caprine arthritis encephalitis virus

Summary

Summary: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.

Top Publications

  1. Konishi M, Yamamoto T, Shimada T, Shirafuji H, Kameyama K, Sentsui H, et al. Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibody against Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus using recombinant protein of the precursor of the major core protein, p55gag. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010;22:415-9 pubmed
    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) by using recombinant Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) p55gag antigen (rELISA), an indirect ELISA by using whole CAEV (wELISA), and Western blot analysis by using the ..
  2. Harmache A, Bouyac M, Audoly G, Hieblot C, Peveri P, Vigne R, et al. The vif gene is essential for efficient replication of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus in goat synovial membrane cells and affects the late steps of the virus replication cycle. J Virol. 1995;69:3247-57 pubmed
    ..We investigated in vitro the role of the vif gene of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) by studying the phenotype of five vif mutants after infection of primary goat synovial ..
  3. Haziza B, Chauvin J, Gluschankof P, Suzan M. Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus: evidence for a B/D-type assembly pathway in a C-type lentivirus replication. Virology. 2001;286:434-45 pubmed
    Lentiviruses, among which is caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), are known to concomitantly assemble and bud at the plasma membrane of infected cells, in a C-type defined pathway...
  4. Gjerset B, Storset A, Rimstad E. Genetic diversity of small-ruminant lentiviruses: characterization of Norwegian isolates of Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:573-80 pubmed
    Small-ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), including Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goats and maedi-visna virus (MVV) in sheep, are lentiviruses that, despite overall similarities, show considerable genetic variation in regions ..
  5. Ali Al Ahmad M, Fieni F, Martignat L, Chatagnon G, Baril G, Bouvier F, et al. Proviral DNA of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is detected in cumulus oophorus cells but not in oocytes from naturally infected goats. Theriogenology. 2005;64:1656-66 pubmed
  6. Park J, Son S, Shin H. Sequence comparison on gag gene of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus from Korea. Virus Genes. 2010;41:99-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we determine the partial sequence on the gag gene of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) suspect from Korea using nested PCR. Genetic analysis of our isolate showed 93.5 and 90...
  7. Dufour S, Zahno M, Vogt H, Peterhans E, Bertoni G. Production of monospecific antibody to immunodominant epitopes of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus transmembrane glycoprotein and analysis of their activity in vitro. Intervirology. 2002;45:177-82 pubmed
    b>Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV)-infected goats develop high titers of nonneutralizing antibody to several immunodominant epitopes of the viral envelope glycoprotein...
  8. Murphy B, McElliott V, Vapniarsky N, Oliver A, Rowe J. Tissue tropism and promoter sequence variation in caprine arthritis encephalitis virus infected goats. Virus Res. 2010;151:177-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus is a lentivirus that infects goats and is closely related to maedi-visna virus of sheep...
  9. Abelson M, Schoborg R. Characterization of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) rev N-terminal elements required for efficient interaction with the RRE. Virus Res. 2003;92:23-35 pubmed
    The Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) genome encodes three structural (gag, pol, and env) and three accessory (rev, tat, and vif) genes...

More Information

Publications86

  1. Harmache A, Russo P, Guiguen F, Vitu C, Vignoni M, Bouyac M, et al. Requirement of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus vif gene for in vivo replication. Virology. 1996;224:246-55 pubmed
    Replication of vif-caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is highly attenuated in primary goat synovial membrane cells and blood-derived macrophages compared to the wild-type (wt) virus...
  2. Saltarelli M, Querat G, Konings D, Vigne R, Clements J. Nucleotide sequence and transcriptional analysis of molecular clones of CAEV which generate infectious virus. Virology. 1990;179:347-64 pubmed
    ..A stable stem loop structure which is similar in location, stability, and configuration to that determined for the Rev response element of HIV was found...
  3. Villet S, Bouzar B, Morin T, Verdier G, Legras C, Chebloune Y. Maedi-visna virus and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus genomes encode a Vpr-like but no Tat protein. J Virol. 2003;77:9632-8 pubmed
    A small open reading frame (ORF) in maedi-visna virus (MVV) and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) was initially named "tat" by analogy with a similarly placed ORF in the primate lentiviruses...
  4. Schoborg R. Analysis of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) temporal gene expression in infected cells. Virus Res. 2002;90:37-46 pubmed
    b>Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a lentivirus that is closely related to visna virus and more distantly related to the human lentivirus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1)...
