murine leukemia virus


Summary: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.

Top Publications

  1. Harris R, Bishop K, Sheehy A, Craig H, Petersen Mahrt S, Watt I, et al. DNA deamination mediates innate immunity to retroviral infection. Cell. 2003;113:803-9 pubmed
    ..Here, using a murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based system, we provide evidence that CEM15/APOBEC3G is a DNA deaminase that is incorporated into ..
  2. Deichmann M, Huder J, Kleist C, Näher H, Schupbach J, Böni J. Detection of reverse transcriptase activity in human melanoma cell lines and identification of a murine leukemia virus contaminant. Arch Dermatol Res. 2005;296:345-52 pubmed
    ..Stimulated by earlier reports on the presence of retroviruses in mouse and hamster melanoma cell lines, we addressed the question as to whether human melanoma cell lines might also harbour a retrovirus...
  3. Segura Morales C, Pescia C, Chatellard Causse C, Sadoul R, Bertrand E, Basyuk E. Tsg101 and Alix interact with murine leukemia virus Gag and cooperate with Nedd4 ubiquitin ligases during budding. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:27004-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the murine leukemia virus Gag has the unique ability to interact with all three factors...
  4. Kubo Y, Tominaga C, Yoshii H, Kamiyama H, Mitani C, Amanuma H, et al. Characterization of R peptide of murine leukemia virus envelope glycoproteins in syncytium formation and entry. Arch Virol. 2007;152:2169-82 pubmed
    The C-terminal R peptide of ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) envelope protein (Env) negatively controls membrane fusion activity...
  5. Hinkula J, Walther Jallow L, Laurén A, Mäkitalo B, Oberg M, Wahren B, et al. Neutralizing activity and cellular immune responses induced in mice after immunization with apoptotic HIV-1/murine leukemia virus infected cells. Vaccine. 2009;27:6424-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that immunizations with apoptotic HIV-1/murine leukemia virus (MuLV) infected cells lead to induction of both cellular and humoral immune responses as well as ..
  6. Stevens A, Bock M, Ellis S, LeTissier P, Bishop K, Yap M, et al. Retroviral capsid determinants of Fv1 NB and NR tropism. J Virol. 2004;78:9592-8 pubmed
    ..determinants for susceptibility to resistance by the Fv1 n and b alleles map to amino acid 110 of the murine leukemia virus CA protein...
  7. Goffinet C, Schmidt S, Kern C, Oberbremer L, Keppler O. Endogenous CD317/Tetherin limits replication of HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus in rodent cells and is resistant to antagonists from primate viruses. J Virol. 2010;84:11374-84 pubmed publisher rodent cells has the capacity to interfere with the replication of the retroviral rodent pathogen murine leukemia virus (MLV) or, in the context of small-animal model development, contributes to the well-established late-phase ..
  8. Tipper C, Bencsics C, Coffin J. Characterization of hortulanus endogenous murine leukemia virus, an endogenous provirus that encodes an infectious murine leukemia virus of a novel subgroup. J Virol. 2005;79:8316-29 pubmed
    ..Previous work in our laboratory has been directed at dissecting the extensive nonecotropic murine leukemia virus content of the mouse genome...
  9. Wallin M, Ekström M, Garoff H. Receptor-triggered but alkylation-arrested env of murine leukemia virus reveals the transmembrane subunit in a prehairpin conformation. J Virol. 2006;80:9921-5 pubmed
    ..The fusion inhibition of many retroviruses, except murine leukemia virus (MLV), with peptides corresponding to interacting regions in the hairpin supports the model...

More Information


  1. Towers G, Hatziioannou T, Cowan S, Goff S, Luban J, Bieniasz P. Cyclophilin A modulates the sensitivity of HIV-1 to host restriction factors. Nat Med. 2003;9:1138-43 pubmed
    ..Manipulation of HIV-1 CA recognition by restriction factors promises to advance animal models and new therapeutic strategies for HIV-1 and AIDS. ..
  2. Keckesova Z, Ylinen L, Towers G. The human and African green monkey TRIM5alpha genes encode Ref1 and Lv1 retroviral restriction factor activities. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:10780-5 pubmed
    ..Expression of TRIM5alpha in permissive cat cells renders them resistant to restriction-sensitive murine leukemia virus but not closely related insensitive virus...
  3. Kobayashi M, Takaori Kondo A, Shindo K, Abudu A, Fukunaga K, Uchiyama T. APOBEC3G targets specific virus species. J Virol. 2004;78:8238-44 pubmed
    ..dC to dU in the minus strand DNA of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), other lentiviruses, and murine leukemia virus (MLV), thereby creating G-to-A hypermutation in the plus strand DNA to inhibit the infectivity of these ..
