human t lymphotropic virus 2


Summary: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2 that can transform normal T-lymphocytes and can replicate in both T- and B-cell lines. The virus is related to but distinct from HTLV-1.

Top Publications

  1. de la Fuente L, Toro C, Soriano V, Brugal M, Vallejo F, Barrio G, et al. HTLV infection among young injection and non-injection heroin users in Spain: prevalence and correlates. J Clin Virol. 2006;35:244-9 pubmed
    ..Its prevalence is very low and the main correlates of infection were HIV infection and injection as the usual route of heroin administration. ..
  2. Lewis M, Sheehy N, Salemi M, Vandamme A, Hall W. Comparison of CREB- and NF-kappaB-mediated transactivation by human T lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) and type I (HTLV-I) tax proteins. Virology. 2002;295:182-9 pubmed
  3. Higuchi M, Tsubata C, Kondo R, Yoshida S, Takahashi M, Oie M, et al. Cooperation of NF-kappaB2/p100 activation and the PDZ domain binding motif signal in human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax1 but not HTLV-2 Tax2 is crucial for interleukin-2-independent growth transformation of a T-cell line. J Virol. 2007;81:11900-7 pubmed
  4. Endo K, Hirata A, Iwai K, Sakurai M, Fukushi M, Oie M, et al. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 (HTLV-2) Tax protein transforms a rat fibroblast cell line but less efficiently than HTLV-1 Tax. J Virol. 2002;76:2648-53 pubmed
    ..Our results showed that Tax2 has a lower transforming activity than Tax1 and suggest that the high transforming activity of Tax1 is involved in the leukemogenic property of HTLV-1...
  5. Shoji T, Higuchi M, Kondo R, Takahashi M, Oie M, Tanaka Y, et al. Identification of a novel motif responsible for the distinctive transforming activity of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) type 1 Tax1 protein from HTLV-2 Tax2. Retrovirology. 2009;6:83 pubmed publisher
    ..This distinction was mediated by at least two Tax1 specific functions, an interaction with host cellular factors through the PDZ domain binding motif (PBM) and the activation of NF-kappa B2 (NF-kappa B2)/p100...
  6. Mizuguchi M, Asao H, Hara T, Higuchi M, Fujii M, Nakamura M. Transcriptional activation of the interleukin-21 gene and its receptor gene by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax in human T-cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:25501-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The study suggests insights into cytokine-dependent aberrant growth of HTLV-1-infected T-cells and the molecular basis of different pathogenicity between HTLV-1 and HTLV-2...
  7. Chevalier S, Meertens L, Pise Masison C, Calattini S, Park H, Alhaj A, et al. The tax protein from the primate T-cell lymphotropic virus type 3 is expressed in vivo and is functionally related to HTLV-1 Tax rather than HTLV-2 Tax. Oncogene. 2006;25:4470-82 pubmed
    ..This suggests the possible occurrence of lymphoproliferative disorders among HTLV-3-infected populations...
  8. Kondo R, Higuchi M, Takahashi M, Oie M, Tanaka Y, Gejyo F, et al. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 Tax protein induces interleukin 2-independent growth in a T-cell line. Retrovirology. 2006;3:88 pubmed
    ..We herein examined whether Tax2 by itself has a growth promoting activity in a mouse T-cell line CTLL-2, and compared the activity with that of Tax1...
  9. Vandamme A, Salemi M, van Brussel M, Liu H, Van Laethem K, Van Ranst M, et al. African origin of human T-lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) supported by a potential new HTLV-2d subtype in Congolese Bambuti Efe Pygmies. J Virol. 1998;72:4327-40 pubmed
    ..When the STLV-2 bonobo viruses PP1664 and PanP were used as an outgroup, it was clear that the Pygmy HTLV-2 Efe2 strain had the longest independent evolution and that HTLV-2 evolution is consistent with an African origin...

More Information


  1. Gallo R. History of the discoveries of the first human retroviruses: HTLV-1 and HTLV-2. Oncogene. 2005;24:5926-30 pubmed
    ..However, following our reports the same virus was isolated in Japan, and both groups provided evidence that HTLV-1 caused ATL, a subclassification of T-cell malignancies first recognized in Japan...
  2. Kusuhara K, Anderson M, Pettiford S, Green P. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 Rex protein increases stability and promotes nuclear to cytoplasmic transport of gag/pol and env RNAs. J Virol. 1999;73:8112-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this model system provides a sensitive approach to further characterize HTLV gene expression from full-length proviral clones following transfection of human T cells...
