simian t lymphotropic virus 1

Summary

Summary: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2, closely related to the human HTLV-1 virus. The clinical, hematological, and histopathological characteristics of the disease in STLV-infected monkeys are very similar to those of human adult T-cell leukemia. Subgroups include the African green monkey subtype (STLV-I-AGM), for which the nucleotide sequence is 95% homologous with that of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1, and the Asian rhesus macaque subtype (STLV-I-MM), for which the nucleotide sequence is 90% homologous with that of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1.

Top Publications

  1. Georges Courbot M, Moisson P, Leroy E, Pingard A, Nerrienet E, Dubreuil G, et al. Occurrence and frequency of transmission of naturally occurring simian retroviral infections (SIV, STLV, and SRV) at the CIRMF Primate Center, Gabon. J Med Primatol. 1996;25:313-26 pubmed
    ..SIV infection was also more frequent in male than female mandrills and sexual transmission appeared to be a rare event. No SRV infection was observed in macaques...
  2. Mahieux R, Pecon Slattery J, Chen G, Gessain A. Evolutionary inferences of novel simian T lymphotropic virus type 1 from wild-caught chacma (Papio ursinus) and olive baboons (Papio anubis). Virology. 1998;251:71-84 pubmed
    ..anubis, corroborates the hypothesis of cross-species transmissions of STLV-1 in the wild. Further, phylogenetic analyses indicate that the known HTLV-1 strains do not share a common origin with nonhuman primates STLV in South Africa...
  3. Fultz P, Su L, May P, West J. Isolation of sooty mangabey simian T-cell leukemia virus type I [STLV-I(sm)] and characterization of a mangabey T-cell line coinfected with STLV-I(sm) and simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsmmPBj14. Virology. 1997;235:271-85 pubmed
    ..In vitro and in vivo studies of STLV-I(sm) and SIVsmm, both isolated from a naturally infected mangabey monkey, may provide insight into disease induction and manifestations associated with coinfection by their human counterparts...
  4. Courgnaud V, Van Dooren S, Liegeois F, Pourrut X, Abela B, Loul S, et al. Simian T-cell leukemia virus (STLV) infection in wild primate populations in Cameroon: evidence for dual STLV type 1 and type 3 infection in agile mangabeys (Cercocebus agilis). J Virol. 2004;78:4700-9 pubmed
  5. van Brussel M, Salemi M, Liu H, Goubau P, Desmyter J, Vandamme A. The discovery of two new divergent STLVs has implications for the evolution and epidemiology of HTLVs. Rev Med Virol. 1999;9:155-70 pubmed
    ..Considering the growing interest in xenotransplantations, more epidemiological and biological knowledge of simian and human T-lymphotropic viruses is necessary to estimate the risk of interspecies transmissions...
  6. Gessain A, Mahieux R. [Epidemiology, origin and genetic diversity of HTLV-1 retrovirus and STLV-1 simian affiliated retrovirus]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2000;93:163-71 pubmed
    ..g., the slave trade from Africa to the New World...
  7. Song K, Nerurkar V, Saitou N, Lazo A, Blakeslee J, Miyoshi I, et al. Genetic analysis and molecular phylogeny of simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type I: evidence for independent virus evolution in Asia and Africa. Virology. 1994;199:56-66 pubmed
    ..Thus, our data are consistent with an archaic presence of STLV-I in Asia, probably predating macaque speciation, with subsequent independent virus evolution in Asia and Africa...
  8. Van Dooren S, Verschoor E, Fagrouch Z, Vandamme A. Phylogeny of primate T lymphotropic virus type 1 (PTLV-1) including various new Asian and African non-human primate strains. Infect Genet Evol. 2007;7:374-81 pubmed
    ..Barbary macaques, not yet described to be STLV-infected, carry a relatively recent acquired, typical African STLV-1, giving us no clue on the phylogeographical origin of PTLV-1...
