endogenous retroviruses

Summary

Summary: Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.

Top Publications

  1. Laufer G, Mayer J, Mueller B, Mueller Lantzsch N, Ruprecht K. Analysis of transcribed human endogenous retrovirus W env loci clarifies the origin of multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus env sequences. Retrovirology. 2009;6:37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data clarify the origin of MSRV env sequences, have important implications for the status of MSRV, and open the possibility that a protein encoded by a HERV-W env element on chromosome Xq22.3 may be expressed in MS brain lesions. ..
  2. Yoshinobu K, Baudino L, Santiago Raber M, Morito N, Dunand Sauthier I, Morley B, et al. Selective up-regulation of intact, but not defective env RNAs of endogenous modified polytropic retrovirus by the Sgp3 locus of lupus-prone mice. J Immunol. 2009;182:8094-103 pubmed publisher
    b>Endogenous retroviruses are implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Because four different classes of endogenous retroviruses, i.e...
  3. Reiche J, Pauli G, Ellerbrok H. Differential expression of human endogenous retrovirus K transcripts in primary human melanocytes and melanoma cell lines after UV irradiation. Melanoma Res. 2010;20:435-40 pubmed publisher
    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are discussed as causative agents of various diseases including cancers...
  4. Baba K, Nakaya Y, Shojima T, Muroi Y, Kizaki K, Hashizume K, et al. Identification of novel endogenous betaretroviruses which are transcribed in the bovine placenta. J Virol. 2011;85:1237-45 pubmed publisher
    Sequences of retroviral origin occupy approximately 10% of mammalian genomes. Various infectious endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) and functional retroviral elements have been reported for several mammals but not cattle...
  5. Han B, Shi X, Gu Z, Xiao J, Chu X, Gu J, et al. No enhanced expression and infectivity of porcine endogenous retrovirus in primary porcine hepatocytes with chitosan nanofiber scaffold. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2011;7:377-83 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, chitosan nanofiber scaffold did not change the low expression and infectivity of PERV in porcine hepatocytes and it was safe for application in bio-artificial livers. ..
  6. Lee K, Horiuchi M, Itoh T, Greenhalgh D, Cho K. Cerebellum-specific and age-dependent expression of an endogenous retrovirus with intact coding potential. Retrovirology. 2011;8:82 pubmed publisher
    b>Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), including murine leukemia virus (MuLV) type-ERVs (MuLV-ERVs), are presumed to occupy ~10% of the mouse genome...
  7. Saresella M, Rolland A, Marventano I, Cavarretta R, Caputo D, Marche P, et al. Multiple sclerosis-associated retroviral agent (MSRV)-stimulated cytokine production in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2009;15:443-7 pubmed publisher
    Human endogenous retroviruses are suggested to play a pathogenic role in multiple sclerosis (MS); one of such retroviruses, the MS-associated retroviral agent (MSRV) has repeatedly been isolated in MS patients...
  8. Sharma P, Azebi S, England P, Christensen T, Møller Larsen A, Petersen T, et al. Citrullination of histone H3 interferes with HP1-mediated transcriptional repression. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002934 pubmed publisher
    ..to pathological reactivation in MS, including the TNF? and IL8 cytokine genes and also several Human Endogenous RetroViruses (HERVs)...
  9. Ariza M, Williams M. A human endogenous retrovirus K dUTPase triggers a TH1, TH17 cytokine response: does it have a role in psoriasis?. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:2419-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support HERV-K dUTPase as a potential contributor to psoriasis pathophysiology. ..

More Information

Publications103 found, 100 shown here

  1. Laska M, Nissen K, Nexø B. (Some) cellular mechanisms influencing the transcription of human endogenous retrovirus, HERV-Fc1. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53895 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the methylation of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) is not well investigated...
  2. Huh J, Kim D, Ha H, Ahn K, Chang K, Cho B, et al. Identification and molecular characterization of PERV gamma1 long terminal repeats. Mol Cells. 2009;27:119-23 pubmed publisher
    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) gamma1 in the pig genome have the potential to act as harmful factors in xenotransplantation (pig-to-human)...
  3. Katzourakis A, Gifford R, Tristem M, Gilbert M, Pybus O. Macroevolution of complex retroviruses. Science. 2009;325:1512 pubmed publisher
    Retroviruses can leave a "fossil record" in their hosts' genomes in the form of endogenous retroviruses. Foamy viruses, complex retroviruses that infect mammals, have been notably absent from this record...
