman I, Debouck C. The 80's loop (residues 78 to 85) is important for the differential activity of retroviral proteases. J Mol Biol. 1997;267:467-75 pubmed
  30. Aghokeng A, Ayouba A, Ahuka S, Liegoies F, Mbala P, Muyembe J, et al. Genetic diversity of simian lentivirus in wild De Brazza's monkeys (Cercopithecus neglectus) in Equatorial Africa. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:1810-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest a longstanding virus-host co-evolution. SIVdeb prevalence is high in wild De Brazza's populations and thus represents a current risk for humans exposed to these primates in central Africa...
  31. Browning M, Schmidt R, Lew K, Rizvi T. Primate and feline lentivirus vector RNA packaging and propagation by heterologous lentivirus virions. J Virol. 2001;75:5129-40 pubmed
    ..Due to the greater phylogenetic distance from primate lentiviruses, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is becoming the lentivirus of choice for human gene transfer systems...
  32. Ribeiro I, Schrago C, Soares E, Pissinatti A, Seuanez H, Russo C, et al. CCR5 chemokine receptor gene evolution in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini, Primates): implication on resistance to lentiviruses. Infect Genet Evol. 2005;5:271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The high ccr5 genetic diversity observed in Platyrrhini, however, argues for a more extensive infection analysis of diverse NWM species to evaluate this resistance and the potential use of those primates as HIV/AIDS animal models...
  33. Morris J, Conerly M, Thomasson B, Storek J, Riddell S, Kiem H. Induction of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses to enhanced green and yellow fluorescent proteins after myeloablative conditioning. Blood. 2004;103:492-9 pubmed
    ..In summary, we report the induction of transgene-specific immune responses after transplantation of lentivirally transduced repopulating cells in a myeloablative setting...
  34. Lemey P, Lott M, Martin D, Moulton V. Identifying recombinants in human and primate immunodeficiency virus sequence alignments using quartet scanning. BMC Bioinformatics. 2009;10:126 pubmed publisher
    ..We compare the quartet approach with triplet-based methods that employ additional heuristic tests to identify parental and recombinant sequences...
  35. McKenna P, Hoffmann C, Minkah N, Aye P, Lackner A, Liu Z, et al. The macaque gut microbiome in health, lentiviral infection, and chronic enterocolitis. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e20 pubmed publisher
    ..This work provides comprehensive data and improved methods for studying the role of commensal microbiota in macaque models of GI diseases and provides a model for the large-scale screening of the human gut microbiome...
  36. Bulliard Y, Turelli P, Röhrig U, Zoete V, Mangeat B, Michielin O, et al. Functional analysis and structural modeling of human APOBEC3G reveal the role of evolutionarily conserved elements in the inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and Alu transposition. J Virol. 2009;83:12611-21 pubmed publisher
    ..APOBEC3G dimer interface are highly conserved, contrasting with the rapid evolution of two neighboring surface-exposed amino acid patches, one targeted by the Vif protein of primate lentiviruses and the other of yet-undefined function.
  37. Sakuragi J. [Analysis on primate lentivirus genome dimerization in virion]. Uirusu. 2005;55:153-60 pubmed
    ..The results of precise mapping of dimerization functional region strongly suggested that the RNA dimerization is one of the essential steps of RNA packaging...
  38. Miyake A, Ibuki K, Suzuki H, Horiuchi R, Saito N, Motohara M, et al. Early virological events in various tissues of newborn monkeys after intrarectal infection with pathogenic simian human immunodeficiency virus. J Med Primatol. 2005;34:294-302 pubmed
    ..These results suggested that many immature CD4(+) T cells in the thymus of newborns support the production of infectious viruses even after the depletion of mature CD4(+) T cells...
  39. Ailles L, Naldini L. HIV-1-derived lentiviral vectors. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2002;261:31-52 pubmed
  40. Evans D, Serra Moreno R, Singh R, Guatelli J. BST-2/tetherin: a new component of the innate immune response to enveloped viruses. Trends Microbiol. 2010;18:388-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review this new host-pathogen relationship and discuss its impact on the evolution of primate lentiviruses and the origins of the HIV pandemic.