  4. Raisch K, Pizzato M, Sun H, Takeuchi Y, Cashdollar L, Grossberg S. Molecular cloning, complete sequence, and biological characterization of a xenotropic murine leukemia virus constitutively released from the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line DG-75. Virology. 2003;308:83-91 pubmed
    ..The DG-75 retrovirus is the first isolate of an exogenous xenotropic MLV in which the full-length genomic sequence has been characterized. ..
  5. Narezkina A, Taganov K, Litwin S, Stoyanova R, Hayashi J, Seeger C, et al. Genome-wide analyses of avian sarcoma virus integration sites. J Virol. 2004;78:11656-63 pubmed
    ..The integration frequency within genes is similar to that previously described for murine leukemia virus but distinct from the higher frequency observed with human immunodeficiency virus type 1...
  6. Glud S, Sørensen A, Andrulis M, Wang B, Kondo E, Jessen R, et al. A tumor-suppressor function for NFATc3 in T-cell lymphomagenesis by murine leukemia virus. Blood. 2005;106:3546-52 pubmed
    ..These results identify NFATc3 as a tumor suppressor for the development of murine T-cell lymphomas induced by the retrovirus SL3-3. ..
  7. Evans L, Lavignon M, Peterson K, Hasenkrug K, Robertson S, Malik F, et al. In vivo interactions of ecotropic and polytropic murine leukemia viruses in mixed retrovirus infections. J Virol. 2006;80:4748-57 pubmed
    ..Using mice infected with defined mixtures of the ecotropic Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) and different polytropic viruses, we demonstrate several dramatic effects of mixed infections...
  8. Kim S, Kim N, Dong B, Boren D, Lee S, Das Gupta J, et al. Integration site preference of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus, a new human retrovirus associated with prostate cancer. J Virol. 2008;82:9964-77 pubmed publisher
    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a new human gammaretrovirus identified in prostate cancer tissue from patients homozygous for a reduced-activity variant of the antiviral enzyme RNase L...
  9. Mikovits J, Huang Y, Pfost M, Lombardi V, Bertolette D, Hagen K, et al. Distribution of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) infection in chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer. AIDS Rev. 2010;12:149-52 pubmed
    In 2006, sequences described as xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) were discovered in prostate cancer patients...
  10. Sørensen K, Quintanilla Martinez L, Kunder S, Schmidt J, Pedersen F. Mutation of all Runx (AML1/core) sites in the enhancer of T-lymphomagenic SL3-3 murine leukemia virus unmasks a significant potential for myeloid leukemia induction and favors enhancer evolution toward induction of other disease patterns. J Virol. 2004;78:13216-31 pubmed
    SL3-3 murine leukemia virus is a potent inducer of T-lymphomas in mice...
  11. Takeda A, Matano T. Inhibition of infectious murine leukemia virus production by Fv-4 env gene products exerting dominant negative effect on viral envelope glycoprotein. Microbes Infect. 2007;9:1590-6 pubmed
    Fv-4 is a mouse gene that confers resistance against ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) infection on mice...
  12. Sørensen K, Sørensen A, Quintanilla Martinez L, Kunder S, Schmidt J, Pedersen F. Distinct roles of enhancer nuclear factor 1 (NF1) sites in plasmacytoma and osteopetrosis induction by Akv1-99 murine leukemia virus. Virology. 2005;334:234-44 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, enhancer NF1 sites are major determinants of osteopetrosis induction by Akv1-99 without significant influence on viral oncogenicity. ..
  13. Paprotka T, Venkatachari N, Chaipan C, Burdick R, Delviks Frankenberry K, HU W, et al. Inhibition of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus by APOBEC3 proteins and antiviral drugs. J Virol. 2010;84:5719-29 pubmed publisher
    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), a gammaretrovirus, has been isolated from human prostate cancer tissue and from activated CD4(+) T cells and B cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, suggesting an ..
  14. Keckesova Z, Ylinen L, Towers G. Cyclophilin A renders human immunodeficiency virus type 1 sensitive to Old World monkey but not human TRIM5 alpha antiviral activity. J Virol. 2006;80:4683-90 pubmed
    ..We speculate that cyclophilin A alters HIV-1 sensitivity to a TRIM5alpha-independent innate immune pathway in human cells. ..
  15. Xue Q, Yang C, Hoffman P, Streit W. Microglial response to murine leukemia virus-induced encephalopathy is a good indicator of neuronal perturbations. Brain Res. 2010;1319:131-41 pubmed publisher
    The neuronal pathology caused by neonatal infection of rats with the PVC-211 murine leukemia virus (PVC-211 MuLV) and its underlying mechanisms are not well defined even though a loss of neurons and spongiform neurodegeneration has been ..