  4. Guallar D, Pérez Palacios R, Climent M, Martínez Abadía I, Larraga A, Fernández Juan M, et al. Expression of endogenous retroviruses is negatively regulated by the pluripotency marker Rex1/Zfp42. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:8993-9007 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, we show that Rex1 regulates ERV expression in mouse ES cells and during pre-implantation development and suggest that Rex1 and its relatives have evolved as regulators of endogenous retroviral transcription. ..
  5. Roebke C, Wahl S, Laufer G, Stadelmann C, Sauter M, Mueller Lantzsch N, et al. An N-terminally truncated envelope protein encoded by a human endogenous retrovirus W locus on chromosome Xq22.3. Retrovirology. 2010;7:69 pubmed publisher
    ..More generally, our findings are compatible with the idea that defective HERV elements may be capable of producing incomplete HERV proteins that, speculatively, may exert functions in human physiology or pathology. ..
  6. Gonzalez Hernandez M, Swanson M, Contreras Galindo R, Cookinham S, King S, Noel R, et al. Expression of human endogenous retrovirus type K (HML-2) is activated by the Tat protein of HIV-1. J Virol. 2012;86:7790-805 pubmed publisher
    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) make up 8% of the human genome...
  7. Ramsoondar J, Vaught T, Ball S, Mendicino M, Monahan J, Jobst P, et al. Production of transgenic pigs that express porcine endogenous retrovirus small interfering RNAs. Xenotransplantation. 2009;16:164-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Further analysis is required to conclusively quantitate in vivo effects in the shRNA transgenic pigs. ..
  8. Li F, Nellåker C, Yolken R, Karlsson H. A systematic evaluation of expression of HERV-W elements; influence of genomic context, viral structure and orientation. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:22 pubmed publisher
    One member of the W family of human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) appears to have been functionally adopted by the human host...
  9. Cherkasova E, Malinzak E, Rao S, Takahashi Y, Senchenko V, Kudryavtseva A, et al. Inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor leads to selective expression of a human endogenous retrovirus in kidney cancer. Oncogene. 2011;30:4697-706 pubmed publisher
  10. Paprotka T, Delviks Frankenberry K, Cingöz O, Martinez A, Kung H, Tepper C, et al. Recombinant origin of the retrovirus XMRV. Science. 2011;333:97-101 pubmed publisher
  11. Martins H, Villesen P. Improved integration time estimation of endogenous retroviruses with phylogenetic data. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e14745 pubmed publisher
    b>Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are genetic fossils of ancient retroviral integrations that remain in the genome of many organisms...
  12. Contreras Galindo R, Kaplan M, He S, Contreras Galindo A, Gonzalez Hernandez M, Kappes F, et al. HIV infection reveals widespread expansion of novel centromeric human endogenous retroviruses. Genome Res. 2013;23:1505-13 pubmed publisher
    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) make up 8% of the human genome...
  13. Keckesova Z, Ylinen L, Towers G, Gifford R, Katzourakis A. Identification of a RELIK orthologue in the European hare (Lepus europaeus) reveals a minimum age of 12 million years for the lagomorph lentiviruses. Virology. 2009;384:7-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding indicates an association between lentiviruses and their hosts covering much of the evolutionary history of the lagomorphs, and taking place within species with a worldwide distribution. ..
  14. Wood A, Webb B, Bartosch B, Schaller T, Takeuchi Y, Towers G. Porcine endogenous retroviruses PERV A and A/C recombinant are insensitive to a range of divergent mammalian TRIM5alpha proteins including human TRIM5alpha. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:702-9 pubmed publisher
    The potential risk of cross-species transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) to humans has slowed the development of xenotransplantation, using pigs as organ donors...
  15. Liang Q, Ding J, Xu R, Xu Z, Zheng S. The novel human endogenous retrovirus-related gene, psiTPTE22-HERV, is silenced by DNA methylation in cancers. Int J Cancer. 2010;127:1833-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest psiTPTE22-HERV is regulated epigenetically by DNA methylation. Our study paved the way for further study on an interesting HERV-related human-specific gene, which is silenced in cancers by DNA methylation. ..
  16. Macfarlan T, Gifford W, Driscoll S, Lettieri K, Rowe H, Bonanomi D, et al. Embryonic stem cell potency fluctuates with endogenous retrovirus activity. Nature. 2012;487:57-63 pubmed publisher
    ..and bioinformatic analyses showed that many 2C transcripts are initiated from long terminal repeats derived from endogenous retroviruses, suggesting this foreign sequence has helped to drive cell-fate regulation in placental mammals.
