human t lymphotropic virus 1

Summary

Summary: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).

Top Publications

  1. Verdonck K, Gonzalez E, Van Dooren S, Vandamme A, Vanham G, Gotuzzo E. Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: recent knowledge about an ancient infection. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007;7:266-81 pubmed
    ..The understanding of the interaction between virus and host response has improved markedly, but there are still no clear surrogate markers for prognosis and there are few treatment options...
  2. Zhang L, Zhi H, Liu M, Kuo Y, Giam C. Induction of p21(CIP1/WAF1) expression by human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax requires transcriptional activation and mRNA stabilization. Retrovirology. 2009;6:35 pubmed publisher
    ..The possible involvement of Tax-mediated APC/C activation in p21(CIP1/WAF1) mRNA stabilization is discussed. ..
  3. Nadella M, Shu S, Dirksen W, Thudi N, Nadella K, Fernandez S, et al. Expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein during immortalization of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by HTLV-1: implications for transformation. Retrovirology. 2008;5:46 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that PTHrP and its receptor are up-regulated specifically during immortalization of T-lymphocytes by HTLV-1 infection and may facilitate the transformation process. ..
  4. Higuchi M, Tsubata C, Kondo R, Yoshida S, Takahashi M, Oie M, et al. Cooperation of NF-kappaB2/p100 activation and the PDZ domain binding motif signal in human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax1 but not HTLV-2 Tax2 is crucial for interleukin-2-independent growth transformation of a T-cell line. J Virol. 2007;81:11900-7 pubmed
  5. Majorovits E, Nejmeddine M, Tanaka Y, Taylor G, Fuller S, Bangham C. Human T-lymphotropic virus-1 visualized at the virological synapse by electron tomography. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2251 pubmed publisher
  6. Sharma N, Nyborg J. The coactivators CBP/p300 and the histone chaperone NAP1 promote transcription-independent nucleosome eviction at the HTLV-1 promoter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7959-63 pubmed publisher
  7. Cheng J, Kydd A, Nakase K, Noonan K, Murakami A, Tao H, et al. Negative regulation of the SH2-homology containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) P2 promoter by the HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein. Blood. 2007;110:2110-20 pubmed
    ..TIPS provides a possible first step toward HTLV-1 leukemogenesis through its down-modulation of this key immediate early negative regulator of IL-2 signaling. ..
  8. Asquith B, Bangham C. How does HTLV-I persist despite a strong cell-mediated immune response?. Trends Immunol. 2008;29:4-11 pubmed
    ..We develop a model to describe how these factors interact to enable viral persistence...
  9. Pichler K, Kattan T, Gentzsch J, Kress A, Taylor G, Bangham C, et al. Strong induction of 4-1BB, a growth and survival promoting costimulatory receptor, in HTLV-1-infected cultured and patients' T cells by the viral Tax oncoprotein. Blood. 2008;111:4741-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, 4-1BB up-regulation by Tax could contribute to growth, survival, and clonal expansion of the infected cells during persistence and disease. ..

More Information

Publications89

  1. Saggioro D, Silic Benussi M, Biasiotto R, D Agostino D, Ciminale V. Control of cell death pathways by HTLV-1 proteins. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2009;14:3338-51 pubmed
    ..The long-term fate of HTLV-1-infected cells (apoptosis, survival, transformation) may therefore depend on the balance of the effects of Tax, p13 and p12 on cell death pathways. ..
  2. Ohshima K. Pathological features of diseases associated with human T-cell leukemia virus type I. Cancer Sci. 2007;98:772-8 pubmed
    ..To clarify the HTLV-I-associated diseases, it is important to understand the pathological variations...
  3. Okajima M, Takahashi M, Higuchi M, Ohsawa T, Yoshida S, Yoshida Y, et al. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax induces an aberrant clustering of the tumor suppressor Scribble through the PDZ domain-binding motif dependent and independent interaction. Virus Genes. 2008;37:231-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Tax1 through two binding sites induce aberrant clustering of Scribble, thereby altering the functions in HTLV-1-infected cells, which may thus play a role in persistent HTLV-1 infection and the pathogenesis. ..