  5. Milhau N, Bellaton C, Balleydier S, Gaonach M, Le Jan C. In vitro infection of aortic endothelial cells by caprine arthritis encephalitis virus enhances in vitro transmigration of peripheral blood leukocytes and modulates their phenotypic expression. Vet Res. 2003;34:273-84 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that any possible infection or specific stimulation of endothelia in an infected animal could profoundly influence the choice of target organs and could activate the cells involved in local mucosal immune responses...
  6. Villet S, Faure C, Bouzar B, Morin T, Verdier G, Chebloune Y, et al. Lack of trans-activation function for Maedi Visna virus and Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus Tat proteins. Virology. 2003;307:317-27 pubmed
    ..activity induced by Tat proteins of the small ruminant Maedi Visna virus (MVV) of sheep and Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) of goats on MVV and CAEV LTRs with that induced by the human lentivirus HIV-1 on its own LTR...
  7. Ravazzolo A, Nenci C, Vogt H, Waldvogel A, Obexer Ruff G, Peterhans E, et al. Viral load, organ distribution, histopathological lesions, and cytokine mRNA expression in goats infected with a molecular clone of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. Virology. 2006;350:116-27 pubmed
    b>Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a lentivirus of goats that causes persistent infection characterized by the appearance of inflammatory lesions in various organs...
  8. Bouzar A, Guiguen F, Morin T, Villet S, Fornazero C, Garnier C, et al. Specific G2 arrest of caprine cells infected with a caprine arthritis encephalitis virus expressing vpr and vpx genes from simian immunodeficiency virus. Virology. 2003;309:41-52 pubmed
    ..b>Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) and maedi visna virus are the natural lentiviruses of domestic goat and sheep, respectively, ..
  9. Sanchez A, Contreras A, Corrales J, Marco J. Relationships between infection with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, intramammary bacterial infection and somatic cell counts in dairy goats. Vet Rec. 2001;148:711-4 pubmed
    Somatic cell counts, the bacteriological condition of the milk and antibodies against caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) were measured monthly throughout lactation in 121 lactating goats of the Murcia-Granada breed in four ..
  10. Nenci C, Zahno M, Vogt H, Obexer Ruff G, Doherr M, Zanoni R, et al. Vaccination with a T-cell-priming Gag peptide of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus enhances virus replication transiently in vivo. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1589-93 pubmed
    ..immunized with a synthetic peptide known to encompass an immunodominant helper T-cell epitope of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV)...
  11. Leitner G, Krifucks O, Weisblit L, Lavi Y, Bernstein S, Merin U. The effect of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus infection on production in goats. Vet J. 2010;183:328-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding could be attributed to lateral virus transmission from seropositive to seronegative kids because of lack of segregation within the flock...
  12. Kaba J, Rola M, Materniak M, Kuzmak J, Nowicki M. Isolation and characterization of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus in goats from Poland. Pol J Vet Sci. 2009;12:183-8 pubmed
    ..5) and 10(2.5) TCID50 per ml. New CAEV isolates are suitable candidates for further analysis of their genetic and biological properties...
  13. Fluri A, Nenci C, Zahno M, Vogt H, Charan S, Busato A, et al. The MHC-haplotype influences primary, but not memory, immune responses to an immunodominant peptide containing T- and B-cell epitopes of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus Gag protein. Vaccine. 2006;24:597-606 pubmed
    ..a short peptide, containing a T helper- and a B-cell epitope, located in the Gag protein of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV)...
  14. Michiels R, Van Mael E, Quinet C, Welby S, Cay A, De Regge N. Seroprevalence and risk factors related to small ruminant lentivirus infections in Belgian sheep and goats. Prev Vet Med. 2018;151:13-20 pubmed publisher
    Maedi-Visna virus (MVV) and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) are two prototype members of the group of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs)...
  15. Cheevers W, Beyer J, Hotzel I. Plasmid DNA encoding caprine interferon gamma inhibits antibody response to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) surface protein encoded by a co-administered plasmid expressing CAEV env and tat genes. Vaccine. 2001;19:3209-15 pubmed
    ..Results indicate that synergistic effects of CAEV Tat and IFNgamma suppress the primary adaptive B cell response to plasmid encoded SU...
