bovine leukemia virus

Summary

Summary: The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.

Top Publications

  1. Juliarena M, Gutierrez S, Ceriani C. Determination of proviral load in bovine leukemia virus-infected cattle with and without lymphocytosis. Am J Vet Res. 2007;68:1220-5 pubmed
    To determine proviral load in bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cattle with and without persistent lymphocytosis to assess the potential of transmitting the virus.
  2. Nagy D, Tyler J, Kleiboeker S. Timing of seroconversion and acquisition of positive polymerase chain reaction assay results in calves experimentally infected with bovine leukemia virus. Am J Vet Res. 2007;68:72-5 pubmed
    To determine the interval to provirus and serum antibody detection (via PCR assay and ELISA, respectively) in calves after experimental inoculation with bovine leukemia virus (BLV).
  3. Gutierrez S, Ceriani C, Juliarena M, Ferrer J. Host soluble factors that regulate the synthesis of the major core protein of the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in a naturally infected neoplastic B-cell line. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009;131:246-58 pubmed publisher
    b>Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a B-cell tropic Deltaretrovirus that induces a lifelong infection and causes a fatal lymphosarcoma in less than 10% of the infected cattle...
  4. Zhao X, McGirr K, Buehring G. Potential evolutionary influences on overlapping reading frames in the bovine leukemia virus pXBL region. Genomics. 2007;89:502-11 pubmed
    b>Bovine leukemia virus contains a pXBL region encoding the 3' parts of four regulatory proteins (Tax, Rex, G4, R3) in overlapping reading frames. Here we report the pXBL polymorphisms of 30 isolates from four countries...
  5. Takahashi M, Tajima S, Okada K, Davis W, Aida Y. Involvement of bovine leukemia virus in induction and inhibition of apoptosis. Microbes Infect. 2005;7:19-28 pubmed
    In a previous study, we identified an interesting mutant form of the Tax protein of bovine leukemia virus (BLV), designated D247G, that has an enhanced capacity to transactivate the long terminal repeat (LTR) of BLV and the cellular ..
  6. Juliarena M, Poli M, Ceriani C, Sala L, Rodriguez E, Gutierrez S, et al. Antibody response against three widespread bovine viruses is not impaired in Holstein cattle carrying bovine leukocyte antigen DRB3.2 alleles associated with bovine leukemia virus resistance. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92:375-81 pubmed publisher
    Due to the wide dissemination of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection among dairy cattle, control and eradication programs based on serological detection of infected cattle and subsequent culling face a major economic task...
  7. Merezak C, Reichert M, Van Lint C, Kerkhofs P, Portetelle D, Willems L, et al. Inhibition of histone deacetylases induces bovine leukemia virus expression in vitro and in vivo. J Virol. 2002;76:5034-42 pubmed
    ..observations made in vitro, we analyzed ex vivo-isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected sheep...
  8. Bondzio A, Abraham Podgornik A, Blankenstein P, Risse S. Involvement of intracellular Ca2+ in the regulation of bovine leukemia virus expression. Biol Chem. 2001;382:407-16 pubmed
    ..which was used to increase the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), was analyzed for effects on bovine leukemia virus (BLV) expression in two BLV infected cell lines...
  9. Pomier C, Alcaraz M, Debacq C, Lançon A, Kerkhofs P, Willems L, et al. Early and transient reverse transcription during primary deltaretroviral infection of sheep. Retrovirology. 2008;5:16 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary infection of a new organism necessary involves allogenic cell infection and thus reverse transcription...