  4. Afonso P, Ozden S, Prevost M, Schmitt C, Seilhean D, Weksler B, et al. Human blood-brain barrier disruption by retroviral-infected lymphocytes: role of myosin light chain kinase in endothelial tight-junction disorganization. J Immunol. 2007;179:2576-83 pubmed
    ..Based on this BBB model, the present data indicate that HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes can induce BBB breakdown and may be responsible for the CNS infiltration that occurs in the early steps of retroviral-associated neuromyelopathies...
  5. Cho W, Zhou M, Jang M, Huang K, Jeong S, Ozato K, et al. Modulation of the Brd4/P-TEFb interaction by the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 tax protein. J Virol. 2007;81:11179-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest the possibility that Tax may compete and functionally substitute for Brd4 in P-TEFb regulation...
  6. Murata K, Yamada Y. The state of the art in the pathogenesis of ATL and new potential targets associated with HTLV-1 and ATL. Int Rev Immunol. 2007;26:249-68 pubmed
    ..Here we review the state of the art regarding our understanding of ATL leukemogenesis and new potential molecular targets in ATL therapy. ..
  7. Zane L, Sibon D, Mortreux F, Wattel E. Clonal expansion of HTLV-1 infected cells depends on the CD4 versus CD8 phenotype. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2009;14:3935-41 pubmed
    ..Investigating the mechanisms underlying apoptosis, cell cycling and DNA repair in cloned cells from naturally infected individuals will permit to deciphering the molecular pathogenesis of HTLV-1 infection. ..
  8. Cooper S, Van Der Loeff M, McConkey S, Cooper M, Sarge Njie R, Kaye S, et al. Neurological morbidity among human T-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-infected individuals in a rural West African population. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009;80:66-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Community-based neurological data about human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce...
  9. Alefantis T, Flaig K, Wigdahl B, Jain P. Interaction of HTLV-1 Tax protein with calreticulin: implications for Tax nuclear export and secretion. Biomed Pharmacother. 2007;61:194-200 pubmed
    ..Finally, a comparison of a number of HTLV-1-infected T cell lines to non-infected T cells revealed higher expression of calreticulin in infected cells implicating a direct role for this protein in HTLV-1 infection. ..
  10. Javier R. Cell polarity proteins: common targets for tumorigenic human viruses. Oncogene. 2008;27:7031-46 pubmed publisher
    ..This review article discusses evidence supporting this hypothesis, with an emphasis on the human Ad E4-ORF1 oncoprotein. ..
  11. Geiger T, Sharma N, Kim Y, Nyborg J. The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 tax protein confers CBP/p300 recruitment and transcriptional activation properties to phosphorylated CREB. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1383-92 pubmed
    ..The regulation of transcription by pCREB is therefore more complex than is generally recognized, and coregulators, such as Tax, likely play a critical role in the modulation of pCREB function. ..
  12. Jones K, Petrow Sadowski C, Huang Y, Bertolette D, Ruscetti F. Cell-free HTLV-1 infects dendritic cells leading to transmission and transformation of CD4(+) T cells. Nat Med. 2008;14:429-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to altering the current paradigm concerning how HTLV-1 transmission occurs, these studies suggest that impairment of DC function after HTLV-1 infection plays a part in pathogenesis...
  13. Bolinger C, Yilmaz A, Hartman T, Kovacic M, Fernandez S, Ye J, et al. RNA helicase A interacts with divergent lymphotropic retroviruses and promotes translation of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:2629-42 pubmed
    ..We speculate divergent retroviruses have evolved a convergent RNA-protein interaction to modulate translation of their highly structured mRNA...
  14. Usui T, Yanagihara K, Tsukasaki K, Murata K, Hasegawa H, Yamada Y, et al. Characteristic expression of HTLV-1 basic zipper factor (HBZ) transcripts in HTLV-1 provirus-positive cells. Retrovirology. 2008;5:34 pubmed publisher
    ..HBZs consisting of non-spliced and spliced isoforms (HBZ-SI) are thought to be implicated in viral replication and T-cell proliferation but there is little evidence on the HBZ expression profile on a large scale...