  17. Pérot P, Mugnier N, Montgiraud C, Gimenez J, Jaillard M, Bonnaud B, et al. Microarray-based sketches of the HERV transcriptome landscape. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40194 pubmed publisher
    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are spread throughout the genome and their long terminal repeats (LTRs) constitute a wide collection of putative regulatory sequences...
  18. Jha A, Pillai S, York V, Sharp E, Storm E, Wachter D, et al. Cross-sectional dating of novel haplotypes of HERV-K 113 and HERV-K 115 indicate these proviruses originated in Africa before Homo sapiens. Mol Biol Evol. 2009;26:2617-26 pubmed publisher
    The human genome, human endogenous retroviruses (HERV), of which HERV-K113 and HERV-K115 are the only known full-length proviruses that are insertionally polymorphic...
  19. Gabriel U, Steidler A, Trojan L, Michel M, Seifarth W, Fabarius A. Smoking increases transcription of human endogenous retroviruses in a newly established in vitro cell model and in normal urothelium. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010;26:883-8 pubmed publisher
    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) accounting for 9% of the human genome are considered as surrogate markers for genetic instability and as a driving force of genetic variation...
  20. Contreras Galindo R, Kaplan M, Contreras Galindo A, Gonzalez Hernandez M, Ferlenghi I, Giusti F, et al. Characterization of human endogenous retroviral elements in the blood of HIV-1-infected individuals. J Virol. 2012;86:262-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that HERV-K (HML-2) is active in HIV-1-infected patients, and the resulting RNA message reveals previously undiscovered HERV-K (HML-2) genomic sequences. ..
  21. Rowe H, Jakobsson J, Mesnard D, Rougemont J, Reynard S, Aktas T, et al. KAP1 controls endogenous retroviruses in embryonic stem cells. Nature. 2010;463:237-40 pubmed publisher
    ..than forty per cent of the mammalian genome is derived from retroelements, of which about one-quarter are endogenous retroviruses (ERVs)...
  22. Balada E, Vilardell Tarres M, Ordi Ros J. Implication of human endogenous retroviruses in the development of autoimmune diseases. Int Rev Immunol. 2010;29:351-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), probably representing footprints of ancient germ-cell retroviral infections, occupy about 1% of ..
  23. SenGupta D, Tandon R, Vieira R, Ndhlovu L, Lown Hecht R, Ormsby C, et al. Strong human endogenous retrovirus-specific T cell responses are associated with control of HIV-1 in chronic infection. J Virol. 2011;85:6977-85 pubmed publisher
    Eight percent of the human genome is composed of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), which are thought to be inactive remnants of ancient infections...
  24. Fukuma A, Abe M, Urata S, Yoshikawa R, Morikawa Y, Miyazawa T, et al. Viral and cellular requirements for the budding of feline endogenous retrovirus RD-114. Virol J. 2011;8:540 pubmed publisher
    ..It is very difficult to completely knock out the RD-114 proviruses from cells, as endogenous retroviruses are usually integrated multiply into the host genome...
  25. Isbel L, Whitelaw E. Endogenous retroviruses in mammals: an emerging picture of how ERVs modify expression of adjacent genes. Bioessays. 2012;34:734-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The new findings on transcriptional termination extend the opportunities for retrotransposons to play a role in human disease. ..
  26. Dupressoir A, Vernochet C, Bawa O, Harper F, Pierron G, Opolon P, et al. Syncytin-A knockout mice demonstrate the critical role in placentation of a fusogenic, endogenous retrovirus-derived, envelope gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12127-32 pubmed publisher
  27. Haupt S, Tisdale M, Vincendeau M, Clements M, Gauthier D, Lance R, et al. Human endogenous retrovirus transcription profiles of the kidney and kidney-derived cell lines. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:2356-66 pubmed publisher
    The human genome comprises approximately 8-9?% of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) that are transcribed with tissue specificity...
  28. Ahn K, Kim H. Structural and quantitative expression analyses of HERV gene family in human tissues. Mol Cells. 2009;28:99-103 pubmed publisher
    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases as multi-copy members in the human genome...
  29. Perron H, Lang A. The human endogenous retrovirus link between genes and environment in multiple sclerosis and in multifactorial diseases associating neuroinflammation. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2010;39:51-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Endogenous retroviruses represent about 8% of the human genome and belong to the superfamily of transposable and retrotransposable genetic elements...