More Information

Publications99

  1. Kiermer V, Van Lint C, Briclet D, Vanhulle C, Kettmann R, Verdin E, et al. An interferon regulatory factor binding site in the U5 region of the bovine leukemia virus long terminal repeat stimulates Tax-independent gene expression. J Virol. 1998;72:5526-34 pubmed
    b>Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) replication is controlled by both cis- and trans-acting elements...
  2. Murakami K, Sentsui H, Inoshima Y, Inumaru S. Increase in gammadelta T cells in the blood of cattle persistently infected with bovine leukemia virus following administration of recombinant bovine IFN-gamma. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2004;101:61-71 pubmed
    ..the effect of recombinant bovine interferon-gamma (rbIFN-gamma) on cattle persistently infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV), BLV-infected cattle were inoculated intraperitoneally with IFN-gamma...
  3. Motton D, Buehring G. Bovine leukemia virus alters growth properties and casein synthesis in mammary epithelial cells. J Dairy Sci. 2003;86:2826-38 pubmed
    b>Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is widespread in US dairy herds, yet only about 1% of infected cattle develop bovine leukosis and are culled from the herd. A major concern is whether BLV infection of dairy cows alters milk yield...
  4. Meas S, Usui T, Ohashi K, Sugimoto C, Onuma M. Vertical transmission of bovine leukemia virus and bovine immunodeficiency virus in dairy cattle herds. Vet Microbiol. 2002;84:275-82 pubmed
    Vertical transmission of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) was investigated in five dairy cattle herds in Hokkaido, where 36.1 and 17.0% of cattle were BLV and BIV seropositive, respectively, and 9...
  5. Schwartz Cornil I, Chevallier N, Belloc C, Le Rhun D, Laine V, Berthelemy M, et al. Bovine leukaemia virus-induced lymphocytosis in sheep is associated with reduction of spontaneous B cell apoptosis. J Gen Virol. 1997;78 ( Pt 1):153-62 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these data suggest that both BLV-induced B cell proliferation and extended survival are involved in the lymphocytotic stage encountered in BLV infection in sheep...
  6. Rhodes J, Pelzer K, Johnson Y. Economic implications of bovine leukemia virus infection in mid-Atlantic dairy herds. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003;223:346-52 pubmed
    To determine the baseline costs of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection, including costs of clinical disease and subclinical infection, in a dairy herd representative of the mid-Atlantic region and compare these costs with the cost of a ..
  7. Katoh I, Yasunaga T, Ikawa Y, Yoshinaka Y. Inhibition of retroviral protease activity by an aspartyl proteinase inhibitor. Nature. 1987;329:654-6 pubmed
  8. Ban J, Portetelle D, Altaner C, Horion B, Milan D, Krchnak V, et al. Isolation and characterization of a 2.3-kilobase-pair cDNA fragment encoding the binding domain of the bovine leukemia virus cell receptor. J Virol. 1993;67:1050-7 pubmed
    ..was used to isolate a cDNA clone encoding the binding domain for the external glycoprotein gp51 of the bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Three recombinant phages demonstrating BLV binding activity and containing 2...
  9. Kerkhofs P, Gatot J, Knapen K, Mammerickx M, Burny A, Portetelle D, et al. Long-term protection against bovine leukaemia virus replication in cattle and sheep. J Gen Virol. 2000;81:957-63 pubmed
    ..In addition, our data cast light onto the need to perform long-term vaccination trials because challenge superinfection can occur even after apparent protection for 12 months...
  10. Calomme C, Nguyen T, De Launoit Y, Kiermer V, Droogmans L, Burny A, et al. Upstream stimulatory factors binding to an E box motif in the R region of the bovine leukemia virus long terminal repeat stimulates viral gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:8775-89 pubmed
    The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) promoter is located in its 5'-long terminal repeat and is composed of the U3, R, and U5 regions...
  11. Takahashi M, Tajima S, Takeshima S, Konnai S, Yin S, Okada K, et al. Ex vivo survival of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in sheep induced by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) mainly occurs in CD5- B cells that express BLV. Microbes Infect. 2004;6:584-95 pubmed
    b>Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the etiologic agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL)...
  12. Suzuki T, Matsubara Y, Kitani H, Ikeda H. Evaluation of the delta subunit of bovine adaptor protein complex 3 as a receptor for bovine leukaemia virus. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:1309-16 pubmed
    ..Many small insertions and deletions of nucleotides could generate the predicted transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions of the BLVR protein from the prototypic boAP3delta gene. ..
  13. Wang H, Machesky N, Mansky L. Both the PPPY and PTAP motifs are involved in human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 particle release. J Virol. 2004;78:1503-12 pubmed
    ..The deltaretroviruses, which include bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2, have a conserved PPPY motif in the C-..
  14. Konnai S, Usui T, Ikeda M, Kohara J, Hirata T, Okada K, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha up-regulation in spontaneously proliferating cells derived from bovine leukemia virus-infected cattle. Arch Virol. 2006;151:347-60 pubmed
    ..factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was one of the cytokines that contributed to the leukemogenesis caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV)...