  15. Suemori K, Fujiwara H, Ochi T, Ogawa T, Matsuoka M, Matsumoto T, et al. HBZ is an immunogenic protein, but not a target antigen for human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1806-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Although HBZ plays an important role in the proliferation of HTLV-1-infected cells, it may also provide a novel mechanism that allows them to evade immune recognition. ..
  16. Nyborg J, Egan D, Sharma N. The HTLV-1 Tax protein: revealing mechanisms of transcriptional activation through histone acetylation and nucleosome disassembly. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1799:266-74 pubmed publisher
  17. Winter H, Marriott S. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax enhances serum response factor DNA binding and alters site selection. J Virol. 2007;81:6089-98 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Tax activates SRF-responsive transcription by enhancing its binding affinity to multiple different SRE sequences. ..
  18. Norrgren H, Bamba S, Larsen O, da Silva Z, Aaby P, Koivula T, et al. Increased prevalence of HTLV-1 in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis coinfected with HIV, but not in HIV-negative patients with tuberculosis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;48:607-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Few and inconclusive results have been presented regarding the influence of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) infection on the risk of acquiring tuberculosis (TB)...
  19. Wang D, Guo M, Hu H, Zhao Z, Qiu H, Shao H, et al. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 oncoprotein tax represses ZNF268 expression through the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein/activating transcription factor pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:16299-308 pubmed publisher
    ..CREB-1 directly at the cAMP-responsive element both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest a role for ZNF268 in aberrant T-cell proliferation observed in HTLV-1-associated diseases. ..
  20. Yamamoto M, Tsuji Takayama K, Suzuki M, Harashima A, Sugimoto A, Motoda R, et al. Comprehensive analysis of FOXP3 mRNA expression in leukemia and transformed cell lines. Leuk Res. 2008;32:651-8 pubmed
    ..The broad mRNA expression contrasts with the restricted protein expression of FOXP3 in human hematopoietic cell lines, suggesting that post-transcriptional control mechanisms may control FOXP3 protein expression...
  21. Holmgren B, da Silva Z, Vastrup P, Larsen O, Andersson S, Ravn H, et al. Mortality associated with HIV-1, HIV-2, and HTLV-I single and dual infections in a middle-aged and older population in Guinea-Bissau. Retrovirology. 2007;4:85 pubmed
    ..The present study compares mortality associated with HIV-1, HIV-2, and HTLV-I single and dual infections in individuals over 35 years of age within an urban community-based cohort in Guinea-Bissau...
  22. Datta A, Silverman L, Phipps A, Hiraragi H, Ratner L, Lairmore M. Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 p30 alters cell cycle G2 regulation of T lymphocytes to enhance cell survival. Retrovirology. 2007;4:49 pubmed
  23. Mirsaliotis A, Lamb D, Brighty D. Nonhelical leash and alpha-helical structures determine the potency of a peptide antagonist of human T-cell leukemia virus entry. J Virol. 2008;82:4965-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we propose that leash-like mimetic peptides may be of value as entry inhibitors for other clinically important viral infections...
  24. Michaelsson J, Barbosa H, Jordan K, Chapman J, Brunialti M, Neto W, et al. The frequency of CD127low expressing CD4+CD25high T regulatory cells is inversely correlated with human T lymphotrophic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) proviral load in HTLV-1-infection and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. BMC Immunol. 2008;9:41 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and phenotype of TReg cells in HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers and in HTLV-1-associated neurological disease (HAM/TSP) patients, and to correlate with measures of T cell activation...
  25. Ohsugi T, Kumasaka T, Okada S, Ishida T, Yamaguchi K, Horie R, et al. Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ) therapy reduces tumor formation in mice inoculated with tax-deficient adult T-cell leukemia-derived cell lines. Cancer Lett. 2007;257:206-15 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, DHMEQ treatment after subcutaneous inoculation inhibited the growth of transplanted ATL cells. These results demonstrate that DHMEQ has therapeutic efficacy on ATL cells, regardless of Tax expression...
  26. Yan P, Fu J, Qu Z, Li S, Tanaka T, Grusby M, et al. PDLIM2 suppresses human T-cell leukemia virus type I Tax-mediated tumorigenesis by targeting Tax into the nuclear matrix for proteasomal degradation. Blood. 2009;113:4370-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies also suggest a potential therapeutic strategy for cancers and other diseases associated with HTLV-I infection and/or PDLIM2 deregulation...