  16. Kokawa S, Oba M, Hirata T, Tamaki S, Omura M, Tsuchiaka S, et al. Molecular characteristics and prevalence of small ruminant lentiviruses in goats in Japan. Arch Virol. 2017;162:3007-3015 pubmed publisher
    ..The present report is important for establishing baseline information on the prevalence of SRLV in Japan and providing data to develop a new, more sensitive diagnostic test for effective control of SRLV. ..
  17. Leroux C, Cruz J, Mornex J. SRLVs: a genetic continuum of lentiviral species in sheep and goats with cumulative evidence of cross species transmission. Curr HIV Res. 2010;8:94-100 pubmed
    ..Three classifications have been successively proposed and allowed to refine the SRLV phylogeny over time. Phylogenetic reconstructions support the existence of SRLV cross-species transmission in domestic and wild small ruminants. ..
  18. Mselli Lakhal L, Guiguen F, Greenland T, Mornex J, Chebloune Y. Gene transfer system derived from the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus. J Virol Methods. 2006;136:177-84 pubmed
    ..b>Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a lentivirus inducing only minor pathology in its natural host and in related species ..
  19. Valas S, Rolland M, Perrin C, Perrin G, Mamoun R. Characterization of a new 5' splice site within the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus genome: evidence for a novel auxiliary protein. Retrovirology. 2008;5:22 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) and maedi-visna virus (MVV) are two highly related small-ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) that ..
  20. Ceciliani F, Rahman M, Lecchi C, Maccalli M, Pisoni G, Sartorelli P. Systemic and in vitro expression of goat alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein during Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus infection. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009;131:50-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It was found that gAGP's mRNA can be constitutively produced by GSM cells, but real-time PCR experiments revealed that the expression of AGP was not influenced by in vitro infection with CAEV. ..
  21. Perk K. Concealed locations of lentiviruses in caprine arthritis encephalitis system. Virology. 1999;253:8-9 pubmed
    ..Blood examinations of a heavily caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-afflicted herd revealed that three goats, which on previous blood examinations had showed a high ..
  22. Lechat E, Milhau N, Brun P, Bellaton C, Greenland T, Mornex J, et al. Goat endothelial cells may be infected in vitro by transmigration of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus-infected leucocytes. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2005;104:257-63 pubmed
    ..Such a process occurring in vivo during angiogenesis and leucocyte homing to the mammary gland in the final third of mammogenesis, might contribute to viral spread in this crucial target organ. ..
  23. van Maanen C, Brinkhof J, Moll L, Colenbrander B, Houwers D. Aspects of the epidemiology, research, and control of lentiviral infections of small ruminants and their relevance to Dutch sheep and goat farming. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2010;135:600-3 pubmed
    ..Studies of the causative agents--maedi visna virus (MVV) in sheep and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goats, comprising the heterogeneous group of the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV)--..
  24. Tu P, Shiu J, Lee S, Pang V, Wang D, Wang P. Development of a recombinase polymerase amplification lateral flow dipstick (RPA-LFD) for the field diagnosis of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection. J Virol Methods. 2017;243:98-104 pubmed publisher
  25. Bertolini S, Rosamilia A, Caruso C, Maurella C, Ingravalle F, Quasso A, et al. A cross-sectional study to identify a set of risk factors for caprine herpesvirus 1 infection. BMC Vet Res. 2018;14:94 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from this cross sectional study may help to elucidate the natural history of the infection and inform targeted strategies to control a disease with a potentially important impact on animal health and goat farming economy. ..
  26. Pisoni G, Bertoni G, Puricelli M, Maccalli M, Moroni P. Demonstration of coinfection with and recombination by caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and maedi-visna virus in naturally infected goats. J Virol. 2007;81:4948-55 pubmed
    ..This case provides conclusive evidence that coinfection by different strains of SRLVs of groups A and B can indeed occur and that these viruses actually recombine in vivo...
  27. Louie K, Dadgari J, DeBoer B, Weisbuch H, Snow P, Cheevers W, et al. Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus-infected goats can generate human immunodeficiency virus-gp120 cross-reactive antibodies(1). Virology. 2003;315:217-23 pubmed
    ..Further characterization of this unexpected cross-reaction will define its potential therapeutic utility. ..