  15. Scott H, Sorensen O, Wu J, Chow E, Manninen K, VanLeeuwen J. Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, Neospora caninum, Bovine leukemia virus, and Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection among dairy cattle and herds in Alberta and agroecological risk factors associated with seropositivi. Can Vet J. 2006;47:981-91 pubmed
    ..risk factor study of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), Neospora caninum (NC), Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), and Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) genotypes 1 and 2 (BVDv1 and BVDv2) infection in dairy ..
  16. Nguyen T, Calomme C, Wijmeersch G, Nizet S, Veithen E, Portetelle D, et al. Deacetylase inhibitors and the viral transactivator TaxBLV synergistically activate bovine leukemia virus gene expression via a cAMP-responsive element- and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein-dependent mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:35025-36 pubmed
    Efficient bovine leukemia virus (BLV) transcription requires the virus-encoded transactivator Tax(BLV), which acts through three Tax(BLV)-responsive elements located in the 5' long terminal repeat...
  17. Wang H, Norris K, Mansky L. Involvement of the matrix and nucleocapsid domains of the bovine leukemia virus Gag polyprotein precursor in viral RNA packaging. J Virol. 2003;77:9431-8 pubmed
    ..regarding PrGag-RNA interactions involved in RNA packaging for the deltaretroviruses, which include bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and -2, respectively)...
  18. Kuckleburg C, Chase C, Nelson E, Marras S, Dammen M, Christopher Hennings J. Detection of bovine leukemia virus in blood and milk by nested and real-time polymerase chain reactions. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2003;15:72-6 pubmed
    ..in livestock and products derived from them have necessitated the development of tests to detect the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in blood and milk from cattle...
  19. Amills M, Norimine J, Olmstead C, Lewin H. Cytokine mRNA expression in B cells from bovine leukemia virus-infected cattle with persistent lymphocytosis. Cytokine. 2004;28:25-8 pubmed
    We have characterized the expression of six cytokine mRNAs in highly purified B cells from bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cows with persistent lymphocytosis...
  20. Chi J, VanLeeuwen J, Weersink A, Keefe G. Direct production losses and treatment costs from bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine leukosis virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum. Prev Vet Med. 2002;55:137-53 pubmed
    ..A sensitivity analysis showed the largest effect on costs was due to milk yield effects. For example, changing milk production loss from 0 to 5% for BVD increased the costs for the disease by 266%...
  21. Nagy D, Tyler J, Stoker A, Kleiboeker S. Association between the strength of serologic recognition of bovine leukosis virus and lymphocyte count in bovine leukosis virus-infected cows. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002;220:1681-4 pubmed
    ..To determine whether strength of serologic recognition of bovine leukosis virus (BLV) by use of ELISA is associated with blood lymphocyte counts...
  22. Usui T, Konnai S, Tajima S, Watarai S, Aida Y, Ohashi K, et al. Protective effects of vaccination with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) Tax DNA against BLV infection in sheep. J Vet Med Sci. 2003;65:1201-5 pubmed
    A DNA vaccination trial was performed on sheep to determine whether vaccination with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) transactivator Tax DNA is effective against BLV infection...
  23. Florins A, Gillet N, Boxus M, Kerkhofs P, Kettmann R, Willems L. Even attenuated bovine leukemia virus proviruses can be pathogenic in sheep. J Virol. 2007;81:10195-200 pubmed
    Based on a reverse genetics approach, we previously reported that bovine leukemia virus (BLV) mutants harboring deletions in the accessory R3 and G4 genes persist at very low proviral loads and are unable to induce leukemia or lymphoma ..
  24. Dekoninck A, Calomme C, Nizet S, De Launoit Y, Burny A, Ghysdael J, et al. Identification and characterization of a PU.1/Spi-B binding site in the bovine leukemia virus long terminal repeat. Oncogene. 2003;22:2882-96 pubmed
    b>Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a B-lymphotropic oncogenic retrovirus whose transcriptional promoter is located in the viral 5' long terminal repeat (LTR)...
  25. Avidan O, Meer M, Oz I, Hizi A. The processivity and fidelity of DNA synthesis exhibited by the reverse transcriptase of bovine leukemia virus. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:859-67 pubmed
    We have recently expressed in bacteria the enzymatically active reverse transcriptase (RT) of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) [Perach, M. & Hizi, A. (1999) Virology 259, 176-189]...
  26. Pierard V, Guiguen A, Colin L, Wijmeersch G, Vanhulle C, Van Driessche B, et al. DNA cytosine methylation in the bovine leukemia virus promoter is associated with latency in a lymphoma-derived B-cell line: potential involvement of direct inhibition of cAMP-responsive element (CRE)-binding protein/CRE modulator/activation transcri. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:19434-49 pubmed publisher
    b>Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral latency represents a viral strategy to escape the host immune system and allow tumor development...