  16. Taylor W, Stoye J. Consensus structural models for the amino terminal domain of the retrovirus restriction gene Fv1 and the murine leukaemia virus capsid proteins. BMC Struct Biol. 2004;4:1 pubmed
    ..The Fv1 model may have some additional errors in the core packing of its helices but the resulting model gave some support to the hypothesis that it adopts a capsid-like structure. ..
  17. Krishna D, Le Doux J. Murine leukemia virus particles activate Rac1 in HeLa cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;345:1184-93 pubmed
    ..The implications of these findings with respect to retrovirus-cell interactions are discussed. ..
  18. van Kuppeveld F, de Jong A, Lanke K, Verhaegh G, Melchers W, Swanink C, et al. Prevalence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in the Netherlands: retrospective analysis of samples from an established cohort. BMJ. 2010;340:c1018 pubmed publisher
    ..These data cast doubt on the claim that XMRV is associated with chronic fatigue syndrome in the majority of patients. ..
  19. Berthoux L, Sebastian S, Sayah D, Luban J. Disruption of human TRIM5alpha antiviral activity by nonhuman primate orthologues. J Virol. 2005;79:7883-8 pubmed
    ..Human TRIM5alpha potently restricts specific strains of murine leukemia virus (N-MLV) but has only a modest effect on HIV-1...
  20. Si Z, Vandegraaff N, O hUigin C, Song B, Yuan W, Xu C, et al. Evolution of a cytoplasmic tripartite motif (TRIM) protein in cows that restricts retroviral infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:7454-9 pubmed LOC505265 that is responsible for the restriction of infection by several lentiviruses and N-tropic murine leukemia virus in cow cells...
  21. Wallin M, Ekström M, Garoff H. Isomerization of the intersubunit disulphide-bond in Env controls retrovirus fusion. EMBO J. 2004;23:54-65 pubmed
  22. Berthoux L, Towers G, Gurer C, Salomoni P, Pandolfi P, Luban J. As(2)O(3) enhances retroviral reverse transcription and counteracts Ref1 antiviral activity. J Virol. 2003;77:3167-80 pubmed
    ..b>Murine leukemia virus (MLV) transduction was enhanced by As(2)O(3) to the same extent as HIV-1 transduction, but As(2)O(3) had ..
  23. Fischer N, Schulz C, Stieler K, Hohn O, Lange C, Drosten C, et al. Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related gammaretrovirus in respiratory tract. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1000-2 pubmed publisher
    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related gammaretrovirus (XMRV) has been recently associated with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. To identify nucleic acid sequences, we examined respiratory secretions by using PCR...
  24. Beer C, Meyer A, Müller K, Wirth M. The temperature stability of mouse retroviruses depends on the cholesterol levels of viral lipid shell and cellular plasma membrane. Virology. 2003;308:137-46 pubmed
    ..Finally, depletion of viral cholesterol in vitro resulted in intact virus with increased thermal stability. Thus, retrovirus lability depends on the host cell and parallels the cholesterol amount in the viral lipid shell. ..
  25. Sandrin V, Muriaux D, Darlix J, Cosset F. Intracellular trafficking of Gag and Env proteins and their interactions modulate pseudotyping of retroviruses. J Virol. 2004;78:7153-64 pubmed
    ..from most retroviruses and from several families of enveloped viruses can form infectious pseudotypes with murine leukemia virus (MLV) and lentiviral core particles, like the MLV envelope glycoproteins (Env) that are incorporated on ..
  26. Jolicoeur P, Hu C, Mak T, Martinou J, Kay D. Protection against murine leukemia virus-induced spongiform myeloencephalopathy in mice overexpressing Bcl-2 but not in mice deficient for interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthetase, ICE, Fas, Fas ligand, or TNF-R1 genes. J Virol. 2003;77:13161-70 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that motor neuron death occurs in this disease at least in part by a Bcl-2-inhibitable pathway not requiring the ICE, iNOS, Fas/FasL, TNF-R1, and IL-6 gene products. ..
  27. Bishop K, Holmes R, Sheehy A, Davidson N, Cho S, Malim M. Cytidine deamination of retroviral DNA by diverse APOBEC proteins. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1392-6 pubmed
    The human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G edits both nascent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV) reverse transcripts, resulting in loss of infectivity...
  28. Berg A, Pietschmann T, Rethwilm A, Lindemann D. Determinants of foamy virus envelope glycoprotein mediated resistance to superinfection. Virology. 2003;314:243-52 pubmed
    ..This is in contrast to murine leukemia virus where secreted proteins comprising the receptor-binding domain in SU are sufficient to induce SIR...