  28. Lerondelle C, Godet M, Mornex J. Infection of primary cultures of mammary epithelial cells by small ruminant lentiviruses. Vet Res. 1999;30:467-74 pubmed
    ..Infected mammary epithelial cells may act as a reservoir for the virus which may play an important role in the virus dissemination and in the pathogenesis of the mammary lentiviral disease. ..
  29. Ali Al Ahmad M, Fieni F, Pellerin J, Guiguen F, Cherel Y, Chatagnon G, et al. Detection of viral genomes of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in semen and in genital tract tissues of male goat. Theriogenology. 2008;69:473-80 pubmed
    ..This study clearly demonstrates the presence of viral mRNA and proviral-DNA in naturally infected male goat semen and in various tissues of the male genital tract. ..
  30. Hötzel I, Cheevers W. Mutations increasing exposure of a receptor binding site epitope in the soluble and oligomeric forms of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus envelope glycoprotein. Virology. 2005;339:261-72 pubmed
  31. Hötzel I, Cheevers W. Differential receptor usage of small ruminant lentiviruses in ovine and caprine cells: host range but not cytopathic phenotype is determined by receptor usage. Virology. 2002;301:21-31 pubmed
    ..Therefore, our results indicate that the differential species tropism of SRLV is determined by receptor usage. However, receptor usage is unrelated to cytopathic phenotype. ..
  32. Tavella A, Bettini A, Ceol M, Zambotto P, Stifter E, Kusstatscher N, et al. Achievements of an eradication program against caprine arthritis encephalitis virus in South Tyrol, Italy. Vet Rec. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..To monitor and eradicate the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus in this goat population, a compulsory eradication campaign was launched, based on a strict census ..
  33. Sharmila C, Williams J, Reddy P. Effect of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection on expression of interleukin-16 in goats. Am J Vet Res. 2002;63:1418-22 pubmed
    ..Increased production of IL-16 in CAEV infection may partly be responsible for increased lymphoid cell infiltrations observed in arthritic joints and other tissues of CAEV-infected goats. ..
  34. Adebayo I, Walbey D, Adeyemo O. Host differences in serum antibody response during infection of goats by caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2002;48 Online Pub:OL309-15 pubmed
    The response of goats infected with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus was evaluated by estimating the binding antibodies in serum...
  35. Pasick J. Maedi-visna virus and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus: distinct species or quasispecies and its implications for laboratory diagnosis. Can J Vet Res. 1998;62:241-4 pubmed
    ..Implications for diagnostic testing and control of these diseases are discussed. ..
  36. Crespo H, Bertolotti L, Proffiti M, Cascio P, Cerruti F, Acutis P, et al. Low proviral small ruminant lentivirus load as biomarker of natural restriction in goats. Vet Microbiol. 2016;192:152-162 pubmed publisher
  37. Cheevers W, Beyer J, Knowles D. Type 1 and type 2 cytokine gene expression by viral gp135 surface protein-activated T lymphocytes in caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus infection. J Virol. 1997;71:6259-63 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that asymptomatic goats have a dominant population of CAEV SU-reactive T-helper 1 (Th1)-like lymphocytes in PBMC whereas goats with clinical arthritis have a dominant population of SU-reactive Th2-like lymphocytes. ..
  38. Rea Boutrois A, Villet S, Greenland T, Mehlen P, Chebloune Y, Verdier G, et al. Small ruminant lentivirus Tat protein induces apoptosis in caprine cells in vitro by the intrinsic pathway. Virology. 2009;383:93-102 pubmed publisher
    ..A simultaneous disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential indicates an involvement of the mitochondrial pathway...
  39. Seroude V, Audoly G, Gluschankof P, Suzan M. Tryptophan 95, an amino acid residue of the Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus vif protein which is essential for virus replication. Virology. 2001;280:232-42 pubmed
    The Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) vif gene was demonstrated to be essential for efficient virus replication...
  40. Morin T, Guiguen F, Bouzar B, Villet S, Greenland T, Grezel D, et al. Clearance of a productive lentivirus infection in calves experimentally inoculated with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. J Virol. 2003;77:6430-7 pubmed
  41. Beyer J, Chebloune Y, Mselli Lakhal L, Hotzel I, Kumpula McWhirter N, Cheevers W. Immunization with plasmid DNA expressing the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus envelope gene: quantitative and qualitative aspects of antibody response to viral surface glycoprotein. Vaccine. 2001;19:1643-51 pubmed
    ..IgG2 biased response may be due to innate type 1 priming capacity of immunostimulatory CpG motifs in the pUC ampicillin resistance gene...