  3. Sheehy N, Lillis L, Watters K, Lewis M, Gautier V, Hall W. Functional analysis of human T lymphotropic virus type 2 Tax proteins. Retrovirology. 2006;3:20 pubmed
    ..In the present study we have analysed and compared the transactivating activities of three Tax 2A and one Tax 2B proteins using LTR and NFkB reporter assays...
  4. Ghez D, Lepelletier Y, Lambert S, Fourneau J, Blot V, Janvier S, et al. Neuropilin-1 is involved in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 entry. J Virol. 2006;80:6844-54 pubmed
    ..These data show that NRP1 is involved in HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 entry, suggesting that the HTLV receptor has a multicomponent nature...
  5. Jones K, Fugo K, Petrow Sadowski C, Huang Y, Bertolette D, Lisinski I, et al. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 use different receptor complexes to enter T cells. J Virol. 2006;80:8291-302 pubmed
  6. Tripp A, Liu Y, Sieburg M, Montalbano J, Wrzesinski S, Feuer G. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 tax oncoprotein suppression of multilineage hematopoiesis of CD34+ cells in vitro. J Virol. 2003;77:12152-64 pubmed
  7. Gallo D, Penning L, Hanson C. Detection and differentiation of antibodies to human T-cell lymphotropic virus types I and II by the immunofluorescence method. J Clin Microbiol. 1991;29:2345-7 pubmed
  8. Coskun A, Sutton R. Expression of glucose transporter 1 confers susceptibility to human T-cell leukemia virus envelope-mediated fusion. J Virol. 2005;79:4150-8 pubmed
    ..Another assay also demonstrated HTLV-1 envelope-cell fusion in the presence of glut-1. Taken together, these results provide additional evidence that glut-1 is a receptor for HTLV...
  9. Halin M, Douceron E, Clerc I, Journo C, Ko N, Landry S, et al. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 produces a spliced antisense transcript encoding a protein that lacks a classic bZIP domain but still inhibits Tax2-mediated transcription. Blood. 2009;114:2427-38 pubmed publisher
  10. Niinuma A, Higuchi M, Takahashi M, Oie M, Tanaka Y, Gejyo F, et al. Aberrant activation of the interleukin-2 autocrine loop through the nuclear factor of activated T cells by nonleukemogenic human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 but not by leukemogenic type 1 virus. J Virol. 2005;79:11925-34 pubmed
    ..The results also suggest that differences in long-term cytokine production between HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection are another factor for the differences in pathogenesis...
  11. Meertens L, Chevalier S, Weil R, Gessain A, Mahieux R. A 10-amino acid domain within human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 and type 2 tax protein sequences is responsible for their divergent subcellular distribution. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:43307-20 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show a high correlation between intracellular localization of Tax and their NF-kappaB or CREB transactivating ability...
  12. Narayan M, Kusuhara K, Green P. Phosphorylation of two serine residues regulates human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 Rex function. J Virol. 2001;75:8440-8 pubmed
    ..Further understanding of HTLV Rex phosphorylation will provide insight into the regulatory control of HTLV replication and ultimately the pathobiology of HTLV...
  13. Araujo A, Hall W. Human T-lymphotropic virus type II and neurological disease. Ann Neurol. 2004;56:10-9 pubmed
    ..In view of the many HTLV-II-infected individuals in urban areas of North America and Europe, neurologists should be aware of the potential clinical consequences of this infection...
  14. Turci M, Romanelli M, Lorenzi P, Righi P, Bertazzoni U. Localization of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II Tax protein is dependent upon a nuclear localization determinant in the N-terminal region. Gene. 2006;365:119-24 pubmed
    ..These results point to a direct involvement of the amino-terminal residues of Tax-II protein in determining its nuclear functionality...
  15. Mahieux R, Gessain A. HTLV-1 and associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Rev Clin Exp Hematol. 2003;7:336-61 pubmed
    ..The survival rate of ATLL patients, especially those who develop the acute leukemic or lymphomas forms, is very poor, and such clonal malignant CD4 expansion remains one of the most severe lymphoproliferations...