  29. Sherer N, Lehmann M, Jimenez Soto L, Ingmundson A, Horner S, Cicchetti G, et al. Visualization of retroviral replication in living cells reveals budding into multivesicular bodies. Traffic. 2003;4:785-801 pubmed
    ..However, here we demonstrate that HIV Gag and murine leukemia virus (MLV) Gag also drive assembly intracellularly in cell types including 293 and HeLa cells, previously ..
  30. Martin Serrano J, Zang T, Bieniasz P. Role of ESCRT-I in retroviral budding. J Virol. 2003;77:4794-804 pubmed
    ..However, the PTAP-type L domain appears to be unique in its requirement for an intact, or nearly intact, ESCRT-I complex. ..
  31. Zhao X, Yoshimura F. Expression of murine leukemia virus envelope protein is sufficient for the induction of apoptosis. J Virol. 2008;82:2586-9 pubmed
  32. Hartley J, Evans L, Green K, Naghashfar Z, Macias A, Zerfas P, et al. Expression of infectious murine leukemia viruses by RAW264.7 cells, a potential complication for studies with a widely used mouse macrophage cell line. Retrovirology. 2008;5:1 pubmed publisher
    ..macrophage cell line in medical research, was originally reported to be free of replication-competent murine leukemia virus (MuLV) despite its origin in a tumor induced by Abelson MuLV containing Moloney MuLV as helper virus...
  33. Meiering C, Linial M. Reactivation of a complex retrovirus is controlled by a molecular switch and is inhibited by a viral protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:15130-5 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that viral transcription is regulated by a sensitive switch, and that Bet functions as a negative regulator of basal IP activity...
  34. Wolf D, Cammas F, Losson R, Goff S. Primer binding site-dependent restriction of murine leukemia virus requires HP1 binding by TRIM28. J Virol. 2008;82:4675-9 pubmed publisher a transcriptional corepressor which is required for primer binding site (PBS)-dependent restriction of murine leukemia virus (MLV) replication in embryonic stem and embryonic carcinoma (EC) cells...
  35. Dong B, Silverman R, Kandel E. A natural human retrovirus efficiently complements vectors based on murine leukemia virus. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3144 pubmed publisher
    b>Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) is a rodent gammaretrovirus that serves as the backbone for common gene delivery tools designed for experimental and therapeutic applications...
  36. Sliva K, Erlwein O, Bittner A, Schnierle B. Murine leukemia virus (MLV) replication monitored with fluorescent proteins. Virol J. 2004;1:14 pubmed
    ..Replication-competent murine leukemia virus (MLV) has been described to have potential as cancer therapeutics, however, MLV infection does not cause a ..
  37. Kunstman K, Bhattacharya T, Flaherty J, Phair J, Wolinsky S. Absence of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus in blood cells of men at risk for and infected with HIV. AIDS. 2010;24:1784-5 pubmed
    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus has been detected in blood cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and in 3.7% of healthy controls from the same geographic region...
  38. Feldman S, Farrell K, Murthy R, Russ J, Eiden M. Identification of an extracellular domain within the human PiT2 receptor that is required for amphotropic murine leukemia virus binding. J Virol. 2004;78:595-602 pubmed
    ..protein that functions as a type III sodium phosphate cotransporter and as the receptor for amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV)...
  39. Mulky A, Cohen T, Kozlov S, Korbei B, Foisner R, Stewart C, et al. The LEM domain proteins emerin and LAP2alpha are dispensable for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and murine leukemia virus infections. J Virol. 2008;82:5860-8 pubmed publisher
    ..been proposed to aid in the early replication steps of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and murine leukemia virus (MLV). However, whether these factors are essential for HIV-1 or MLV infection has been questioned...
  40. Martín Hernández J, Balle Sørensen A, Pedersen F. Non-identical patterns of proviral insertions around host transcription units in lymphomas induced by different strains of murine leukemia virus. Virology. 2006;353:193-9 pubmed
  41. Ohkura S, Yap M, Sheldon T, Stoye J. All three variable regions of the TRIM5alpha B30.2 domain can contribute to the specificity of retrovirus restriction. J Virol. 2006;80:8554-65 pubmed
    ..2 core structure. It is hypothesized that these three loops form a binding surface for virus and that evolutionary changes in any one of the loops can alter restriction specificity...