  42. Cheevers W, Snekvik K, Trujillo J, Kumpula McWhirter N, Pretty On Top K, Knowles D. Prime-boost vaccination with plasmid DNA encoding caprine-arthritis encephalitis lentivirus env and viral SU suppresses challenge virus and development of arthritis. Virology. 2003;306:116-25 pubmed
    ..Goats receiving prime-boost vaccination with CAEV env plasmids and SU-FIA became infected but suppressed postchallenge virus replication, provirus loads in lymph node, and development of arthritis for at least 84 weeks...
  43. Wagter L, Jansen A, Bleumink Pluym N, Lenstra J, Houwers D. PCR detection of lentiviral GAG segment DNA in the white blood cells of sheep and goats. Vet Res Commun. 1998;22:355-62 pubmed
    ..With the use of a set of mixed primers and probes, the assay was able to detect the variety of CAEV and MVV strains occurring in the field...
  44. Cheevers W, Hotzel I, Beyer J, Kumpula McWhirter N. Immune response to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus surface protein induced by coimmunization with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus envelope gene and caprine interleukin-12. Vaccine. 2000;18:2494-503 pubmed
    ..These results are in contrast to previous studies using inbred mice and raise questions regarding the use of cytokine adjuvants to focus immune responses in outbred animals...
  45. Archambault D, Stein C, Cohen J. Phosphorothioate oligonucleotides inhibit the replication of lentiviruses and type D retroviruses, but not that of type C retroviruses. Arch Virol. 1994;139:97-109 pubmed
    ..at a concentration of 2 microM protected Himalayan tahr cells from infection by caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) and equine dermis cells from infection by equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)...
  46. Reina R, Mora M, Glaria I, García I, Solano C, Lujan L, et al. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic study of Maedi Visna and Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis viral sequences in sheep and goats from Spain. Virus Res. 2006;121:189-98 pubmed
    ..This suggests that there is heterogeneity at the primer binding site among Spanish SRLV sequences. It also illustrates the need to develop diagnostic tests that are sensitive in local breeds...
  47. Mselli Lakhal L, Guiguen F, Fornazero C, Favier C, Durand J, Grezel D, et al. Immortalized goat milk epithelial cell lines replicate CAEV at high level. Vet Res. 2001;32:429-40 pubmed
    ..On an other hand, these cell lines can be used to study their role in virus transmission and pathogenesis...
  48. Pisoni G, Quasso A, Moroni P. Phylogenetic analysis of small-ruminant lentivirus subtype B1 in mixed flocks: evidence for natural transmission from goats to sheep. Virology. 2005;339:147-52 pubmed
    ..This implies that SRLV control programs targeting only sheep or goats can no longer be proposed (based on a putative species specificity of the SRLV subtype B1)...
  49. Brulisauer F, Vogt H, Perler L, Rüfenacht J. Risk factors for the infection of Swiss goat herds with small ruminant lentivirus: a case-control study. Vet Rec. 2005;157:229-33 pubmed
    ..9), supporting the hypothesis that srlv can be transmitted between sheep and goats, and suggesting that the measures taken so far will not lead to the complete eradication of srlv from Switzerland within the next few years...
  50. Bouzar A, Villet S, Morin T, Rea A, Genestier L, Guiguen F, et al. Simian immunodeficiency virus Vpr/Vpx proteins kill bystander noninfected CD4+ T-lymphocytes by induction of apoptosis. Virology. 2004;326:47-56 pubmed
    ..Understanding this mechanism might bring insight for intervening in the loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the SIV infection model and in human AIDS...
  51. Ozyörük F, Cheevers W, Hullinger G, McGuire T, Hutton M, Knowles D. Monoclonal antibodies to conformational epitopes of the surface glycoprotein of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus: potential application to competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibodies in goat sera. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2001;8:44-51 pubmed
    ..A competitive-inhibition ELISA based on displacement of MAb 74A reactivity has potential applicability for the serologic diagnosis of CAEV infection...