  30. Petersen T, Møller Larsen A, Thiel S, Brudek T, Hansen T, Christensen T. Effects of interferon-beta therapy on innate and adaptive immune responses to the human endogenous retroviruses HERV-H and HERV-W, cytokine production, and the lectin complement activation pathway in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2009;215:108-16 pubmed publisher
    ..decreases in anti-Envelope antibody reactivity for the two closely related Gammaretroviral human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), HERV-H and HERV-W, as a consequence of IFN-beta therapy, closely linked to efficacy of therapy/..
  31. Santiago Raber M, Baudino L, Izui S. Emerging roles of TLR7 and TLR9 in murine SLE. J Autoimmun. 2009;33:231-8 pubmed publisher
    ..acid-protein complexes, such as chromatin and ribonucleoproteins, and the envelope glycoprotein gp70 of endogenous retroviruses. The preferential production of these autoantibodies is apparently promoted by the presence of genetic ..
  32. Yoshikawa R, Sato E, Miyazawa T. Presence of infectious RD-114 virus in a proportion of canine parvovirus isolates. J Vet Med Sci. 2012;74:347-50 pubmed
    ..We also found that RD-114 virus was stable physically and is capable of retaining its infectivity for a long period at -80°C. ..
  33. Dolei A, Perron H. The multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus and its HERV-W endogenous family: a biological interface between virology, genetics, and immunology in human physiology and disease. J Neurovirol. 2009;15:4-13 pubmed publisher
    ..of MSRV (multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus), founder member of the type W family of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), its pathogenic potential and association with diseases...
  34. Nellåker C, Li F, Uhrzander F, Tyrcha J, Karlsson H. Expression profiling of repetitive elements by melting temperature analysis: variation in HERV-W gag expression across human individuals and tissues. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:532 pubmed publisher
    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) constitute approximately 8% of the human genome and have long been considered "junk"...
  35. Jeong B, Lee Y, Carp R, Kim Y. The prevalence of human endogenous retroviruses in cerebrospinal fluids from patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. J Clin Virol. 2010;47:136-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of these have been classified as human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), which have been implicated in both health and disease...
  36. Mattiuzzo G, Ivol S, Takeuchi Y. Regulation of porcine endogenous retrovirus release by porcine and human tetherins. J Virol. 2010;84:2618-22 pubmed publisher
  37. Tandon R, SenGupta D, Ndhlovu L, Vieira R, Jones R, York V, et al. Identification of human endogenous retrovirus-specific T cell responses in vertically HIV-1-infected subjects. J Virol. 2011;85:11526-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that HERV-specific T cells may participate in controlling HIV-1 replication and that certain highly conserved HERV-derived proteins may serve as promising therapeutic vaccine targets in HIV-1-infected children...
  38. van der Loo W, Abrantes J, Esteves P. Sharing of endogenous lentiviral gene fragments among leporid lineages separated for more than 12 million years. J Virol. 2009;83:2386-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We have substantiated this by producing sequence data certifying the sharing of RELIK sequences among leporid lineages that diverged some 12 million years ago...
  39. Garcia Etxebarria K, Jugo B. Genome-wide detection and characterization of endogenous retroviruses in Bos taurus. J Virol. 2010;84:10852-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are the proviral phase of exogenous retroviruses that become integrated into a host germ line. They can play an important role in the host genome...
  40. Yoshikawa R, Sato E, Miyazawa T. Contamination of infectious RD-114 virus in vaccines produced using non-feline cell lines. Biologicals. 2011;39:33-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To exclude RD-114 virus from live attenuated vaccines, we must pay attention to the contamination of seed viruses with RD-114 virus in addition to avoiding feline cell lines producing RD-114 virus when manufacturing vaccines...
  41. Fukuma A, Abe M, Morikawa Y, Miyazawa T, Yasuda J. Cloning and characterization of the antiviral activity of feline Tetherin/BST-2. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18247 pubmed publisher
  42. Bhat R, Ellestad K, Wheatley B, Warren R, Holt R, Power C. Age- and disease-dependent HERV-W envelope allelic variation in brain: association with neuroimmune gene expression. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19176 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, HERV-W env diversity together with Syncytin-1 abundance and host immune gene profiles were examined in the nervous system using a multiplatform approach...