  9. Gabet A, Gessain A, Wattel E. High simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 proviral loads combined with genetic stability as a result of cell-associated provirus replication in naturally infected, asymptomatic monkeys. Int J Cancer. 2003;107:74-83 pubmed

More Information

Publications85

  1. Vandamme A, Van Laethem K, Liu H, van Brussel M, Delaporte E, de Castro Costa C, et al. Use of a generic polymerase chain reaction assay detecting human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types I, II and divergent simian strains in the evaluation of individuals with indeterminate HTLV serology. J Med Virol. 1997;52:1-7 pubmed
    ..This new assay can identify otherwise undetected HTLV-I or HTLV-II infections and is a useful tool of screening for new types of HTLV among seroindeterminate samples...
  2. d Offay J, Eberle R, Sucol Y, Schoelkopf L, White M, Valentine B, et al. Transmission dynamics of simian T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (STLV1) in a baboon breeding colony: predominance of female-to-female transmission. Comp Med. 2007;57:105-14 pubmed
  3. Mone J, Whitehead E, Leland M, Hubbard G, Allan J. Simian T-cell leukemia virus type I infection in captive baboons. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1992;8:1653-61 pubmed
    ..The detailed study of a large population of naturally infected baboons may therefore shed some light into the complex processes required for the induction of disease associated with HTLV-I infection in humans...
  4. Salemi M, Desmyter J, Vandamme A. Tempo and mode of human and simian T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV/STLV) evolution revealed by analyses of full-genome sequences. Mol Biol Evol. 2000;17:374-86 pubmed
    ..In particular, the HTLV-I/STLV-I history might suggest a simian migration from Asia to Africa not much earlier than 19,500-60,000 years ago...
  5. Slattery J, Franchini G, Gessain A. Genomic evolution, patterns of global dissemination, and interspecies transmission of human and simian T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic viruses. Genome Res. 1999;9:525-40 pubmed
    ..Together, these patterns generate a model of HTLV/STLV emergence marked by an ancient ancestry, differential rates of divergence, and continued global expansion...
  6. Liegeois F, Lafay B, Switzer W, Locatelli S, Mpoudi Ngole E, Loul S, et al. Identification and molecular characterization of new STLV-1 and STLV-3 strains in wild-caught nonhuman primates in Cameroon. Virology. 2008;371:405-17 pubmed
    ..cephus. Finally, we identify relative divergence levels in the tax/rex phylogeny suggesting that additional types of PTLV should be defined, particularly for the highly divergent STLV-1(MarB43) strain that we provisionally name STLV-5...
  7. Hubbard G, Moné J, Allan J, Davis K, Leland M, Banks P, et al. Spontaneously generated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in twenty-seven simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 antibody-positive baboons (Papio species). Lab Anim Sci. 1993;43:301-9 pubmed
    ..The lungs in 14 baboons had thickened pleuras, congestion,edema, and large tan to brown areas of consolidation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  8. Koralnik I, Boeri E, Saxinger W, Monico A, Fullen J, Gessain A, et al. Phylogenetic associations of human and simian T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type I strains: evidence for interspecies transmission. J Virol. 1994;68:2693-707 pubmed
    ..Geographic concordance of divergent host species that harbor closely related viruses reinforces that physical feasibility for hypothesized interspecies virus transmission in the past and in the present...
  9. Mahieux R, Chappey C, Georges Courbot M, Dubreuil G, Mauclere P, Georges A, et al. Simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 from Mandrillus sphinx as a simian counterpart of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 subtype D. J Virol. 1998;72:10316-22 pubmed
    ..Due to the quasi-identity of both human and monkey viruses, interspecies transmission episodes leading to such a clade may have occurred recently...
  10. Meertens L, Rigoulet J, Mauclere P, Van Beveren M, Chen G, Diop O, et al. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of 16 novel simian T cell leukemia virus type 1 from Africa: close relationship of STLV-1 from Allenopithecus nigroviridis to HTLV-1 subtype B strains. Virology. 2001;287:275-85 pubmed
  11. Van Dooren S, Salemi M, Vandamme A. Dating the origin of the African human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-i (HTLV-I) subtypes. Mol Biol Evol. 2001;18:661-71 pubmed
    ..Due to the small number of strains in some of the investigated groups, these data on selective pressure should be taken with caution...