  16. Kim F, Manel N, Garrido E, Valle C, Sitbon M, Battini J. HTLV-1 and -2 envelope SU subdomains and critical determinants in receptor binding. Retrovirology. 2004;1:41 pubmed
  17. Manel N, Kim F, Kinet S, Taylor N, Sitbon M, Battini J. The ubiquitous glucose transporter GLUT-1 is a receptor for HTLV. Cell. 2003;115:449-59 pubmed
    ..Therefore, GLUT-1 is a receptor for HTLV. Perturbations in glucose metabolism resulting from interactions of HTLV envelope glycoproteins with GLUT-1 are likely to contribute to HTLV-associated disorders...
  18. Gallo R. The discovery of the first human retrovirus: HTLV-1 and HTLV-2. Retrovirology. 2005;2:17 pubmed
    ..These efforts finally yielded success following the discovery of IL-2 and its use to culture adult T cell lymphoma/leukemia cells...
  19. Roucoux D, Murphy E. The epidemiology and disease outcomes of human T-lymphotropic virus type II. AIDS Rev. 2004;6:144-54 pubmed
    ..HTLV-II and HIV coinfection has not been proven to alter the course of HIV disease, but such patients may have altered levels of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes, and antiretroviral therapy may paradoxically increase HTLV-II proviral load...
  20. Younis I, Khair L, Dundr M, Lairmore M, Franchini G, Green P. Repression of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 and type 2 replication by a viral mRNA-encoded posttranscriptional regulator. J Virol. 2004;78:11077-83 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with the critical role of these proteins in viral persistence and pathogenesis in animal models of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection...
  21. Feuer G, Green P. Comparative biology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2. Oncogene. 2005;24:5996-6004 pubmed
  22. Xie L, Green P. Envelope is a major viral determinant of the distinct in vitro cellular transformation tropism of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2. J Virol. 2005;79:14536-45 pubmed
  23. Li M, Green P. Detection and quantitation of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 mRNA species by real-time RT-PCR. J Virol Methods. 2007;142:159-68 pubmed
  24. Sieburg M, Tripp A, Ma J, Feuer G. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 tax oncoproteins modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis. J Virol. 2004;78:10399-409 pubmed
    ..Characterization of the unique phenotypes displayed by Tax1 and Tax2 in vitro will provide information as to the relative roles of these oncoproteins and their contribution to HTLV-1 and -2 pathogenesis in vivo...
  25. Christensen A, Massiah M, Turner B, Sundquist W, Summers M. Three-dimensional structure of the HTLV-II matrix protein and comparative analysis of matrix proteins from the different classes of pathogenic human retroviruses. J Mol Biol. 1996;264:1117-31 pubmed
    ..Clear structural similarities between the HTLV-II and HIV-1 matrix proteins suggest that the topology and exposed cationic membrane binding surface are likely to be conserved features of retroviral matrix proteins. ..
  26. Tseliou P, Spanakis N, Spiliotakara A, Markogiannakis A, Legakis N, Tsakris A. Prevalence of infection by HTLV-I/II among pregnant women and high-risk groups in the Peloponnese peninsula, Greece. Int J STD AIDS. 2006;17:543-6 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that HTLV-I is present in Greece among populations at high-risk. However, they would not support the need for HTLV-I/II antenatal screening in Greece. ..
  27. Posada Vergara M, Montanheiro P, Fukumori L, Bonasser F, Duarte A, Penalva de Oliveira A, et al. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of HTLV-II infection in São Paulo, Brazil: presence of tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) simile diagnosis in HIV-1-co-infected subjects. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2006;48:207-10 pubmed
    ..The results obtained suggest that neurological manifestations may be more frequent in HTLV-II/HIV-1-infected subjects than those infected with HTLV-II only. ..
  28. Turci M, Pilotti E, Ronzi P, Magnani G, Boschini A, Parisi S, et al. Coinfection with HIV-1 and human T-Cell lymphotropic virus type II in intravenous drug users is associated with delayed progression to AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;41:100-6 pubmed
    ..05) increase in HTLV-II proviral load concomitant to a decrease in HIV-1 viremia, suggesting that the treatment is ineffective against HTLV-II infection. ..
  29. Wang T, Piefer A, Jonsson C. Interactions of the human T-cell leukemia virus type-II integrase with the conserved CA in the retroviral long terminal repeat end. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:14710-7 pubmed
    ..This suggests major groove interactions at guanine also provide an important role in these reactions. ..