  42. Burkhart M, D Agostino P, Kayman S, Pinter A. Involvement of the C-terminal disulfide-bonded loop of murine leukemia virus SU protein in a postbinding step critical for viral entry. J Virol. 2005;79:7868-76 pubmed
    A role for the C-terminal domain (CTD) of murine leukemia virus (MuLV) Env protein in viral fusion was indicated by the potent inhibition of MuLV-induced fusion, but not receptor binding, by two rat monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific ..
  43. Browne E, Littman D. Species-specific restriction of apobec3-mediated hypermutation. J Virol. 2008;82:1305-13 pubmed
    ..human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is able to resist human A3G but is sensitive to murine A3, whereas murine leukemia virus (MLV) is relatively resistant to murine A3 (mA3) but sensitive to human A3G...
  44. Yamashita M, Emerman M. Capsid is a dominant determinant of retrovirus infectivity in nondividing cells. J Virol. 2004;78:5670-8 pubmed
    ..1 (HIV-1) in which the MA and CA of HIV-1 are replaced with the MA, p12, and CA encoding sequences from murine leukemia virus (MLV) loses the ability to efficiently infect nondividing cells...
  45. Burkhart M, Kayman S, He Y, Pinter A. Distinct mechanisms of neutralization by monoclonal antibodies specific for sites in the N-terminal or C-terminal domain of murine leukemia virus SU. J Virol. 2003;77:3993-4003 pubmed
    The epitope specificities and functional activities of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the murine leukemia virus (MuLV) SU envelope protein subunit were determined...
  46. Andrawiss M, Takeuchi Y, Hewlett L, Collins M. Murine leukemia virus particle assembly quantitated by fluorescence microscopy: role of Gag-Gag interactions and membrane association. J Virol. 2003;77:11651-60 pubmed
    In order to track the assembly of murine leukemia virus (MLV), we used fluorescence microscopy to visualize particles containing Gag molecules fused to fluorescent proteins (FPs)...
  47. Skasko M, Weiss K, Reynolds H, Jamburuthugoda V, Lee K, Kim B. Mechanistic differences in RNA-dependent DNA polymerization and fidelity between murine leukemia virus and HIV-1 reverse transcriptases. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:12190-200 pubmed
    We compared the mechanistic and kinetic properties of murine leukemia virus (MuLV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptases (RTs) during RNA-dependent DNA polymerization and mutation synthesis using pre-..
  48. Yap M, Nisole S, Lynch C, Stoye J. Trim5alpha protein restricts both HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:10786-91 pubmed
    Replication of HIV-1 and N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV) is restricted in a number of different primate cells...
  49. Cheslock S, Poon D, Fu W, Rhodes T, Henderson L, Nagashima K, et al. Charged assembly helix motif in murine leukemia virus capsid: an important region for virus assembly and particle size determination. J Virol. 2003;77:7058-66 pubmed
    We have identified a region near the C terminus of capsid (CA) of murine leukemia virus (MLV) that contains many charged residues. This motif is conserved in various lengths in most MLV-like viruses...
  50. Qian Z, Donald R, Wang H, Chen Q, Albritton L. Identification of a critical basic residue on the ecotropic murine leukemia virus receptor. J Virol. 2003;77:8596-601 pubmed
    ..With this report, the involvement of all the residues divergent between mice and humans in the third extracellular domain has been ruled out, suggesting that as yet unidentified determinants lie in other extracellular domains...
  51. Eastman S, Martin Serrano J, Chung W, Zang T, Bieniasz P. Identification of human VPS37C, a component of endosomal sorting complex required for transport-I important for viral budding. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:628-36 pubmed
    ..Depletion of VPS37C from cells does not inhibit murine leukemia virus budding, which is not mediated by ESCRT-I, however, if murine leukemia virus budding is engineered to be ..
  52. Akeprathumchai S, Han B, Wickramasinghe S, Carlson J, Czermak P, Preibeta K. Murine leukemia virus clearance by flocculation and microfiltration. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2004;88:880-9 pubmed
    Clearance of murine leukemia virus from CHO cell suspensions by flocculation and microfiltration was investigated. Murine leukemia virus is a retrovirus that is recommended by the U.S...
  53. Holmes R, Malim M, Bishop K. APOBEC-mediated viral restriction: not simply editing?. Trends Biochem Sci. 2007;32:118-28 pubmed
  54. Low A, Datta S, Kuznetsov Y, Jahid S, Kothari N, McPherson A, et al. Mutation in the glycosylated gag protein of murine leukemia virus results in reduced in vivo infectivity and a novel defect in viral budding or release. J Virol. 2007;81:3685-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that gPr80gag is important for M-MuLV replication in vivo and in vitro and that the protein may be involved in a late step in viral budding or release...