  12. Salemi M, Van Dooren S, Audenaert E, Delaporte E, Goubau P, Desmyter J, et al. Two new human T-lymphotropic virus type I phylogenetic subtypes in seroindeterminates, a Mbuti pygmy and a Gabonese, have closest relatives among African STLV-I strains. Virology. 1998;246:277-87 pubmed
    ..In addition, present day serological tests do not reliably type strains within the HTLV-Ib Central African subtype...
  13. Akari H, Ono F, Sakakibara I, Takahashi H, Murayama Y, Hiyaoka A, et al. Simian T cell leukemia virus type I-induced malignant adult T cell leukemia-like disease in a naturally infected African green monkey: implication of CD8+ T cell leukemia. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998;14:367-71 pubmed
    ..However, in the case of in vitro-transformed cell lines the expression pattern of the CD8 chains varied in individual monkeys. Thus, STLV-I may preferentially transform CD8+ (both alphaalpha+ and alphabeta+) T cells in AGMs...
  14. Makuwa M, Souquiere S, Clifford S, Telfer P, Salle B, Bourry O, et al. Two distinct STLV-1 subtypes infecting Mandrillus sphinx follow the geographic distribution of their hosts. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2004;20:1137-43 pubmed
    ..The clustering of these new STLV-1mnd sequences with HTLV-1 subtype D and F suggests first, past simian-to-human transmissions in Central Africa and second, that species barriers are easier to cross over than geographic barriers...
  15. Van Dooren S, Meertens L, Lemey P, Gessain A, Vandamme A. Full-genome analysis of a highly divergent simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 strain in Macaca arctoides. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:1953-9 pubmed
    ..Full-genome molecular-clock analysis supports an archaic introduction of STLV-1 on the Asian continent, at least 269 000-156 000 years ago...
  16. Saksena N, Herve V, Durand J, LeGuenno B, Diop O, Digouette J, et al. Seroepidemiologic, molecular, and phylogenetic analyses of simian T-cell leukemia viruses (STLV-I) from various naturally infected monkey species from central and western Africa. Virology. 1994;198:297-310 pubmed
    ..Comparative amino acid analyses indicated that there was marked conservation of the TAX protein regardless of host species, while the pol and REX proteins exhibited increasing levels of diversity...
  17. Ibrahim F, de The G, Gessain A. Isolation and characterization of a new simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 from naturally infected celebes macaques (Macaca tonkeana): complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic relationship with the Australo-Melanesian human T-cell leukemia viru. J Virol. 1995;69:6980-93 pubmed
  18. Liu H, Goubau P, van Brussel M, Van Laethem K, Chen Y, Desmyter J, et al. The three human T-lymphotropic virus type I subtypes arose from three geographically distinct simian reservoirs. J Gen Virol. 1996;77 ( Pt 2 ):359-68 pubmed
    ..In the rooted env trees obtained using the STLV strain PH969 as an outgroup, the Asian strains branched off before the African strains, implying an Asian origin for HTLV/STLV type I based on presently available strains. ..
  19. Leendertz S, Junglen S, Hedemann C, Goffe A, Calvignac S, Boesch C, et al. High prevalence, coinfection rate, and genetic diversity of retroviruses in wild red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus badius badius) in Tai National Park, Cote d'Ivoire. J Virol. 2010;84:7427-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The high prevalence of all three retroviral infections in P. b. badius represents a source of infection to chimpanzees and possibly to humans, who hunt them...
  20. van Brussel M, Goubau P, Rousseau R, Desmyter J, Vandamme A. The genomic structure of a new simian T-lymphotropic virus, STLV-PH969, differs from that of human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II. J Gen Virol. 1996;77 ( Pt 2 ):347-58 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the distinct classification of this virus can be justified, not only in terms of sequence divergence but also in terms of its different genomic structure. ..