  27. Boxus M, Twizere J, Legros S, Dewulf J, Kettmann R, Willems L. The HTLV-1 Tax interactome. Retrovirology. 2008;5:76 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we summarize the present knowledge of the Tax1 interactome and propose a rationale for the broad range of cellular proteins identified so far...
  28. Teruya H, Tomita M, Senba M, Ishikawa C, Tamayose M, Miyazato A, et al. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I infects human lung epithelial cells and induces gene expression of cytokines, chemokines and cell adhesion molecules. Retrovirology. 2008;5:86 pubmed publisher
    ..However, little is known about induction of these genes by HTLV-I infection in lung epithelial cells...
  29. Ueda S, Maeda Y, Yamaguchi T, Hanamoto H, Hijikata Y, Tanaka M, et al. Influence of Epstein-Barr virus infection in adult T-cell leukemia. Hematology. 2008;13:154-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that coinfection with HTLV-1 and EBV may induce aggressive organ involvement through the enhanced expression of adhesion molecules via IL-4 signaling. A new mechanism of ATL involvement is discussed...
  30. Boxus M, Willems L. Mechanisms of HTLV-1 persistence and transformation. Br J Cancer. 2009;101:1497-501 pubmed publisher
    ..HTLV-1 has elaborated strategies to persist and replicate in the presence of a strong immune response. In this review, we summarise these mechanisms and their contribution to T-cell transformation and ATL development...
  31. Gudo E, Abreu C, Mussá T, Augusto A, Otsuki K, Chambo E, et al. Serologic and molecular typing of human T-lymphotropic virus among blood donors in Maputo City, Mozambique. Transfusion. 2009;49:1146-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim was to determine the prevalence of HTLV-1/2 among blood donors of the Maputo Central Hospital Blood Bank and measure the coinfection rate of HTLV-1/2 with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and syphilis...
  32. Akimoto M, Kozako T, Sawada T, Matsushita K, Ozaki A, Hamada H, et al. Anti-HTLV-1 tax antibody and tax-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte are associated with a reduction in HTLV-1 proviral load in asymptomatic carriers. J Med Virol. 2007;79:977-86 pubmed
    ..Tax-specific CTL may reduce HTLV-1 proviral load to prevent asymptomatic carriers from developing adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma...
  33. Mirsaliotis A, Nurkiyanova K, Lamb D, Kuo C, Brighty D. Resistance to neutralization by antibodies targeting the coiled coil of fusion-active envelope is a common feature of retroviruses. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:36724-35 pubmed
    ..These observations have significant implications for vaccine design...
  34. Gohda J, Irisawa M, Tanaka Y, Sato S, Ohtani K, Fujisawa J, et al. HTLV-1 Tax-induced NFkappaB activation is independent of Lys-63-linked-type polyubiquitination. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;357:225-30 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that unlike cytokine signaling, Tax-induced NFkappaB activation does not involve K63 polyubiquitination-mediated MAP3K activation...
  35. Kannagi M. Immunologic control of human T-cell leukemia virus type I and adult T-cell leukemia. Int J Hematol. 2007;86:113-7 pubmed
  36. Peloponese J, Kinjo T, Jeang K. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax and cellular transformation. Int J Hematol. 2007;86:101-6 pubmed
    ..In this review, we summarize current thinking on how Tax may affect ATL leukemogenesis...
  37. Silic Benussi M, Cannizzaro E, Venerando A, Cavallari I, Petronilli V, La Rocca N, et al. Modulation of mitochondrial K(+) permeability and reactive oxygen species production by the p13 protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1787:947-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The downstream consequences of p13-induced mitochondrial K(+) permeability are likely to have an important influence on the redox state and turnover of HTLV-1-infected cells...
  38. Silbermann K, Schneider G, Grassmann R. Stimulation of interleukin-13 expression by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 oncoprotein Tax via a dually active promoter element responsive to NF-kappaB and NFAT. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:2788-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, IL13TaxRE in the IL-13 promoter represents a dually active promoter element responsive to NF-kappaB and NFAT. Together, these results indicate that Tax causes IL-13 upregulation in HTLV-1-infected cells via NF-kappaB...