  55. Moalic Y, Blanchard Y, Felix H, Jestin A. Porcine endogenous retrovirus integration sites in the human genome: features in common with those of murine leukemia virus. J Virol. 2006;80:10980-8 pubmed
    ..All these results show similarities between PERV and murine leukemia virus integration site selection, suggesting that gammaretroviruses have a common pattern of integration and ..
  56. Mortuza G, Haire L, Stevens A, Smerdon S, Stoye J, Taylor I. High-resolution structure of a retroviral capsid hexameric amino-terminal domain. Nature. 2004;431:481-5 pubmed
    ..Together, these observations provide new insights into retroviral uncoating and how cellular restriction factors may interfere with viral replication...
  57. Kuznetsov Y, Victoria J, Low A, Robinson W, Fan H, McPherson A. Atomic force microscopy imaging of retroviruses: human immunodeficiency virus and murine leukemia virus. Scanning. 2004;26:209-16 pubmed
    ..immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which produces acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, and murine leukemia virus (MuLV), which produces leukemias in rodents...
  58. Dong B, Silverman R. Androgen stimulates transcription and replication of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus. J Virol. 2010;84:1648-51 pubmed publisher
    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a gammaretrovirus originally identified in a subset of prostate cancer patients...
  59. Beer C, Andersen D, Rojek A, Pedersen L. Caveola-dependent endocytic entry of amphotropic murine leukemia virus. J Virol. 2005;79:10776-87 pubmed
    Early results suggested that the amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MLV) does not enter cells via endocytosis through clathrin-coated pits and this gammaretrovirus has therefore been anticipated to fuse directly with the plasma ..
  60. Bhosle S, Suppiah S, Molinaro R, Liang Y, Arnold R, Diehl W, et al. Evaluation of cellular determinants required for in vitro xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus entry into human prostate cancer and noncancerous cells. J Virol. 2010;84:6288-96 pubmed publisher
    The newly identified retrovirus-the xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV)-has recently been shown to be strongly associated with familial prostate cancer in humans (A. Urisman et al., PLoS Pathog. 2:e25, 2006)...
  61. Kremer M, Bittner A, Schnierle B. Human APOBEC3G incorporation into murine leukemia virus particles. Virology. 2005;337:175-82 pubmed
    ..Here, APOBEC3G incorporation into murine leukemia virus (MLV) was studied using retroviral vectors...
  62. Spetz A, Sörensen A, Walther Jallow L, Wahren B, Andersson J, Holmgren L, et al. Induction of HIV-1-specific immunity after vaccination with apoptotic HIV-1/murine leukemia virus-infected cells. J Immunol. 2002;169:5771-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, we show that inoculation of mice with apoptotic HIV-1/murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-infected cells induces HIV-1-specific immunity...
  63. Barnes E, Flanagan P, Brown A, Robinson N, Brown H, McClure M, et al. Failure to detect xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus in blood of individuals at high risk of blood-borne viral infections. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:1482-5 pubmed publisher
    A xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has recently been reported in association with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome, with a prevalence of up to 3.7% in the healthy population...
  64. Taylor G, Sanders D. Structural criteria for regulation of membrane fusion and virion incorporation by the murine leukemia virus TM cytoplasmic domain. Virology. 2003;312:295-305 pubmed
    ..Our quantitative analysis of the effects of Moloney murine leukemia virus TM mutations on envelope-protein function support the proposition that a trimeric coiled coil in the TM ..
  65. Evans L, Lavignon M, Taylor M, Alamgir A. Antigenic subclasses of polytropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) isolates reflect three distinct groups of endogenous polytropic MLV-related sequences in NFS/N mice. J Virol. 2003;77:10327-38 pubmed
  66. Bruce J, Hierl M, Young J, Ahlquist P. Cellular transcription factor ZASC1 regulates murine leukemia virus transcription. J Virol. 2010;84:7473-83 pubmed publisher
    ..we employed a high-volume forward genetic screen of insertionally mutagenized somatic cells using a murine leukemia virus (MLV) vector...
  67. Oshima M, Muriaux D, Mirro J, Nagashima K, Dryden K, Yeager M, et al. Effects of blocking individual maturation cleavages in murine leukemia virus gag. J Virol. 2004;78:1411-20 pubmed
    ..In murine leukemia virus (MLV) maturation, Gag is cleaved at three sites, resulting in formation of the matrix (MA), p12, capsid (..
  68. Kuznetsov Y, Datta S, Kothari N, Greenwood A, Fan H, McPherson A. Atomic force microscopy investigation of fibroblasts infected with wild-type and mutant murine leukemia virus (MuLV). Biophys J. 2002;83:3665-74 pubmed
    ..The cell surfaces, however, became covered with tubelike structures that appear to result from a failure of the virions to properly undergo morphogenesis, and to fail in budding completely from the cell's surfaces...