  21. Souquiere S, Mouinga Ondeme A, Makuwa M, Hermine O, Kazanji M. Dynamic interaction between STLV-1 proviral load and T-cell response during chronic infection and after immunosuppression in non-human primates. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6050 pubmed publisher
    ..Such studies would provide important information for the development of immune-based therapeutic strategies...
  22. van Brussel M, Goubau P, Rousseau R, Desmyter J, Vandamme A. Complete nucleotide sequence of the new simian T-lymphotropic virus, STLV-PH969 from a Hamadryas baboon, and unusual features of its long terminal repeat. J Virol. 1997;71:5464-72 pubmed
    ..We conclude that STLV-PH969 has all the genes and genomic regions to suggest a replication cycle comparable to that of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2...
  23. Termini J, Magnani D, Maxwell H, Lauer W, Castro I, Pecotte J, et al. Simian T Lymphotropic Virus 1 Infection of Papio anubis: tax Sequence Heterogeneity and T Cell Recognition. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..These results justify the use of STLV-infected baboons as a model system for vaccine development efforts. ..
  24. Leendertz F, Junglen S, Boesch C, Formenty P, Couacy Hymann E, Courgnaud V, et al. High variety of different simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 strains in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. J Virol. 2004;78:4352-6 pubmed
  25. Yoshimura N, Nakamura H, Ishikawa K, Noda Y, Honjo S, Hayami M. Simian T cell leukemia virus type-1-specific killer T cells in naturally infected African green monkey carriers. J Immunol. 1990;144:2173-8 pubmed
    ..In addition NK cell activity in PBL of infected monkeys were significantly higher than those in the uninfected. ..
  26. Stevens H, Holterman L, Haaksma A, Jonker M, Heeney J. Lymphoproliferative disorders developing after transplantation and their relation to simian T-cell leukemia virus infection. Transpl Int. 1992;5 Suppl 1:S450-3 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, for the first time the oncogenic potential of STLV is identified in a rhesus monkey transplantation model. Moreover, the importance of screening blood and organ donors for HTLV-1 must be emphasized...
  27. Mahieux R, Chappey C, Meertens L, Mauclere P, Lewis J, Gessain A. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analyses of a new simian T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 in a wild-caught african baboon (Papio anubis) with an indeterminate STLV type 2-like serology. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2000;16:2043-8 pubmed
    ..The complete p19 sequence reveals amino acid changes at critical positions. This is the first report of an African STLV-1 virus leading to an STLV-2-like serological profile in its host. ..
  28. Goldberg T, Sintasath D, Chapman C, Cameron K, Karesh W, Tang S, et al. Coinfection of Ugandan red colobus (Procolobus [Piliocolobus] rufomitratus tephrosceles) with novel, divergent delta-, lenti-, and spumaretroviruses. J Virol. 2009;83:11318-29 pubmed publisher
  29. Lal R, Griffis K. Predictive B- and T-cell linear epitopes in structural proteins of HTLV-I, HTLV-II, and STLV-I. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1991;7:663-70 pubmed
    ..These predictive epitopes provide a guide to develop improved diagnostic assays and for the development of potential subunit vaccines for HILV-I and HTLV-II. ..
  30. Nerrienet E, Meertens L, Kfutwah A, Foupouapouognigni Y, Ayouba A, Gessain A. Simian T cell leukaemia virus type I subtype B in a wild-caught gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes vellerosus) from Cameroon. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:25-9 pubmed
    ..Such findings reinforce the hypothesis of interspecies transmission of STLV-I to humans, leading to the present day distribution of HTLV-I in central African inhabitants. ..
  31. Englebrecht S, Van Rensburg E, Robson B. Sequence variation and subtyping of human and simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type I strains from South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1996;12:298-302 pubmed
    ..3 to 7%. The STLV-I strains were closely related to that of a chimpanzee, providing evidence of interspecies transmission. ..