  39. Durkin S, Guo X, Fryrear K, Mihaylova V, Gupta S, Belgnaoui S, et al. HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein subverts the cellular DNA damage response via binding to DNA-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:36311-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We also describe a novel interaction between DNA-PK and Chk2 that requires Tax. We propose that Tax binds to and stabilizes a protein complex with DNA-PK and Chk2, resulting in a saturation of DNA-PK-mediated damage repair response...
  40. Kinet S, Swainson L, Lavanya M, Mongellaz C, Montel Hagen A, Craveiro M, et al. Isolated receptor binding domains of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 envelopes bind Glut-1 on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Retrovirology. 2007;4:31 pubmed
    ..It was therefore of significant interest to thoroughly assess Glut-1 expression on CD4 and CD8 T cells, and its association with HTLV-1 and -2 envelope binding...
  41. Yu Q, Minoda Y, Yoshida R, Yoshida H, Iha H, Kobayashi T, et al. HTLV-1 Tax-mediated TAK1 activation involves TAB2 adapter protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;365:189-94 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that TAB2 may be critically involved in Tax-mediated activation of TAK1 and that NF-kappaB-activating TRAF family proteins are potential cellular E3 ubiquitin ligases toward Tax...
  42. Pichler K, Jeang K. Remembering Ralph Grassmann (1957-2008). Retrovirology. 2008;5:71 pubmed publisher
  43. Derse D, Crise B, Li Y, Princler G, Lum N, Stewart C, et al. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 integration target sites in the human genome: comparison with those of other retroviruses. J Virol. 2007;81:6731-41 pubmed
    ..Our results show that retroviruses that engender different insertional mutagenesis risks can have similar integration profiles...
  44. Ohsugi T, Kumasaka T, Okada S, Urano T. The Tax protein of HTLV-1 promotes oncogenesis in not only immature T cells but also mature T cells. Nat Med. 2007;13:527-8 pubmed
  45. Ramadan E, Ward M, Guo X, Durkin S, Sawyer A, Vilela M, et al. Physical and in silico approaches identify DNA-PK in a Tax DNA-damage response interactome. Retrovirology. 2008;5:92 pubmed publisher
    ..To date we have mapped 250 cellular components within this interactome. Here we present our approach to prioritizing these interactions via an in silico culling process...
  46. Fukushima N, Nakamura T, Nishiura Y, Ida H, Aramaki T, Eguchi K. HTLV-I production based on activation of integrin/ligand signaling in HTLV-I-infected T cell lines derived from HAM/TSP patients. Intervirology. 2008;51:123-9 pubmed publisher
  47. Cassar O, Capuano C, Bassot S, Charavay F, Duprez R, Afonso P, et al. Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 subtype C melanesian genetic variants of the Vanuatu Archipelago and Solomon Islands share a common ancestor. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:510-21 pubmed
    ..In 2005, we identified 4 infected women from Ambae Island, Vanuatu. Subsequently, 4247 Ni-Vanuatu originating from 18 islands were enrolled to define HTLV-1 epidemiological determinants and to characterize the viral strains molecularly...
  48. Ram rez J, Nyborg J. Molecular characterization of HTLV-1 Tax interaction with the KIX domain of CBP/p300. J Mol Biol. 2007;372:958-69 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that MLL competes with Tax for KIX binding, suggesting a novel mechanism of Tax oncogenesis in which normal MLL function is disrupted by Tax...
  49. Terme J, Wencker M, Favre Bonvin A, Bex F, Gazzolo L, Duc Dodon M, et al. Cross talk between expression of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax transactivator and the oncogenic bHLH transcription factor TAL1. J Virol. 2008;82:7913-22 pubmed publisher
  50. Pichler K, Schneider G, Grassmann R. MicroRNA miR-146a and further oncogenesis-related cellular microRNAs are dysregulated in HTLV-1-transformed T lymphocytes. Retrovirology. 2008;5:100 pubmed publisher
    ..Affecting e.g. proliferation, microRNAs constitute a potential target for viral interference on the way to persistence and transformation. Hence, we explored the interconnections between HTLV-1 and cellular microRNAs...