  41. Nishimura Y, Brown C, Mattapallil J, Igarashi T, Buckler White A, Lafont B, et al. Resting naive CD4+ T cells are massively infected and eliminated by X4-tropic simian-human immunodeficiency viruses in macaques. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:8000-5 pubmed
    ..This finding is consistent with the prodigious levels of plasma viremia measured during acute X4-tropic SHIV infections of macaques being generated almost entirely by resting naive CD4(+) T cells...
  42. Zink M, Laast V, Helke K, Brice A, Barber S, Clements J, et al. From mice to macaques--animal models of HIV nervous system disease. Curr HIV Res. 2006;4:293-305 pubmed
  43. Oki M, Ando K, Hagihara M, Miyatake H, Shimizu T, Miyoshi H, et al. Efficient lentiviral transduction of human cord blood CD34(+) cells followed by their expansion and differentiation into dendritic cells. Exp Hematol. 2001;29:1210-7 pubmed
    ..To investigate the applicability of lentiviral vector-transduced DCs compared to retroviral vectors, we transduced umbilical cord blood (CB) CD34(+) cells, then expanded and differentiated them into DCs...
  44. Negre D, Duisit G, Mangeot P, Moullier P, Darlix J, Cosset F. Lentiviral vectors derived from simian immunodeficiency virus. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2002;261:53-74 pubmed
  45. Lindwasser O, Chaudhuri R, Bonifacino J. Mechanisms of CD4 downregulation by the Nef and Vpu proteins of primate immunodeficiency viruses. Curr Mol Med. 2007;7:171-84 pubmed
    ..These two mechanisms lead to a dramatic reduction of CD4 expression in infected cells and are essential for efficient virus replication and disease progression...
  46. Dunn C, Hurtrel B, Beyer C, Gloeckler L, Ledger T, Moog C, et al. Protection of SIVmac-infected macaque monkeys against superinfection by a simian immunodeficiency virus expressing envelope glycoproteins of HIV type 1. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1997;13:913-22 pubmed
    ..whether host immune responses to envelope glycoprotein are an essential component of the immunity to primate lentiviruses, we have tried to superinfect SIVmac-infected macaque monkeys with SHIVsbg, a chimeric primate lentivirus ..
  47. Hofmann Lehmann R, Williams A, Swenerton R, Li P, Rasmussen R, Chenine A, et al. Quantitation of simian cytokine and beta-chemokine mRNAs, using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction: variations in expression during chronic primate lentivirus infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2002;18:627-39 pubmed
    ..The newly established quantitative real-time RT-PCR assays will allow the determination of cytokine and beta-chemokine patterns in rhesus macaques in studies of microbial pathogenesis or vaccine development...
  48. Malvoisin E, Wild F. Inhibition of HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV envelope glycoprotein-mediated cell fusion by calmodulin. Virus Res. 1997;50:119-27 pubmed
    ..These observations may be important in understanding the mechanism of retroviral envelope glycoprotein-mediated cell fusion. Several possible mechanisms of action are discussed...
  49. Zhang Y, Ryder O, Zhang Y. Intra- and interspecific variation of the CCR5 gene in higher primates. Mol Biol Evol. 2003;20:1722-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that most CCR5 NS polymorphisms are slightly deleterious. However, at domains more closely correlated with its known biological functions, there was no obvious evidence to support deviation from neutrality...
  50. Luo K, Xiao Z, Ehrlich E, Yu Y, Liu B, Zheng S, et al. Primate lentiviral virion infectivity factors are substrate receptors that assemble with cullin 5-E3 ligase through a HCCH motif to suppress APOBEC3G. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:11444-9 pubmed
    ..Motifs in Vif that are absent from cellular proteins could also be targets for the development of innovative therapeutics...