  32. Schatzl H, Yakovleva L, Lapin B, Rose D, Inzhiia L, Gaedigk Nitschko K, et al. Detection and characterization of T-cell leukemia virus-like proviral sequences in PBL and tissues of baboons by PCR. Leukemia. 1992;6 Suppl 3:158S-160S pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the infected monkeys from Sukhumi develop at a high rate a T-cell malignancy not observed among other baboons carrying STLV. ..
  33. Schatzl H, Tschikobava M, Rose D, Voevodin A, Nitschko H, Sieger E, et al. The Sukhumi primate monkey model for viral lymphomogenesis: high incidence of lymphomas with presence of STLV-I and EBV-like virus. Leukemia. 1993;7 Suppl 2:S86-92 pubmed
    ..These animal models seem to be very suitable for the elucidation of the pathogenesis of human HTLV-I associated T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and might be further on used for therapeutical and preventative studies. ..
  34. Besson G, Kazanji M. One-step, multiplex, real-time PCR assay with molecular beacon probes for simultaneous detection, differentiation, and quantification of human T-cell leukemia virus types 1, 2, and 3. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:1129-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our new method also could be used for epidemiological studies in Africa and in countries where HTLVs and STLVs are endemic...
  35. Fultz P, Gordon T, Anderson D, McClure H. Prevalence of natural infection with simian immunodeficiency virus and simian T-cell leukemia virus type I in a breeding colony of sooty mangabey monkeys. AIDS. 1990;4:619-25 pubmed
  36. Yanagihara R, Saitou N, Nerurkar V, Song K, Bastian I, Franchini G, et al. Molecular phylogeny and dissemination of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I viewed within the context of primate evolution and human migration. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 1995;41 Suppl 1:S145-61 pubmed
    ..The immunosuppressive and T-cell activation properties of HTLV-I places at added risk these Australian Aboriginal and Melanesian populations, some of which are in imminent threat of infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. ..
  37. Nerrienet E, Amouretti X, Müller Trutwin M, Poaty Mavoungou V, Bedjebaga I, Nguyen H, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of SIV and STLV type I in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx): indications that intracolony transmissions are predominantly the result of male-to-male aggressive contacts. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998;14:785-96 pubmed
  38. McGinn T, Tao B, Cartner S, Schoeb T, Davis I, Ratner L, et al. Association of primate T-cell lymphotropic virus infection of pig-tailed macaques with high mortality. Virology. 2002;304:364-78 pubmed
    ..This unexpected high mortality within a relatively short time suggests that infection of pig-tailed macaques might be a useful model for studying immune responses to and pathologic events resulting from HTLV-I infection. ..
  39. Orita S, Sato S, Aono Y, Minoura N, Yamashita T, Hinuma Y, et al. Identification of novel singly spliced pX mRNA transcripts common to all human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-related retroviruses. Virus Genes. 1993;7:197-204 pubmed
    ..This novel mRNA in the HTLV-1-related virus group may be analogous to the two-exon nef specific mRNA in human immunodeficiency virus type 1...
  40. Georges Courbot M, Georges A. [HTLV-1 infection in time and space]. Med Trop (Mars). 1999;59:469-74 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis is now easy and can reduce transmission by intravenous drugs use. Development of a vaccine seems possible given the low genetic variability of this virus. ..
  41. Sariol C, Gonzalez Martinez J, Arana T, Gascot S, Suarez E, Maldonado E, et al. Differential distribution of antibodies to different viruses in young animals in the free-ranging rhesus macaques of Cayo Santiago. J Med Primatol. 2006;35:369-75 pubmed
    ..The seroprevalence to cercopithecine herpesvirus type 1 (B virus) and simian retroviruses has been studied previously...
  42. Niphuis H, Verschoor E, Bontjer I, Peeters M, Heeney J. Reduced transmission and prevalence of simian T-cell lymphotropic virus in a closed breeding colony of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). J Gen Virol. 2003;84:615-20 pubmed
    ..In contrast, transmission from infected mother to child was not observed, suggesting that this is not a common route of transmission for STLV in this species, which is in contrast to HTLV-1 in humans...