  30. Horal P, Hall W, Svennerholm B, Lycke J, Jeansson S, Rymo L, et al. Identification of type-specific linear epitopes in the glycoproteins gp46 and gp21 of human T-cell leukemia viruses type I and type II using synthetic peptides. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:5754-8 pubmed
    ..Peptides representing linear epitopes of gp46 were found to be sensitive and specific for the detection of antibody and permit serological identification and differentiation of HTLV-I and HTLV-II infections. ..
  31. Ferrer J, Esteban E, Murua A, Gutierrez S, Dube S, Poiesz B, et al. Association and epidemiologic features of Trypanosoma cruzi and human T cell lymphotropic a virus type II in inhabitants of the Paraguayan Gran Chaco. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;68:235-41 pubmed
    ..cruzi infection. Infection with T. cruzi increased with age, was greater in males than in females, and clustered in families...
  32. Lal R, Rudolph D, Kaplan J, Hjelle B, Levine P, Coligan J, et al. Identification of immunodominant epitopes in envelope glycoprotein of human T lymphotropic virus type II. Virology. 1992;186:274-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that peptides Env-20(85-102) and Env-202(173-209) represent the type-specific immunodominant epitopes of HTLV-II external glycoprotein. ..
  33. Barcellos N, Fuchs S, Mondini L, Murphy E. Human T lymphotropic virus type I/II infection: prevalence and risk factors in individuals testing for HIV in counseling centers from Southern Brazil. Sex Transm Dis. 2006;33:302-6 pubmed
    ..Among persons presenting at HIV testing centers in Porto Alegre, Brazil, HTLV I was three times more common than HTLV II; injection drug use was the predominant mode of transmission. ..
  34. Mansky L, Wisniewski R. The bovine leukemia virus encapsidation signal is composed of RNA secondary structures. J Virol. 1998;72:3196-204 pubmed
    ..The results from both the compensatory mutants and BLV-HTLV chimeras indicate that the encapsidation sequences are recognized largely by their secondary or tertiary structures. ..
  35. Yoshida T, Miyagawa E, Yamaguchi K, Kobayashi S, Takahashi Y, Yamashita A, et al. IL-2 independent transformation of a unique human T cell line, TY8-3, and its subclones by HTLV-I and -II. Int J Cancer. 2001;91:99-108 pubmed
    ..Our results thus exhibit that TY8-3 cells and its subclones provide us with a very unique model whereby IL-2 independent transformation events of human T cells by HTLV-I/II in vitro can be studied at a clonal level. ..
  36. Zehender G, Meroni L, Piconi S, De Maddalena C, Parravicini C, Clerici M, et al. Frequent detection of antibodies against HTLV antigens in patients with AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1995;11:823-7 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that HTLV-II or a closely homologous retrovirus infects a high proportion of patients with AIDS-associated NHL. ..
  37. Jauvin V, Alfonso R, Guillemain B, Dupuis K, Fleury H. In vitro photochemical inactivation of cell-associated human T-cell leukemia virus Type I and II in human platelet concentrates and plasma by use of amotosalen. Transfusion. 2005;45:1151-9 pubmed
    ..0 J per cm2 UVA dose. This high efficiency for photoinactivation of these retroviruses opens a possibility of improving the safety of PLTs or plasma transfusion in the future. ..
  38. Murphy E, Mahieux R, de The G, Tekaia F, Ameti D, Horton J, et al. Molecular epidemiology of HTLV-II among United States blood donors and intravenous drug users: an age-cohort effect for HTLV-II RFLP type aO. Virology. 1998;242:425-34 pubmed
    ..This finding could be explained by an epidemic of non-aO HTLV-II RFLP types among younger persons of Hispanic and other race/ethnicity, superimposed upon endemic HTLV-II RFLP type aO among older Black and White persons. ..
  39. Moens B, Lopez G, Adaui V, Gonzalez E, Kerremans L, Clark D, et al. Development and validation of a multiplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous genotyping and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1, 2, and 3 proviral load determination. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:3682-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our molecular assay could offer an alternative when current available serological assays are insufficient...
  40. Mahieux R, Horal P, Mauclere P, Mercereau Puijalon O, Guillotte M, Meertens L, et al. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 gag indeterminate western blot patterns in Central Africa: relationship to Plasmodium falciparum infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:4049-57 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that in Central Africa, this frequent and specific Western blot is not caused by HTLV-1 infection but could instead be associated with P. falciparum infection. ..