  43. Karimi M, Goyal P, Maksakova I, Bilenky M, Leung D, Tang J, et al. DNA methylation and SETDB1/H3K9me3 regulate predominantly distinct sets of genes, retroelements, and chimeric transcripts in mESCs. Cell Stem Cell. 2011;8:676-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Numerous endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) lose H3K9me3 and are concomitantly derepressed exclusively in SETDB1 knockout mESCs...
  44. van der Kuyl A. Characterization of a full-length endogenous beta-retrovirus, EqERV-beta1, in the genome of the horse (Equus caballus). Viruses. 2011;3:620-8 pubmed publisher
    Information on endogenous retroviruses fixed in the horse (Equus caballus) genome is scarce. The recent availability of a draft sequence of the horse genome enables the detection of such integrated viruses by similarity search...
  45. Hansen B, Oturai A, Harbo H, Celius E, Nissen K, Laska M, et al. Genetic association of multiple sclerosis with the marker rs391745 near the endogenous retroviral locus HERV-Fc1: analysis of disease subtypes. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26438 pubmed publisher
    We have previously described the occurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS) to be associated with human endogenous retroviruses, specifically the X-linked viral locus HERV-Fc1...
  46. Li J, Akagi K, Hu Y, Trivett A, Hlynialuk C, Swing D, et al. Mouse endogenous retroviruses can trigger premature transcriptional termination at a distance. Genome Res. 2012;22:870-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This study defines an unexpectedly strong functional impact of ERVs in disrupting gene transcription at a distance and demonstrates that ongoing retrotransposition can contribute significantly to natural phenotypic diversity...
  47. Henzy J, Coffin J. Betaretroviral envelope subunits are noncovalently associated and restricted to the mammalian class. J Virol. 2013;87:1937-46 pubmed publisher
    ..genus includes Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) and mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), as well as many endogenous retroviruses. Envelope subunit association had not been characterized in the betaretroviruses, but lack of a third ..
  48. Matouskova M, Vesely P, Daniel P, Mattiuzzo G, Hector R, Scobie L, et al. Role of DNA methylation in expression and transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses. J Virol. 2013;87:12110-20 pubmed publisher
    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) represent a major safety concern in pig-to-human xenotransplantation. To date, no PERV infection of a xenograft recipient has been recorded; however, PERVs are transmissible to human cells in vitro...
  49. Carré Eusèbe D, Coudouel N, Magre S. OVEX1, a novel chicken endogenous retrovirus with sex-specific and left-right asymmetrical expression in gonads. Retrovirology. 2009;6:59 pubmed publisher
  50. Miyazawa T, Yoshikawa R, Golder M, Okada M, Stewart H, Palmarini M. Isolation of an infectious endogenous retrovirus in a proportion of live attenuated vaccines for pets. J Virol. 2010;84:3690-4 pubmed publisher
    The genomes of all animal species are colonized by endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). Although most ERVs have accumulated defects that render them incapable of replication, fully infectious ERVs have been identified in various mammals...
  51. Ma Y, Yang Y, Lv M, Yan Q, Zheng L, Ding F, et al. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction with SYBR green i detection for estimating copy numbers of porcine endogenous retrovirus from Chinese miniature pigs. Transplant Proc. 2010;42:1949-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach will be useful to screen donor pigs as well as to examine clinical samples from human subjects treated with porcine xenotransplantation products for evidence of PERV transmission...
  52. Di Nicuolo G, D alessandro A, Andria B, Scuderi V, Scognamiglio M, Tammaro A, et al. Long-term absence of porcine endogenous retrovirus infection in chronically immunosuppressed patients after treatment with the porcine cell-based Academic Medical Center bioartificial liver. Xenotransplantation. 2010;17:431-9 pubmed publisher
    ..as bridging therapy for liver transplantation exposes the patient to the risk of transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) to human...
  53. Schanab O, Humer J, Gleiss A, Mikula M, Sturlan S, Grunt S, et al. Expression of human endogenous retrovirus K is stimulated by ultraviolet radiation in melanoma. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2011;24:656-65 pubmed publisher
    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) represent a cellular reservoir of potentially pathogenic retroviral genes...
  54. Jones R, John V, Hunter D, Martin E, Mujib S, Mihajlovic V, et al. Human endogenous retrovirus K(HML-2) Gag- and Env-specific T-cell responses are infrequently detected in HIV-1-infected subjects using standard peptide matrix-based screening. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:288-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, HERV-K(HML-2) Gag- and Env-specific T-cell responses are infrequently detected by 15 mer peptide mapping...