  43. Sintasath D, Wolfe N, LeBreton M, Jia H, Garcia A, Le Doux Diffo J, et al. Simian T-lymphotropic virus diversity among nonhuman primates, Cameroon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:175-84 pubmed
    ..Broad screening using this relatively easy collection strategy has potential for large-scale monitoring of retrovirus cross-species transmission among highly exposed human populations...
  44. Iakovleva L, Indzhiia L, Chikobaeva M, Shatsl G, Lapin B. [Morpho-immunologic phenotypes of T-cell non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma in baboons and their connection with with T-lymphotropic retrovirus STLV-1]. Arkh Patol. 1997;59:19-25 pubmed
    ..CD4+ immune phenotypes were predominant in T-cell baboon lymphomas, while CD8+ phenotypes were rare. Abnormal phenotypes in some cases were also detected in the three-color FACS-analyses...
  45. Liska V, Fultz P, Su L, Ruprecht R. Detection of simian T cell leukemia virus type I infection in seronegative macaques. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1997;13:1147-53 pubmed
    ..The nested PCR assay was 100% specific and detected a single STLV-I copy in 150,000 PBMCs. In addition, our data show that experimental infection of macaques with STLV-I can be serologically silent for more than 43 months...
  46. Voevodin A, Johnson B, Samilchuk E, Stone G, Druilhet R, Greer W, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of simian T-lymphotropic virus Type I (STLV-I) in common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): evidence for interspecies transmission of the virus between chimpanzees and humans in Central Africa. Virology. 1997;238:212-20 pubmed
    ..This pattern of phylogenetic clustering suggests that interspecies transmission of STLV-I occurred between chimpanzees and African green monkey subspecies as well between chimpanzees and human populations in Central Africa...
  47. Traina Dorge V, Lorino R, Gormus B, Metzger M, Telfer P, Richardson D, et al. Molecular epidemiology of simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 in wild and captive sooty mangabeys. J Virol. 2005;79:2541-8 pubmed
  48. Corcelette S, Masse T, Madjar J. Initiation of translation by non-AUG codons in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I mRNA encoding both Rex and Tax regulatory proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:1625-34 pubmed
  49. Dezzutti C, Frazier D, Olsen R. Efficacy of an HTLV-1 subunit vaccine in prevention of a STLV-1 infection in pig-tailed macaques. Dev Biol Stand. 1990;72:287-96 pubmed
    ..RT activity was exclusively present in the non-immunized, control monkeys implying that the HTLV-1 subunit vaccine was successful in protecting the pig-tailed macaques from the STLV-1 infection...
  50. Dezzutti C, Lazo A, Yee J, Blakeslee J, Mathes L, Brown B, et al. Detection of simian T-lymphotropic virus type I using the polymerase chain reaction. Int J Cancer. 1992;50:805-10 pubmed
    ..Additionally, our data suggest that the tax and pol gene regions are conserved between HTLV-I and STLV-I strains found among these diverse species of non-human primates...
  51. Sherman M, Dube S, Spicer T, Kane T, Love J, Saksena N, et al. Sequence analysis of an immunogenic and neutralizing domain of the human T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus type I gp46 surface membrane protein among various primate T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus isolates including those from a patient with both HTLV-I. Cancer Res. 1993;53:6067-73 pubmed
    ..No consistent disease-related changes were observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)..
  52. Kuller L, Watanabe R, Anderson D, Grant R. Development of a whole-virus multiplex flow cytometric assay for antibody screening of a specific pathogen-free primate colony. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005;53:185-93 pubmed
    ..The multiplexed assay provided greater sensitivity, increased stability, and better performance than ELISA...
  53. Voevodin A, Samilchuk E, Schatzl H, Boeri E, Franchini G. Interspecies transmission of macaque simian T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 in baboons resulted in an outbreak of malignant lymphoma. J Virol. 1996;70:1633-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, interspecies transmission of STLV-1 from rhesus macaques (or closely related species) to baboons occurred at Sukhumi Primate Center. Most probably this event initiated the outbreak of lymphoma in Sukhumi baboons...