  51. Liu B, Sarkis P, Luo K, Yu Y, Yu X. Regulation of Apobec3F and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif by Vif-Cul5-ElonB/C E3 ubiquitin ligase. J Virol. 2005;79:9579-87 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that while h-A3F, like h-A3G, was able to suppress primate lentiviruses other than HIV-1 (simian immunodeficiency virus from African green monkeys [SIVagm] and Rhesus macaques [..
  52. Fernandez C, Stratov I, De Rose R, Walsh K, Dale C, Smith M, et al. Rapid viral escape at an immunodominant simian-human immunodeficiency virus cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope exacts a dramatic fitness cost. J Virol. 2005;79:5721-31 pubmed
    ..Quantifying both the selection pressure exerted by CTL and the fitness costs of escape mutation has important implications for the development of CTL-based vaccine strategies...
  53. Kuehn B. New human retroviruses discovered: evidence that cross-species leap not a rare event. JAMA. 2005;293:2989-90 pubmed
  54. Ambrose Z, Thompson J, Larsen K, Kuller L, Panicali D, Clements J, et al. Evidence for immune-mediated reduction of viral replication in Macaca nemestrina mucosally immunized with inactivated SHIV(89.6). Virology. 2003;308:178-90 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that cellular immunity was required for protection from intravaginal challenge. This immunization regimen provides a promising lead for vaccine development...
  55. Teleshova N, Frank I, Pope M. Immunodeficiency virus exploitation of dendritic cells in the early steps of infection. J Leukoc Biol. 2003;74:683-90 pubmed
  56. Clewley J. Enigmas and paradoxes: the genetic diversity and prevalence of the primate lentiviruses. Curr HIV Res. 2004;2:113-25 pubmed
    ..that we understand how its two types, HIV-1 and HIV-2, have evolved from their simian relatives, the primate lentiviruses (PLVs)...
  57. Gilbert C, Maxfield D, Goodman S, FESCHOTTE C. Parallel germline infiltration of a lentivirus in two Malagasy lemurs. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000425 pubmed publisher
    ..The study sets the stage for an unprecedented opportunity to reconstruct an ancestral primate lentivirus and thereby advance our knowledge of host-virus interactions...
  58. Lingappa J, Newman M, Klein K, Dooher J. Comparing capsid assembly of primate lentiviruses and hepatitis B virus using cell-free systems. Virology. 2005;333:114-23 pubmed
    ..for assembly, we used cell-free systems to compare capsid assembly of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and three primate lentiviruses. Capsid formation of these diverse viruses in a common eukaryotic extract was dependent on capsid protein ..
  59. Chang L, Chen C, Urlacher V, Lee T. Differential apoptosis effects of primate lentiviral Vpr and Vpx in mammalian cells. J Biomed Sci. 2000;7:322-33 pubmed
    ..Our study also suggests that the proapoptotic function of HIV-1 Vpr is developmentally associated with human but not nonhuman primate species...
  60. Goldstone D, Yap M, Robertson L, Haire L, Taylor W, Katzourakis A, et al. Structural and functional analysis of prehistoric lentiviruses uncovers an ancient molecular interface. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;8:248-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data provide evidence for an ancient capsid-cyclophilin interaction preserved throughout lentiviral evolution...
  61. Foster J, Garcia J. HIV pathogenesis: Nef loses control. Cell. 2006;125:1034-5 pubmed
    ..This loss of function in the Nef of HIV-1 may partly explain the pathogenicity of this virus...
  62. Kratovac Z, Virgen C, Bibollet Ruche F, Hahn B, Bieniasz P, Hatziioannou T. Primate lentivirus capsid sensitivity to TRIM5 proteins. J Virol. 2008;82:6772-7 pubmed publisher
    ..TRIM5alpha proteins from other primates exhibited distinct restriction specificities for primate lentivirus capsids. Finally, we identified novel primate lentiviral capsids that are targeted by TRIMCyp proteins...
  63. Pikora C. Glycosylation of the ENV spike of primate immunodeficiency viruses and antibody neutralization. Curr HIV Res. 2004;2:243-54 pubmed
    ..Part of the strategy toward development of an optimally immunogenic Env spike will likely require modification of Env glycosylation...