  55. Stoye J. Studies of endogenous retroviruses reveal a continuing evolutionary saga. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2012;10:395-406 pubmed publisher
    ..Through this process, retroviruses can colonize the germ line to form endogenous retroviruses (ERVs)...
  56. Monde K, Contreras Galindo R, Kaplan M, Markovitz D, Ono A. Human endogenous retrovirus K Gag coassembles with HIV-1 Gag and reduces the release efficiency and infectivity of HIV-1. J Virol. 2012;86:11194-208 pubmed
    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), which are remnants of ancestral retroviruses integrated into the human genome, are defective in viral replication...
  57. Magiorkinis G, Belshaw R, Katzourakis A. 'There and back again': revisiting the pathophysiological roles of human endogenous retroviruses in the post-genomic era. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2013;368:20120504 pubmed publisher
    Almost 8% of the human genome comprises endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). While they have been shown to cause specific pathologies in animals, such as cancer, their association with disease in humans remains controversial...
  58. Jaratlerdsiri W, Rodríguez Zárate C, Isberg S, Damayanti C, Miles L, Chansue N, et al. Distribution of endogenous retroviruses in crocodilians. J Virol. 2009;83:10305-8 pubmed publisher
    Knowledge of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) in crocodilians (Crocodylia) is limited, and their distribution among extant species is unclear...
  59. Reynier F, Verjat T, Turrel F, Imbert P, Marotte H, Mougin B, et al. Increase in human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K (HML-2) viral load in active rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Immunol. 2009;70:295-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings showed that HERV-K (HML-2) viral load can be detected in plasma samples from RA patients, with higher levels observed for those with active disease. There was an association of HERV-K type 1 levels with the disease activity...
  60. Miyazawa T. Endogenous retroviruses as potential hazards for vaccines. Biologicals. 2010;38:371-6 pubmed publisher
    Retroviruses are classified as exogenous or endogenous according to their mode of transmission. Generally, endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are not pathogenic in their original hosts; however, some ERVs induce diseases...
  61. Ruebner M, Strissel P, Langbein M, Fahlbusch F, Wachter D, Faschingbauer F, et al. Impaired cell fusion and differentiation in placentae from patients with intrauterine growth restriction correlate with reduced levels of HERV envelope genes. J Mol Med (Berl). 2010;88:1143-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Fusogenic and non-fusogenic envelope genes are dysregulated in IUGR placentae and may contribute to the etiology of growth restriction in utero...
  62. George M, Schwecke T, Beimforde N, Hohn O, Chudak C, Zimmermann A, et al. Identification of the protease cleavage sites in a reconstituted Gag polyprotein of an HERV-K(HML-2) element. Retrovirology. 2011;8:30 pubmed publisher
    ..During this process, the subdomains of the Gag polyproteins are released by proteolytic cleavage, although the nature of the mature HERV-K(HML-2) Gag proteins and the exact position of the cleavage sites have until now remained unknown...
  63. Hisada K, Sanchez C, Endo T, Endoh M, Román Trufero M, Sharif J, et al. RYBP represses endogenous retroviruses and preimplantation- and germ line-specific genes in mouse embryonic stem cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:1139-49 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, we have found that RYBP efficiently represses endogenous retroviruses (murine endogenous retrovirus [MuERV] class) and preimplantation (including zygotic genome activation ..
  64. Young G, Stoye J, Kassiotis G. Are human endogenous retroviruses pathogenic? An approach to testing the hypothesis. Bioessays. 2013;35:794-803 pubmed publisher
    ..A number of observations have led researchers to postulate that, despite being replication-defective, human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) may have retained the potential to cause or contribute to disease...
  65. Vargas A, Moreau J, Landry S, LeBellego F, Toufaily C, Rassart E, et al. Syncytin-2 plays an important role in the fusion of human trophoblast cells. J Mol Biol. 2009;392:301-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results highlight the importance of Syncytin-2 in BeWo and primary human trophoblast cell fusion...
  66. Antony J, Deslauriers A, Bhat R, Ellestad K, Power C. Human endogenous retroviruses and multiple sclerosis: innocent bystanders or disease determinants?. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1812:162-76 pubmed publisher
    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) constitute 5-8% of human genomic DNA and are replication incompetent despite expression of individual HERV genes from different chromosomal loci depending on the specific tissue...