  69. Sørensen K, Kunder S, Quintanilla Martinez L, Sørensen J, Schmidt J, Pedersen F. Enhancer mutations of Akv murine leukemia virus inhibit the induction of mature B-cell lymphomas and shift disease specificity towards the more differentiated plasma cell stage. Virology. 2007;362:179-91 pubmed
    ..investigates the role of the proviral transcriptional enhancer for B-lymphoma induction by exogenous Akv murine leukemia virus. Infection of newborn inbred NMRI mice with Akv induced 35% plasma cell proliferations (PCPs) (consistent ..
  70. Kraunus J, Zychlinski D, Heise T, Galla M, Bohne J, Baum C. Murine leukemia virus regulates alternative splicing through sequences upstream of the 5' splice site. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:37381-90 pubmed
    ..In contrast to all known mechanisms that mediate alternative splicing in retroviruses, we found that in murine leukemia virus, distinct elements located upstream of the 5' splice site either inhibited or activated splicing of the ..
  71. Buchholz C, Cichutek K. Is it going to be SIN?: a European Society of Gene Therapy commentary. Phasing-out the clinical use of non self-inactivating murine leukemia virus vectors: initiative on hold. J Gene Med. 2006;8:1274-6 pubmed
    ..Conventional murine leukaemia virus (MLV) vectors can thus be used further in clinical gene therapy trials but require a thorough case-by-case risk-benefit analysis...
  72. Yu J, Schaffer D. High-throughput, library-based selection of a murine leukemia virus variant to infect nondividing cells. J Virol. 2006;80:8981-8 pubmed
    Gammaretroviruses, such as murine leukemia virus (MLV), are functionally distinguished from lentiviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus, by their inability to infect nondividing cells...
  73. Li M, Li Z, Yao Q, Yang C, Steinhauer D, Compans R. Murine leukemia virus R Peptide inhibits influenza virus hemagglutinin-induced membrane fusion. J Virol. 2006;80:6106-14 pubmed
    The cytoplasmic tail of the murine leukemia virus (MuLV) envelope (Env) protein is known to play an important role in regulating viral fusion activity...
  74. Wang W, Tai C, Kasahara N, Chen T. Highly efficient and tumor-restricted gene transfer to malignant gliomas by replication-competent retroviral vectors. Hum Gene Ther. 2003;14:117-27 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that RCR vectors can achieve therapeutically significant levels of transduction in malignant human gliomas, and that RCR vector spread after intratumoral injection is restricted to the tumor itself...
  75. Beer C, Pedersen L, Wirth M. Amphotropic murine leukaemia virus envelope protein is associated with cholesterol-rich microdomains. Virol J. 2005;2:36 pubmed
    ..g., measles virus and human immunodeficiency virus. For these viruses association of newly synthesized viral proteins with lipid rafts has been shown...
  76. Wu T, Yan Y, Kozak C. Rmcf2, a xenotropic provirus in the Asian mouse species Mus castaneus, blocks infection by polytropic mouse gammaretroviruses. J Virol. 2005;79:9677-84 pubmed
    ..This type of provirus Env-mediated resistance represents an important defense mechanism in wild mouse populations exposed to endemic infections...
  77. Wu X, Li Y, Crise B, Burgess S. Transcription start regions in the human genome are favored targets for MLV integration. Science. 2003;300:1749-51 pubmed
    ..In this study, 903 murine leukemia virus (MLV) and 379 human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) integrations in the human genome were mapped...
  78. Voisin V, Barat C, Hoang T, Rassart E. Novel insights into the pathogenesis of the Graffi murine leukemia retrovirus. J Virol. 2006;80:4026-37 pubmed
    The Graffi murine leukemia virus (MuLV) was isolated in 1954 by Arnold Graffi, who characterized it as a myeloid leukemia-inducing retrovirus...
  79. Diaz Griffero F, Perron M, McGee Estrada K, Hanna R, Maillard P, Trono D, et al. A human TRIM5alpha B30.2/SPRY domain mutant gains the ability to restrict and prematurely uncoat B-tropic murine leukemia virus. Virology. 2008;378:233-42 pubmed publisher
    Human TRIM5alpha restricts N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV) but not B-tropic MLV (B-MLV) infection. Here we study B30...
  80. Moles J, Hadi J, Guilhou J. High prevalence of an IgG response against murine leukemia virus (MLV) in patients with psoriasis. Virus Res. 2003;94:97-101 pubmed
    ..To assess a possible association of murine leukemia virus (MLV)-like group of HERVs with psoriasis we searched for antibodies against MLV proteins in the sera of ..