  64. Luabeya M, Dallasta L, Achim C, Pauza C, Hamilton R. Blood-brain barrier disruption in simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2000;26:454-62 pubmed
  65. Simon J, Miller D, Fouchier R, Soares M, Peden K, Malim M. The regulation of primate immunodeficiency virus infectivity by Vif is cell species restricted: a role for Vif in determining virus host range and cross-species transmission. EMBO J. 1998;17:1259-67 pubmed
    ..We speculate that species restrictions to Vif function may have contributed to primate immunodeficiency virus zoonosis...
  66. Buijs L, Bogers W, Eichberg J, Heeney J. CD8+ cell-mediated immune responses: relation to disease resistance and susceptibility in lentivirus-infected primates. J Med Primatol. 1997;26:129-38 pubmed
    ..state of knowledge of subtypes of CD8+ cells and their role in immune responses directed to HIV and related primate lentiviruses. Differences in the pathogenesis of lentivirus infections in various primate hosts were examined and the ..
  67. Otsyula M, Yee J, Jennings M, Suleman M, Gettie A, Tarara R, et al. Prevalence of antibodies against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian T-lymphotropic virus (STLV) in a colony of non-human primates in Kenya, East Africa. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1996;90:65-70 pubmed
    ..However, the relatively high prevalence of anti-SIV and anti-STLV antibodies in these monkeys offers an opportunity for prospective studies on the transmission and natural history of both viruses in a single colony...
  68. Kacani L, Stoiber H, Speth C, Banki Z, Tenner Racz K, Racz P, et al. Complement-dependent control of viral dynamics in pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus and simian immunodeficiency virus infection. Mol Immunol. 2001;38:241-7 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, natural hosts of primate lentiviruses, such as sooty mangabeys, African green monkeys and chimpanzees, are generally considered to be resistant ..
  69. Johnson R. HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. Top HIV Med. 2005;13:9-15 pubmed
  70. Hatziioannou T, Cowan S, Bieniasz P. Capsid-dependent and -independent postentry restriction of primate lentivirus tropism in rodent cells. J Virol. 2004;78:1006-11 pubmed
    ..Overall, these findings indicate that novel restriction factors in rodents can modulate sensitivity to specific primate lentiviruses.
  71. Pal R, Wang S, Kalyanaraman V, Nair B, Whitney S, Keen T, et al. Polyvalent DNA prime and envelope protein boost HIV-1 vaccine elicits humoral and cellular responses and controls plasma viremia in rhesus macaques following rectal challenge with an R5 SHIV isolate. J Med Primatol. 2005;34:226-36 pubmed
  72. Miller C, Abel K. Immune mechanisms associated with protection from vaginal SIV challenge in rhesus monkeys infected with virulence-attenuated SHIV 89.6. J Med Primatol. 2005;34:271-81 pubmed
    ..6 mounted effective anti-viral CD8+ T cell responses while avoiding the self-destructive inflammatory cycle found in the lymphoid tissues of unprotected and unvaccinated monkeys...
  73. Kolegraff K, Bostik P, Ansari A. Characterization and role of lentivirus-associated host proteins. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2006;231:252-63 pubmed
  74. Chen J, Powell D, HU W. High frequency of genetic recombination is a common feature of primate lentivirus replication. J Virol. 2006;80:9651-8 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that this high frequency of genetic recombination is a common feature of primate lentiviruses. Alternatively, it is possible that HIV-1 is unique among primate lentiviruses in possessing high ..
  75. Urano E, Shimizu S, Futahashi Y, Hamatake M, Morikawa Y, Takahashi N, et al. Cyclin K/CPR4 inhibits primate lentiviral replication by inactivating Tat/positive transcription elongation factor b-dependent long terminal repeat transcription. AIDS. 2008;22:1081-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Enhancing expression of cyclin K/CPR4 inhibited the human and simian immunodeficiency viral replication. These data indicate that cyclin K/CPR4 functions as a natural inhibitor of primate lentiviruses.