  41. Bovolenta C, Pilotti E, Mauri M, Panzeri B, Sassi M, Dall aglio P, et al. Retroviral interference on STAT activation in individuals coinfected with human T cell leukemia virus type 2 and HIV-1. J Immunol. 2002;169:4443-9 pubmed
    ..Although the nature of such a phenomenon is unclear at the present, these findings support the hypothesis that HTLV-2 may interfere with HIV-1 infection at multiple levels. ..
  42. Herne K, Talpur R, Breuer McHam J, Champlin R, Duvic M. Cytomegalovirus seropositivity is significantly associated with mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome. Blood. 2003;101:2132-6 pubmed
    ..CMV seropositivity is highly associated with MF and SS, even in the earliest stages of the disease, and is significantly higher than that of healthy and immunocompromised controls. ..
  43. Shuh M. David D. Derse, 1949-2009. Retrovirology. 2009;6:110 pubmed publisher
    ..His most recent studies focused on the mechanisms of HTLV-1 virion morphogenesis, transmission, and replication. ..
  44. Kleine Neto W, Sanabani S, Jamal L, Sabino E. [Prevalence, risk factors and genetic characterization of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the cities of Ribeirão Preto and São Paulo]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2009;42:264-70 pubmed
    ..Among the 12 HTLV type 2 samples, seven were from injected drug users, thus indicating that this route is an important risk factor for HTLV type 2 transmission among our population infected with HIV type 1...
  45. Stramer S, Foster G, Dodd R. Effectiveness of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) recipient tracing (lookback) and the current HTLV-I and -II confirmatory algorithm, 1999 to 2004. Transfusion. 2006;46:703-7 pubmed
    ..Currently, lookback for HTLV-I and -II has a very low yield, and its public health benefit is questionable. ..
  46. Maniez Montreuil M. [HTLV-I and HTLV-II virus]. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 1998;56:563-70 pubmed
  47. González Alcaide G, Ramos J, Huamaní C, Mendoza C, Soriano V. HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 (HTLV-1) AND HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2 (HTLV-2): GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH TRENDS AND COLLABORATION NETWORKS (1989-2012). Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2016;58:11 pubmed publisher
  48. Yip M, Dynan W, Green P, Black A, Arrigo S, Torbati A, et al. Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) type II Rex protein binds specifically to RNA sequences of the HTLV long terminal repeat but poorly to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev-responsive element. J Virol. 1991;65:2261-72 pubmed
    ..This result is consistent with a weak binding activity to the HIV-1 Rev-responsive element under conditions in which it efficiently bound the HTLV-II long terminal repeat RNA. ..
  49. Alcantara L, Shindo N, Van Dooren S, Salemi M, Costa M, Kashima S, et al. Brazilian HTLV type 2a strains from intravenous drug users (IDUs) appear to have originated from two sources: Brazilian Amerindians and European/North American IDUs. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2003;19:519-23 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, we demonstrated for the first time in Brazil the presence of a subtype 2a in IDUs that is closely related to the prototype Mo but distinct from the Brazilian 2a molecular variant. ..
  50. de los Angeles Pando M, Biglione M, Toscano M, Rey J, Russell K, Negrete M, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other viral co-infections among young heterosexual men and women in Argentina. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;71:153-9 pubmed
    ..The IDU-related and sexual transmission of hepatitis viruses constitute a significant problem among young, HIV-infected, heterosexuals in Argentina...
  51. Orita S, Sato S, Aono Y, Minoura N, Yamashita T, Hinuma Y, et al. Identification of novel singly spliced pX mRNA transcripts common to all human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-related retroviruses. Virus Genes. 1993;7:197-204 pubmed
    ..This novel mRNA in the HTLV-1-related virus group may be analogous to the two-exon nef specific mRNA in human immunodeficiency virus type 1...
  52. Tanaka Y, Yoshida A, Takayama Y, Tsujimoto H, Tsujimoto A, Hayami M, et al. Heterogeneity of antigen molecules recognized by anti-tax1 monoclonal antibody Lt-4 in cell lines bearing human T cell leukemia virus type I and related retroviruses. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1990;81:225-31 pubmed
    ..In the STLV-I-bearing T cell lines, tax1-related antigen molecules detected by Lt-4 were heterogeneous, having molecular weights in the range of 36-41 kd...
  53. Oliveira A, Hayakawa H, Schor D, Leite A, Esp ndola O, Waters A, et al. High frequencies of functionally competent circulating Tax-specific CD8+ T cells in human T lymphotropic virus type 2 infection. J Immunol. 2009;183:2957-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that a strong, effective CTL response may control HTLV-2 viral burden and that this may be a significant factor in maintaining persistent infection and in the prevention of disease in infected individuals...