  67. Krone B, Grange J. Melanoma, Darwinian medicine and the inner world. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2010;136:1787-94 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been postulated that environmental factors associated with improved standards of hygiene play a leading role in this process since the immune system seems to need extrinsic challenges for its proper maturation...
  68. Beyer U, Moll Rocek J, Moll U, Dobbelstein M. Endogenous retrovirus drives hitherto unknown proapoptotic p63 isoforms in the male germ line of humans and great apes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:3624-9 pubmed publisher
    ..By providing increased germ-line stability, this event may have contributed to the evolution of hominids and enabled their long reproductive periods...
  69. Young G, Eksmond U, Salcedo R, Alexopoulou L, Stoye J, Kassiotis G. Resurrection of endogenous retroviruses in antibody-deficient mice. Nature. 2012;491:774-8 pubmed publisher
    ..the microbiota on environmental surfaces, such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and also endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), comprising a substantial fraction of the mammalian genome...
  70. Chuong E, Rumi M, Soares M, Baker J. Endogenous retroviruses function as species-specific enhancer elements in the placenta. Nat Genet. 2013;45:325-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and rat trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) and found that species-specific enhancers are highly enriched for endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) on a genome-wide level...
  71. Hsiao F, Tai A, Deglon A, Sutkowski N, Longnecker R, Huber B. EBV LMP-2A employs a novel mechanism to transactivate the HERV-K18 superantigen through its ITAM. Virology. 2009;385:261-6 pubmed publisher
    ..After truncating 25 kb of genomic sequence downstream of HERV-K18, LMP-2A failed to transactivate HERV-K18 env. Thus, an LMP-2A-inducible element is located downstream of HERV-K18...
  72. Evans L, Alamgir A, Owens N, Weber N, Virtaneva K, Barbian K, et al. Mobilization of endogenous retroviruses in mice after infection with an exogenous retrovirus. J Virol. 2009;83:2429-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Although many of the endogenous retroviruses are defective, several contain one or more intact viral genes that are expressed under certain ..
  73. Gimenez J, Montgiraud C, Oriol G, Pichon J, Ruel K, Tsatsaris V, et al. Comparative methylation of ERVWE1/syncytin-1 and other human endogenous retrovirus LTRs in placenta tissues. DNA Res. 2009;16:195-211 pubmed publisher
    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are globally silent in somatic cells. However, some HERVs display high transcription in physiological conditions...
  74. Mameli G, Poddighe L, Mei A, Uleri E, Sotgiu S, Serra C, et al. Expression and activation by Epstein Barr virus of human endogenous retroviruses-W in blood cells and astrocytes: inference for multiple sclerosis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44991 pubmed publisher
    ..co-factors triggering the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the Epstein Barr virus (EBV), and the potentially neuropathogenic MSRV (MS-associated retrovirus) and syncytin-1, of the W family of human endogenous retroviruses.
  75. Yu P, Lübben W, Slomka H, Gebler J, Konert M, Cai C, et al. Nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors are essential for the control of endogenous retrovirus viremia and ERV-induced tumors. Immunity. 2012;37:867-79 pubmed publisher
    The genome of vertebrates contains endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) that are largely nonfunctional relicts of ancestral germline infection by exogenous retroviruses. However, in some mouse strains ERVs are actively involved in disease...
  76. Jones R, Garrison K, Mujib S, Mihajlovic V, Aidarus N, Hunter D, et al. HERV-K-specific T cells eliminate diverse HIV-1/2 and SIV primary isolates. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:4473-89 pubmed publisher
    ..This justifies the consideration of HERV-K(HML-2)-specific and cross-reactive T cell responses in the natural control of HIV-1 infection and for exploring HERV-K(HML-2)-targeted HIV-1 vaccines and immunotherapeutics...
  77. Frühauf J, Mertsching H, Giri S, Frühauf N, Bader A. Porcine endogenous retrovirus released by a bioartificial liver infects primary human cells. Liver Int. 2009;29:1553-61 pubmed publisher
    ..There is no evidence of in vivo productive infection in humans because PERV is inactivated by human serum. However, PERV can infect human cell lines and human primary cells in vitro and inhibit human immune functions...
  78. Sanchez Valle A, Wang X, Potocki L, Xia Z, Kang S, Carlin M, et al. HERV-mediated genomic rearrangement of EYA1 in an individual with branchio-oto-renal syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2010;152A:2854-60 pubmed publisher
  79. Okada M, Yoshikawa R, Shojima T, Baba K, Miyazawa T. Susceptibility and production of a feline endogenous retrovirus (RD-114 virus) in various feline cell lines. Virus Res. 2011;155:268-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Because many feline cell lines are used to manufacture live attenuated vaccines for companion animals, attention should be paid to contamination of the RD-114 virus in vaccines...