  81. Yoshii H, Kamiyama H, Minematsu K, Goto K, Mizota T, Oishi K, et al. Cathepsin L is required for ecotropic murine leukemia virus infection in NIH3T3 cells. Virology. 2009;394:227-34 pubmed publisher
    Recently it has been reported that a cathepsin B inhibitor, CA-074Me, attenuates ecotropic murine leukemia virus (Eco-MLV) infection in NIH3T3 cells, suggesting that cathepsin B is required for the Eco-MLV infection...
  82. Hohn O, Krause H, Barbarotto P, Niederstadt L, Beimforde N, Denner J, et al. Lack of evidence for xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus(XMRV) in German prostate cancer patients. Retrovirology. 2009;6:92 pubmed publisher
    A novel gammaretrovirus named xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been recently identified and found to have a prevalence of 40% in prostate tumor samples from American patients carrying a homozygous R462Q mutation ..
  83. Wolf D, Hug K, Goff S. TRIM28 mediates primer binding site-targeted silencing of Lys1,2 tRNA-utilizing retroviruses in embryonic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:12521-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results generalize the role of TRIM28 in retroviral restriction and suggest that this system has evolved to restrict multiple retroviruses...
  84. Hein S, Prassolov V, Zhang Y, Ivanov D, Löhler J, Ross S, et al. Sodium-dependent myo-inositol transporter 1 is a cellular receptor for Mus cervicolor M813 murine leukemia virus. J Virol. 2003;77:5926-32 pubmed
    ..The M813 murine leukemia virus (MuLV) is a highly fusogenic gammaretrovirus, isolated from Mus cervicolor, whose host range is limited to ..
  85. Perez Caballero D, Hatziioannou T, Yang A, Cowan S, Bieniasz P. Human tripartite motif 5alpha domains responsible for retrovirus restriction activity and specificity. J Virol. 2005;79:8969-78 pubmed
    ..Human TRIM5alpha (huTRIM5alpha) inhibits infection by N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV) but is inactive against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)...
  86. Doehle B, Schäfer A, Wiegand H, Bogerd H, Cullen B. Differential sensitivity of murine leukemia virus to APOBEC3-mediated inhibition is governed by virion exclusion. J Virol. 2005;79:8201-7 pubmed
    ..Here, we have asked whether the simple retrovirus murine leukemia virus (MLV) is sensitive to restriction by the cognate murine or heterologous, human APOBEC3 proteins...
  87. Hibbert C, Mirro J, Rein A. mRNA molecules containing murine leukemia virus packaging signals are encapsidated as dimers. J Virol. 2004;78:10927-38 pubmed
    Prior work by others has shown that insertion of psi (i.e., leader) sequences from the Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) genome into the 3' untranslated region of a nonviral mRNA leads to the specific encapsidation of this RNA in MLV ..
  88. Li M, Yang C, Tong S, Weidmann A, Compans R. Palmitoylation of the murine leukemia virus envelope protein is critical for lipid raft association and surface expression. J Virol. 2002;76:11845-52 pubmed
    To investigate the association of the murine leukemia virus (MuLV) Env protein with lipid rafts, we compared wild-type and palmitoylation-deficient mutant Env proteins by using extraction with the mild detergent Triton X-100 (TX-100) ..
  89. Rasmussen M, Sørensen A, Morris D, Dutra J, Engelhard E, Wang C, et al. Tumor model-specific proviral insertional mutagenesis of the Fos/Jdp2/Batf locus. Virology. 2005;337:353-64 pubmed
  90. Nielsen A, Sørensen A, Schmidt J, Pedersen F. Analysis of wild-type and mutant SL3-3 murine leukemia virus insertions in the c-myc promoter during lymphomagenesis reveals target site hot spots, virus-dependent patterns, and frequent error-prone gap repair. J Virol. 2005;79:67-78 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, about 12% of the sequenced insertions were associated with point mutations in the direct repeat flanking the provirus. Based on these results, we propose a model for error-prone gap repair of host-provirus junctions...
  91. Liu J, Sørensen A, Wang B, Wabl M, Nielsen A, Pedersen F. Identification of novel Bach2 transcripts and protein isoforms through tagging analysis of retroviral integrations in B-cell lymphomas. BMC Mol Biol. 2009;10:2 pubmed publisher
    ..Several lines of evidence indicate that Bach2 is a B-cell specific tumor suppressor. We here address patterns of insertional mutagenesis and expression of Bach2 is a murine retroviral model of B-cell lymphoma induction...