  51. Chen J, Petrus M, Bryant B, Phuc Nguyen V, Stamer M, Goldman C, et al. Induction of the IL-9 gene by HTLV-I Tax stimulates the spontaneous proliferation of primary adult T-cell leukemia cells by a paracrine mechanism. Blood. 2008;111:5163-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these data support a role for IL-9 and its receptor in ATL by a paracrine mechanism...
  52. Kfoury Y, Nasr R, Favre Bonvin A, El Sabban M, Renault N, Giron M, et al. Ubiquitylated Tax targets and binds the IKK signalosome at the centrosome. Oncogene. 2008;27:1665-76 pubmed
    ..These observations highlight an unsuspected link between Tax-induced IKK activation and the centrosome...
  53. Li M, Kesic M, Yin H, Yu L, Green P. Kinetic analysis of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 gene expression in cell culture and infected animals. J Virol. 2009;83:3788-97 pubmed publisher
  54. Mizuguchi M, Asao H, Hara T, Higuchi M, Fujii M, Nakamura M. Transcriptional activation of the interleukin-21 gene and its receptor gene by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax in human T-cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:25501-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The study suggests insights into cytokine-dependent aberrant growth of HTLV-1-infected T-cells and the molecular basis of different pathogenicity between HTLV-1 and HTLV-2...
  55. Meekings K, Leipzig J, Bushman F, Taylor G, Bangham C. HTLV-1 integration into transcriptionally active genomic regions is associated with proviral expression and with HAM/TSP. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000027 pubmed publisher
  56. Sheleg S, Peloponese J, Chi Y, Li Y, Eckhaus M, Jeang K. Evidence for cooperative transforming activity of the human pituitary tumor transforming gene and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax. J Virol. 2007;81:7894-901 pubmed publisher
    ..Cells that overexpressed both PTTG and Tax induced tumors more robustly in nude mice than cells that expressed either PTTG alone or Tax alone...
  57. Satou Y, Matsuoka M. Implication of the HTLV-I bZIP factor gene in the leukemogenesis of adult T-cell leukemia. Int J Hematol. 2007;86:107-12 pubmed
    ..In this review, we summarize the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the leukemogenesis induced by HTLV-I; we consider both viral and host cellular factors and focus particularly on the viral gene HBZ...
  58. Ohsugi T, Koito A. Current topics in prevention of human T-cell leukemia virus type i infection: NF-kappa B inhibitors and APOBEC3. Int Rev Immunol. 2008;27:225-53 pubmed publisher
    ..HTLV-I is relatively resistant to the antiviral effects of APOBEC3. To clarify the resistance of HTLV-I against APOBEC3 might contribute to the design of effective therapeutic approaches...
  59. Abe M, Uchihashi K, Kazuto T, Osaka A, Yanagihara K, Tsukasaki K, et al. Foxp3 expression on normal and leukemic CD4+CD25+ T cells implicated in human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 is inconsistent with Treg cells. Eur J Haematol. 2008;81:209-17 pubmed publisher
  60. Enose Akahata Y, Oh U, Grant C, Jacobson S. Retrovirally induced CTL degranulation mediated by IL-15 expression and infection of mononuclear phagocytes in patients with HTLV-I-associated neurologic disease. Blood. 2008;112:2400-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite lower viral expression than in CD4(+) T cells, HTLV-I-infected or -activated CD14(+) cells may be a heretofore important but under recognized reservoir particularly in HAM/TSP patients...
  61. Asquith B, Bangham C. Quantifying HTLV-I dynamics. Immunol Cell Biol. 2007;85:280-6 pubmed
  62. Jain P, Mostoller K, Flaig K, Ahuja J, Lepoutre V, Alefantis T, et al. Identification of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 tax amino acid signals and cellular factors involved in secretion of the viral oncoprotein. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:34581-93 pubmed
  63. Shembade N, Harhaj N, Yamamoto M, Akira S, Harhaj E. The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax oncoprotein requires the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc13 for NF-kappaB activation. J Virol. 2007;81:13735-42 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results reveal that Ubc13 is essential for Tax ubiquitination, its interaction with NEMO, and Tax-mediated NF-kappaB activation...