  80. Jha A, Nixon D, Rosenberg M, Martin J, Deeks S, Hudson R, et al. Human endogenous retrovirus K106 (HERV-K106) was infectious after the emergence of anatomically modern humans. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20234 pubmed publisher
  81. Cui J, Tachedjian G, Tachedjian M, Holmes E, Zhang S, Wang L. Identification of diverse groups of endogenous gammaretroviruses in mega- and microbats. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:2037-45 pubmed publisher
    ..and MlRV within the diversity of mammalian gammaretroviruses, with the former falling closer to porcine endogenous retroviruses and the latter to Mus dunni endogenous virus, koala retrovirus and gibbon ape leukemia virus...
  82. Cianciolo G, Pizzo S. Anti-inflammatory and vasoprotective activity of a retroviral-derived peptide, homologous to human endogenous retroviruses: endothelial cell effects. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52693 pubmed publisher
    Malignant and inflammatory tissues sometimes express endogenous retroviruses or their proteins...
  83. de la Hera B, Varadé J, Garcia Montojo M, Lamas J, de la Encarnación A, Arroyo R, et al. Role of the human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K18 in autoimmune disease susceptibility: study in the Spanish population and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62090 pubmed publisher
    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are genomic sequences that resulted from ancestral germ-line infections by exogenous retroviruses and therefore are transmitted in a Mendelian fashion...
  84. Weiss R. On the concept and elucidation of endogenous retroviruses. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2013;368:20120494 pubmed publisher
    ..The evolution of xenotropism and cross-species infection is discussed in the light of the dynamic relationship between exogenous and endogenous retroviruses.
  85. Wouters D, van Schouwenburg P, van der Horst A, de Boer M, Schooneman D, Kuijpers T, et al. High-throughput analysis of the C4 polymorphism by a combination of MLPA and isotype-specific ELISA's. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:592-600 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the combination of MLPA and ELISA is very suitable to study the geno- and phenotype of complement C4 in large patient groups...
  86. Balada E, Ordi Ros J, Vilardell Tarres M. Molecular mechanisms mediated by human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) in autoimmunity. Rev Med Virol. 2009;19:273-86 pubmed publisher
  87. Dewannieux M, Ribet D, Heidmann T. Risks linked to endogenous retroviruses for vaccine production: a general overview. Biologicals. 2010;38:366-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These elements, named endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), are thought to be the remnants of ancestral germline infections by active retroviruses, which ..
  88. Mullins C, Linnebacher M. Endogenous retrovirus sequences as a novel class of tumor-specific antigens: an example of HERV-H env encoding strong CTL epitopes. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2012;61:1093-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, our data strengthen the view that HERV-encoded sequences should be considered as a new class of tumor-specific antigens...
  89. Cornelis G, Heidmann O, Bernard Stoecklin S, Reynaud K, V ron G, Mulot B, et al. Ancestral capture of syncytin-Car1, a fusogenic endogenous retroviral envelope gene involved in placentation and conserved in Carnivora. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E432-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This gene is the oldest syncytin gene identified to date, and it is the first in a new major clade of eutherian mammals...
  90. Freimanis G, Hooley P, Ejtehadi H, Ali H, Veitch A, Rylance P, et al. A role for human endogenous retrovirus-K (HML-2) in rheumatoid arthritis: investigating mechanisms of pathogenesis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010;160:340-7 pubmed publisher
    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are remnants of ancient retroviral infections within the human genome...
  91. Baudino L, Yoshinobu K, Morito N, Santiago Raber M, Izui S. Role of endogenous retroviruses in murine SLE. Autoimmun Rev. 2010;10:27-34 pubmed publisher
    ..produced in murine SLE are nucleic acid-protein complexes and the envelope glycoprotein gp70 of endogenous retroviruses. Recent studies have revealed that the innate receptor TLR7 plays a pivotal role in the development of a ..
  92. Fuchs N, Kraft M, Tondera C, Hanschmann K, Lower J, Löwer R. Expression of the human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) group HML-2/HERV-K does not depend on canonical promoter elements but is regulated by transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3. J Virol. 2011;85:3436-48 pubmed publisher
    After fixation in the human genome, human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are bona fide cellular genes despite their exogenous origin...