  52. Niederhäuser S, Zahno M, Nenci C, Vogt H, Zanoni R, Peterhans E, et al. A Gag peptide encompassing B- and T-cell epitopes of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus functions as modular carrier peptide. J Immunol Methods. 2009;342:82-90 pubmed publisher
    ..proof of principle that a peptide located in a highly conserved portion of the Gag protein of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus and carrying an immunodominant T helper cell epitope functions as an efficient carrier peptide, ..
  53. Rea Boutrois A, Pontini G, Greenland T, Mehlen P, Chebloune Y, Verdier G, et al. Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus induces apoptosis in infected cells in vitro through the intrinsic pathway. Virology. 2008;375:452-63 pubmed publisher
    ..A simultaneous disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential indicates an involvement of mitochondrial pathway...
  54. Mselli Lakhal L, Guiguen F, Greenland T, Mornex J, Chebloune Y. In vitro cross-species infections using a caprine arthritis encephalitis lentivirus carrying the GFP marker gene. J Virol Methods. 2007;143:11-5 pubmed
    A caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), carrying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) into the tat region was recently reported [Mselli-Lakhal, L., Guiguen, F., Greenland, T., Mornex, J.F., Chebloune, Y., 2006...
  55. Lilenbaum W, de Souza G, Ristow P, Moreira M, Fráguas S, Cardoso V, et al. A serological study on Brucella abortus, caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and Leptospira in dairy goats in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Vet J. 2007;173:408-12 pubmed
    ..These findings may be similar to those observed in other developing countries and require further study to define the relationship between seropositivity and reduced production...
  56. Fieni F, Rowe J, Van Hoosear K, Burucoa C, Oppenheim S, Anderson G, et al. Presence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infected cells in flushing media following oviductal-stage embryo collection. Theriogenology. 2002;57:931-40 pubmed
    ..The absence of flushing media PCR positive for goat blood PCR negative seemed to allow the use of the blood PCR test to confidently predict the absence of CAEV provirus in the oviductal fluid...
  57. Hotzel I, Cheevers W. Host range of small-ruminant lentivirus cytopathic variants determined with a selectable caprine arthritis- encephalitis virus pseudotype system. J Virol. 2001;75:7384-91 pubmed
    ..The results indicate a differential receptor recognition by MVV strains which is unrelated to cytopathic phenotype...
  58. Gangopadhyay A, Jolly P. Lack of enhancement of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus infection in monocyte-derived macrophage cultures by sera from goats that developed severe arthritis after vaccination and virus challenge. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2003;49:1177-82 pubmed
    ..from goats that developed more rapid and severe clinical disease after vaccination with inactivated caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) and virus challenge for CAEV infection-enhancing antibodies...
  59. Milhau N, Renson P, Dreesen I, Greenland T, Bellaton C, Guiguen F, et al. Viral expression and leukocyte adhesion after in vitro infection of goat mammary gland cells with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2005;103:93-9 pubmed
    ..The distinct reactions of the different cell types to CAEV infection may be correlated with events leading to progressive lesion development during the natural infection...
  60. Castro R, Greenland T, Leite R, Gouveia A, Mornex J, Cordier G. Conserved sequence motifs involving the tat reading frame of Brazilian caprine lentiviruses indicate affiliations to both caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and visna-maedi virus. J Gen Virol. 1999;80 ( Pt 7):1583-9 pubmed
    ..This may be useful for epizoological tracing of the origin of outbreaks...
  61. Shah C, Huder J, Böni J, Schönmann M, Mühlherr J, Lutz H, et al. Direct evidence for natural transmission of small-ruminant lentiviruses of subtype A4 from goats to sheep and vice versa. J Virol. 2004;78:7518-22 pubmed
    ..These findings present for the first time direct evidence that natural interspecies transmission of SRLV is ongoing in both directions. The findings are of relevance to virus eradication programs in both species...
  62. Olsen J. EIAV, CAEV and other lentivirus vector systems. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 2001;26:131-45 pubmed
    ..construction and application of gene transfer systems derived from four non-primate lentiviruses including equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), visna virus, and Jembrana disease virus (JDV).