  54. Leendertz F, Boesch C, Ellerbrok H, Rietschel W, Couacy Hymann E, Pauli G. Non-invasive testing reveals a high prevalence of simian T-lymphotropic virus type 1 antibodies in wild adult chimpanzees of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:3305-12 pubmed
    ..The prevalence of STLV-1 antibodies in adults and adolescents was significantly higher (35/49, 71.4 %) than that in infant and juvenile chimpanzees (3/31, 9.7 %)...
  55. Morton W, Agy M, Capuano S, Grant R. Specific pathogen-free macaques: definition, history, and current production. ILAR J. 2008;49:137-44 pubmed
    ..In this review we focus on the nonhuman primates (NHPs) most common to North American NHP research facilities, Asian macaques, and the most common current research application of these animals, modeling of human AIDS...
  56. Lazo A, Bailer R, Blakeslee J, Yanagihara R, Stevens V, Kramer L, et al. Immune recognition of genetically diverse simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type I isolates. Arch Virol. 1995;140:307-23 pubmed
    ..These differences in immunoreactivity may have important implications for serologic diagnosis, as well as epidemiological and vaccine studies of STLV-I infection...
  57. Fincham J, van der Riet F, Steytler J, Tung M, Cooper R, Seier J, et al. Increased peripheral lymphocytes, lymphoid hepatitis and anaemia in African vervet monkeys seropositive to retroviruses. J Comp Pathol. 1989;101:53-68 pubmed
    ..Elimination of these infections may be possible by breeding Vervets in captivity...
  58. Dezzutti C, Frazier D, Lafrado L, Olsen R. Evaluation of a HTLV-1 subunit vaccine in prevention of experimental STLV-I infection in Macaca nemestrina. J Med Primatol. 1990;19:305-16 pubmed
    ..Reverse transcriptase activity was present in control macaques only, implying that the subunit vaccine was protective against STLV-I infection...
  59. Toedter G, Pearlman S, Hofheinz D, Blakeslee J, Cockerell G, Dezzutti C, et al. Development of a monoclonal antibody-based p24 capsid antigen detection assay for HTLV-I, HTLV-II, and STLV-I infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1992;8:527-32 pubmed
    ..Similarly, normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and uninfected, transformed human T cells, were also negative in the assay.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  60. Maggiorella M, Monardo F, Koanga Mogtomo M, Cioe L, Sernicola L, Corrias F, et al. Detection of infectious simian immunodeficiency virus in B- and T-cell lymphomas of experimentally infected macaques. Blood. 1998;91:3103-11 pubmed
    ..These results support the possibility that SIV may be directly involved in the process of B or T lymphomagenesis occurring in simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome...
  61. Mwenda J, Sichangi M, Isahakia M, Van Rensburg E, Langat D. The prevalence of antibodies to simian T-cell leukaemia/lymphotropic virus (STLV-I) in non-human primate colonies in Kenya. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1999;93:289-97 pubmed
    ..The relatively high prevalence of anti-STLV-I antibodies in these non-human primates offers an opportunity for studies on the transmission, phylogenetic relationships and natural history of STLV-I in primate colonies...
  62. Ibuki K, Ido E, Setiyaningsih S, Yamashita M, Agus L, Takehisa J, et al. Isolation of STLV-I from orangutan, a great ape species in Southeast Asia, and its relation to other HTLV-Is/STLV-Is. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1997;88:1-4 pubmed
    ..A phylogenetic analysis indicated that orangutan STLV-I is related to the Melanesian group of HTLV-Is and other Asian STLV-Is, but the degree of divergence is considerable...
  63. Voevodin A, Samilchuk E, Allan J, Rogers J, Broussard S. Simian T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (STLV-1) infection in wild yellow baboons (Papio hamadryas cynocephalus) from Mikumi National Park, Tanzania. Virology. 1997;228:350-9 pubmed
  64. Franchini G, Reitz M. Phylogenesis and genetic complexity of the nonhuman primate retroviridae. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1994;10:1047-60 pubmed
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