  54. Vrielink H, Reesink H. HTLV-I/II prevalence in different geographic locations. Transfus Med Rev. 2004;18:46-57 pubmed
    ..Blood donors are routinely screened for HTLV-I/II in North America, several countries in Europe, Japan, and Taiwan...
  55. Namen Lopes M, Martins M, Drummond P, Lobato R, Carneiro Proietti A. Lookback study of HTLV-1 and 2 seropositive donors and their recipients in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Transfus Med. 2009;19:180-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Haemovigilance was difficult to perform due to unavailability of computer systems before 1999 and to inadequate medical records at hospitals...
  56. Kiely P, Stewart Y, Castro L. Analysis of voluntary blood donors with biologic false reactivity on chemiluminescent immunoassays and implications for donor management. Transfusion. 2003;43:584-90 pubmed
    ..Biologic false-reactive (BFR) results in blood donors are problematic due to both component loss and donor-management issues. This report analyzes the results of a longitudinal study of BFR donors and the implications for donor management...
  57. Lewis N, Williams J, Rekosh D, Hammarskjold M. Identification of a cis-acting element in human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) that is responsive to the HIV-1 rev and human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II rex proteins. J Virol. 1990;64:1690-7 pubmed
    ..The rex proteins worked well in conjunction with either the HIV-1 or the HIV-2 RRE (the 1,042-bp as well as the 272-bp fragment)...
  58. Asmuth D, Kalish L, Laycock M, Murphy E, Mohr B, Lee T, et al. Absence of HBV and HCV, HTLV-I and -II, and human herpes virus-8 activation after allogeneic RBC transfusion in patients with advanced HIV-1 infection. Transfusion. 2003;43:451-8 pubmed
  59. Koyanagi Y, Yoshida T, Suzuki M, Uma A, Ananthasubramaniam L, Ramajayam S, et al. Dual infection of HIV-1 and HTLV-I in south India: a study on a patient with AIDS-related complex. Microbiol Immunol. 1993;37:983-6 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide an opportunity to clarify geographical distribution of these human retroviruses...
  60. Alcaro M, Peroni E, Rovero P, Papini A. Synthetic peptides in the diagnosis of HIV infection. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2003;4:285-90 pubmed
    ..In particular, many studies have been devoted to discriminate between the two retroviruses HIV-1 and HIV-2, as well as different subtypes...
  61. Toro C, Blanco F, Garcia Gasco P, Sheldon J, Benito J, Rallon N, et al. Human T lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis in an HIV-positive patient coinfected with human T lymphotropic virus type 2 following initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:e118-20 pubmed
  62. Gastaldello R, Hall W, Gallego S. Seroepidemiology of HTLV-I/II in Argentina: an overview. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004;35:301-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, HTLV-I/II infection is circulating in low- and high-risk populations in Argentina, and these findings would support the view that selective screening for HTLV-I/II should be implemented to reduce the spread of infection...
  63. Zendri E, Pilotti E, Perez M, Turci M, Pinelli S, Ronzi P, et al. The HTLV tax-like sequences in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma patients. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:489-92 pubmed
  64. Trevino A, Aguilera A, Caballero E, Toro C, Eiros J, Ortiz de Lejarazu R, et al. Seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 infection among native and immigrant pregnant women in Spain. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009;25:551-4 pubmed
  65. Turci M, Lodewick J, Righi P, Polania A, Romanelli M, Bex F, et al. HTLV-2B Tax oncoprotein is modified by ubiquitination and sumoylation and displays intracellular localization similar to its homologue HTLV-1 Tax. Virology. 2009;386:6-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, Tax2B is distributed in punctuate nuclear structures that include the RelA subunit of NF-kappaB, as has been previously demonstrated for Tax-1...
  66. Gabet A, Moules V, Sibon D, Nass C, Mortreux F, Mauclere P, et al. Endemic versus epidemic viral spreads display distinct patterns of HTLV-2b replication. Virology. 2006;345:13-21 pubmed
  67. Goubau P, Desmyter J, Swanson P, Reynders M, Shih J, Surmont I, et al. Detection of HTLV-I and HTLV-II infection in Africans using type-specific envelope peptides. J Med Virol. 1993;39:28-32 pubmed
    ..A cluster of HTLV-I-like indeterminate western blot patterns lacking anti-p24 antibody was found in Bas Zaire...