  63. Grego E, Bertolotti L, Carrozza M, Profiti M, Mazzei M, Tolari F, et al. Genetic and antigenic characterization of the matrix protein of two genetically distinct ovine lentiviruses. Vet Microbiol. 2005;106:179-85 pubmed
  64. Lacerenza D, Giammarioli M, Grego E, Marini C, Profiti M, Rutili D, et al. Antibody response in sheep experimentally infected with different small ruminant lentivirus genotypes. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2006;112:264-71 pubmed
    ..the advantage of using homologous antigen was less evident in detecting seroconversion against the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV)-like strain, compared with the maedi-visna virus (MVV)-like infection...
  65. Grossi P, Giudice C, Bertoletti I, Cioccarelli G, Brocchi E, Cammarata G, et al. Immunohistochemical detection of the p27 capsid protein of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in bone-marrow cells of seropositive goats. J Comp Pathol. 2005;133:197-200 pubmed
    ..It is speculated that bone-marrow stromal cells represent a viral reservoir in symptomless animals...
  66. Pisoni G, Moroni P, Turin L, Bertoni G. Compartmentalization of small ruminant lentivirus between blood and colostrum in infected goats. Virology. 2007;369:119-30 pubmed
    ..The compartmentalization of SRLV between peripheral blood and colostrum indicates that lactogenic transmission may involve specific viruses not present in the proviral populations circulating in the blood...
  67. Murphy B, Hötzel I, Jasmer D, Davis W, Knowles D. TNFalpha and GM-CSF-induced activation of the CAEV promoter is independent of AP-1. Virology. 2006;352:188-99 pubmed
    b>Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus transcription is under the control of the viral promoter within the long terminal repeat...
  68. Bertoni G, Hertig C, Zahno M, Vogt H, Dufour S, Cordano P, et al. B-cell epitopes of the envelope glycoprotein of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and antibody response in infected goats. J Gen Virol. 2000;81:2929-40 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the identification of the CAEV Env epitopes will permit us to functionally dissect the antibody response and to address the role of anti-Env antibodies either in the protection from or in the pathogenesis of CAEV infection...
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    ..Through the analysis of overlapping peptides spanning this region we identified a 17 amino acid sequence that can be used in the development of a highly standardized synthetic peptide-based assay...
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  72. Murphy B, Jasmer D, White S, Knowles D. Localization of a TNF-activated transcription site and interactions with the gamma activated site within the CAEV U3 70 base pair repeat. Virology. 2007;364:196-207 pubmed
    The cytokines TNFalpha and IFNgamma have previously been shown to activate caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) transcription. Increased viral titers correlate with increased lesion severity...
  73. Trujillo J, Hötzel K, Snekvik K, Cheevers W. Antibody response to the surface envelope of caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus: disease status is predicted by SU antibody isotype. Virology. 2004;325:129-36 pubmed
    ..Isotype analysis may be a useful method to screen candidate lentiviral vaccines intended to prevent disease progression...
  74. Kuzmak J, Rola M, Gallay K, Chebloune Y. Molecular characterization of lentiviruses from goats from Poland based on gag gene sequence analysis. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007;30:211-23 pubmed
    ..This might indicate a recent cross-species infection from sheep to goat...
  75. Storset A, Teig A, Rimstad E. Detection of caprine arthritis--encephalitis virus RNA in macrophages by in situ hybridization using fluorescein-labelled single-stranded RNA probes. Vet Microbiol. 1996;52:25-35 pubmed
    ..A few macrophages were positive for CAEV RNA 24 h post infection (p.i.) while most cells were positive 96 h p.i. The use of fluorescein-labelled RNA probes made this method feasible for kinetic in vitro studies of CAEV...
  76. Knowles D, Evermann J, Shropshire C, VanderSchalie J, Bradway D, Gezon H, et al. Evaluation of agar gel immunodiffusion serology using caprine and ovine lentiviral antigens for detection of antibody to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. J Clin Microbiol. 1994;32:243-5 pubmed
    ..56. The AGID test with either antigen was 100% specific. The lower sensitivity of the OPPV AGID test in detecting caprine antibody to CAEV indicates that OPPV antigen is of limited value for use in CAEV diagnosis and control programs...
  77. Herrmann L, Cheevers W, Marshall K, McGuire T, Hutton M, Lewis G, et al. Detection of serum antibodies to ovine progressive pneumonia virus in sheep by using a caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2003;10:862-5 pubmed
    ..5% sensitivity) and 0 of 15 false-positives (100% specificity). We conclude that the CAEV cELISA can be applied to detection of OPPV antibodies in sheep with high sensitivity and specificity...