  64. Casoli C, Pilotti E, Bertazzoni U. Molecular and cellular interactions of HIV-1/HTLV coinfection and impact on AIDS progression. AIDS Rev. 2007;9:140-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the long-term effects of HIV and HTLV coinfections are poorly understood and the mechanisms of dysregulation of cellular biosynthesis by HTLV that impact HIV disease progression remain elusive...
  65. Hieshima K, Nagakubo D, Nakayama T, Shirakawa A, Jin Z, Yoshie O. Tax-inducible production of CC chemokine ligand 22 by human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected T cells promotes preferential transmission of HTLV-1 to CCR4-expressing CD4+ T cells. J Immunol. 2008;180:931-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, HTLV-1-infected T cells produce CCL22 through Tax and selectively interact with CCR4+CD4+ T cells, resulting in preferential transmission of HTLV-1 to CCR4+CD4+ T cells...
  66. Zhao T, Yasunaga J, Satou Y, Nakao M, Takahashi M, Fujii M, et al. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 bZIP factor selectively suppresses the classical pathway of NF-kappaB. Blood. 2009;113:2755-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Selective suppression of the classical NF-kappaB pathway by HBZ renders the alternative NF-kappaB pathway predominant after activation of NF-kappaB by Tax or other stimuli, which might be critical for oncogenesis...
  67. Fukushima N, Nishiura Y, Nakamura T, Kohno S, Eguchi K. Blockade of IL-2 receptor suppresses HTLV-I and IFN-gamma expression in patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Intern Med. 2007;46:347-51 pubmed
  68. Faris M. Potential for molecular targeted therapy for adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Int Rev Immunol. 2008;27:71-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe within a few key elements that contribute to neoplastic development of ATL, in addition to interesting molecular drug targets that may lead to more effective therapeutic strategies...
  69. Landry S, Halin M, Vargas A, Lemasson I, Mesnard J, Barbeau B. Upregulation of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 antisense transcription by the viral tax protein. J Virol. 2009;83:2048-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The cellular DNA context could thus affect the level of HBZ mRNA expression in infected cells...
  70. Shoji T, Higuchi M, Kondo R, Takahashi M, Oie M, Tanaka Y, et al. Identification of a novel motif responsible for the distinctive transforming activity of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) type 1 Tax1 protein from HTLV-2 Tax2. Retrovirology. 2009;6:83 pubmed publisher
    ..This distinction was mediated by at least two Tax1 specific functions, an interaction with host cellular factors through the PDZ domain binding motif (PBM) and the activation of NF-kappa B2 (NF-kappa B2)/p100...
  71. Clerc I, Polakowski N, André Arpin C, Cook P, Barbeau B, Mesnard J, et al. An interaction between the human T cell leukemia virus type 1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) and the KIX domain of p300/CBP contributes to the down-regulation of tax-dependent viral transcription by HBZ. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:23903-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that HBZ utilizes a bipartite mechanism to repress viral transcription...
  72. Matsuoka M, Jeang K. Human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infectivity and cellular transformation. Nat Rev Cancer. 2007;7:270-80 pubmed
    ..We also explore the contribution of a newly discovered protein and RNA on the HTLV-1 minus strand, HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ), to the maintenance of virus-induced leukaemia...
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    ..Functional differences between sHBZ and usHBZ suggest that the sHBZ gene plays a significant role in the proliferation of infected cells...
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    ..ATL is a neoplastic disease of CD4-positive T lymphocytes that is characterized by pleomorphic tumor cells with hypersegmented nuclei, termed "flower cells." The mechanisms of leukemogenesis have not been fully clarified...
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    ..The fact that hDlg and hScrib are both targeted by Tax underlies their importance in T cell function...
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    ..We suggest that the frequencies of HTLV-1-infected T cell clones in vivo are determined by a dynamic balance between positive and negative selection forces that differ among the clones...
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    ..The pathways modulated by these described miRNAs are critically involved in apoptosis, proliferation and innate immune response...
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    ..Recently, viruses have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PDs. Individuals infected with human T lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) present with abnormal oral health and a marked increased prevalence of periodontal disease.