  68. Ishiguro A, Spirin K, Shiohara M, Tobler A, Norton J, Rigolet M, et al. Expression of Id2 and Id3 mRNA in human lymphocytes. Leuk Res. 1995;19:989-96 pubmed
  69. Anderson M, Green P. Growth and manipulation of a human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 full-length molecular clone. Methods Mol Biol. 2005;304:409-21 pubmed
    ..These types of studies have provided and will continue to provide critical insight into understanding the virus-host interactions and ultimately the contribution of viral genes and elements to the pathogenesis of HTLV...
  70. Santos T, Costa C, Goubau P, Vandamme A, Desmyter J, Van Doren S, et al. Western blot seroindeterminate individuals for human T-lymphotropic virus I/II (HTLV-I/II) in Fortaleza (Brazil): a serological and molecular diagnostic and epidemiological approach. Braz J Infect Dis. 2003;7:202-9 pubmed
    ..We did not find any association of these conditions with syphilis, Chagas disease or HIV or hepatitis, and with risk factors such as breast-feeding, blood transfusion, STD (syphilis) and IDU...
  71. Berini C, Pando M, Bautista C, Eirin M, Martinez Peralta L, Weissenbacher M, et al. HTLV-1/2 among high-risk groups in Argentina: molecular diagnosis and prevalence of different sexual transmitted infections. J Med Virol. 2007;79:1914-20 pubmed
    ..6%, 25/27), and HBV (77.8%, 21/27), respectively. In summary, HTLV-1/2 infections appear to be widely distributed among high-risk groups in a nonendemic area of Argentina being the co-infection with HBV and HCV more frequent among IDUs...
  72. Biswas H, Engstrom J, Kaidarova Z, Garratty G, Gibble J, Newman B, et al. Neurologic abnormalities in HTLV-I- and HTLV-II-infected individuals without overt myelopathy. Neurology. 2009;73:781-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, despite some reports, it is unclear whether HTLV-I or -II infection is associated with other neurologic manifestations...
  73. Renner J, Laurino J, Menna Barreto M, Schmitt V. Molecular evidence of HTLV-II subtype B among an urban population living in South Brazil. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006;22:301-6 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge this is the first study demonstrating the presence of HTLV-IIb among the urban population in Brazil...
  74. Pouliquen J, Hardy L, Lavergne A, Kafiludine E, Kazanji M. High seroprevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 in blood donors in Guyana and molecular and phylogenetic analysis of new strains in the Guyana shelf (Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana). J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:2020-6 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, our results confirm that the HTLV-1 strains in all three countries have a common African origin...
  75. Andrade R, Ribeiro M, Namen Lopes M, Silva S, Basques F, Ribas J, et al. Evaluation of the use of real-time PCR for human T cell lymphotropic virus 1 and 2 as a confirmatory test in screening for blood donors. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2010;43:111-5 pubmed
    ..However, this algorithm yields a high rate of inconclusive results, and is expensive...
  76. Ishak R, Vallinoto A, Azevedo V, Lewis M, Hall W, Guimarães Ishak M. Molecular evidence of mother-to-child transmission of HTLV-IIc in the Kararao Village (Kayapo) in the Amazon region of Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2001;34:519-25 pubmed
    ..Although the actual route of transmission is unknown, breast feeding would appear to be most likely...
  77. Silverman L, Phipps A, Montgomery A, Fernandez S, Tsukahara T, Ratner L, et al. In vivo analysis of replication and immunogenicity of proviral clones of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 with selective envelope surface-unit mutations. Blood. 2005;106:3602-8 pubmed
    ..Our data are the first to demonstrate that mutations in critical determinants of HTLV-1 Env SU altered antibody responses and proviral loads, but do not prevent viral replication in vivo...
  78. McGirr K, Buehuring G. Tax & rex: overlapping genes of the Deltaretrovirus group. Virus Genes. 2006;32:229-39 pubmed
  79. Lee T, Chafets D, Busch M, Murphy E. Quantitation of HTLV-I and II proviral load using real-time quantitative PCR with SYBR Green chemistry. J Clin Virol. 2004;31:275-82 pubmed
    ..Human T-lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) is associated with HAM/TSP and, in HIV coinfected patients only, rare cases of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. Proviral load may be important in the pathogenesis of HTLV-associated disease...