  27. Debacq C, Gillet N, Asquith B, Sanchez Alcaraz M, Florins A, Boxus M, et al. Peripheral blood B-cell death compensates for excessive proliferation in lymphoid tissues and maintains homeostasis in bovine leukemia virus-infected sheep. J Virol. 2006;80:9710-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, we assessed in vivo lymphocyte trafficking in bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected sheep...
  28. Lavanya M, Kinet S, Montel Hagen A, Mongellaz C, Battini J, Sitbon M, et al. Cell surface expression of the bovine leukemia virus-binding receptor on B and T lymphocytes is induced by receptor engagement. J Immunol. 2008;181:891-8 pubmed
    b>Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), one of the most common infectious viruses of cattle, is endemic in many herds...
  29. Moules V, Pomier C, Sibon D, Gabet A, Reichert M, Kerkhofs P, et al. Fate of premalignant clones during the asymptomatic phase preceding lymphoid malignancy. Cancer Res. 2005;65:1234-43 pubmed
    ..bona fide premalignant clone in an animal model, the sheep experimentally infected with the lymphotropic bovine leukemia virus. We have shown that premalignant clones are early and clearly distinguished from other virus-exposed cells ..
  30. Amills M, Ramiya V, Norimine J, Olmstead C, Lewin H. Reduced IL-2 and IL-4 mRNA expression in CD4+ T cells from bovine leukemia virus-infected cows with persistent lymphocytosis. Virology. 2002;304:1-9 pubmed
    The role of T-helper (Th) responses in the subclinical progression of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection was explored by determining the contribution of CD4+ T cells to the expression of mRNAs encoding interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), ..
  31. Sanchez Alcaraz T, Kerkhofs P, Reichert M, Kettmann R, Willems L. Involvement of glutathione as a mechanism of indirect protection against spontaneous ex vivo apoptosis associated with bovine leukemia virus. J Virol. 2004;78:6180-9 pubmed
    ..and progression to leukemia induced by retroviruses like human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV)...
  32. Llames L, Goyache J, Domenech A, Montaña A, Suarez G, Gomez Lucia E. Cellular distribution of bovine leukemia virus proteins gp51SU, Pr72(env), and Pr66(gag-pro) in persistently infected cells. Virus Res. 2001;79:47-57 pubmed
    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against bovine leukemia virus (BLV) mature proteins and precursors were used to map the localization of these proteins in persistently infected non-lymphocytic cell lines using immunofluorescence assay (IFA) ..
  33. Kohara J, Yokomizo Y. In vitro and in vivo effects of recombinant bovine interferon-tau on bovine leukemia virus. J Vet Med Sci. 2007;69:15-9 pubmed
    The antiviral effects of recombinant bovine interferon-tau (rboIFN-tau) on bovine leukemia virus (BLV) were examined in vitro and in vivo...
  34. Muller C, Coffey T, Koss M, Teifke J, Langhans W, Werling D. Lack of TNF alpha supports persistence of a plasmid encoding the bovine leukaemia virus in TNF(-/-) mice. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2003;92:15-22 pubmed
  35. Novakovic S, Sawai E, Radke K. Dileucine and YXXL motifs in the cytoplasmic tail of the bovine leukemia virus transmembrane envelope protein affect protein expression on the cell surface. J Virol. 2004;78:8301-11 pubmed
    ..cell surface expression of a chimeric protein containing the cytoplasmic domain of the TM protein (CTM) of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was regulated by two membrane-proximal dileucine motifs or by tyrosine Y487 or Y498 in YXXL motifs...
  36. Licursi M, Inoshima Y, Wu D, Yokoyama T, González E, Sentsui H. Genetic heterogeneity among bovine leukemia virus genotypes and its relation to humoral responses in hosts. Virus Res. 2002;86:101-10 pubmed
    The existence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) genotypes was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis using bovine peripheral blood leukocytes collected from different geographical areas of Japan...
  37. Merimi M, Klener P, Szynal M, Cleuter Y, Bagnis C, Kerkhofs P, et al. Complete suppression of viral gene expression is associated with the onset and progression of lymphoid malignancy: observations in Bovine Leukemia Virus-infected sheep. Retrovirology. 2007;4:51 pubmed
    ..In the Bovine Leukemia Virus-induced ovine leukemia model, silencing of viral gene expression has been proposed as a mechanism leading ..
  38. Keefe R, Choi Y, Ferrick D, Stott J. Bovine cytokine expression during different phases of bovine leukemia virus infection. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1997;56:39-51 pubmed
    The potential role of aberrant cytokine production in the pathogenesis of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was studied by analyzing cytokine mRNA expression in pokeweed-stimulated PBMLs of cows in different phases of disease progression...
  39. Dequiedt F, Cantor G, Hamilton V, Pritchard S, Davis W, Kerkhofs P, et al. Bovine leukemia virus-induced persistent lymphocytosis in cattle does not correlate with increased ex vivo survival of B lymphocytes. J Virol. 1999;73:1127-37 pubmed
    b>Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is an oncogenic retrovirus associated with B-cell lymphocytosis, leukemia, and lymphosarcoma in the ovine and bovine species...
  40. Merezak C, Pierreux C, Adam E, Lemaigre F, Rousseau G, Calomme C, et al. Suboptimal enhancer sequences are required for efficient bovine leukemia virus propagation in vivo: implications for viral latency. J Virol. 2001;75:6977-88 pubmed
    ..Such a strategy appears to have been adopted by animal oncoviruses such as bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)...
  41. Lefebvre L, Ciminale V, Vanderplasschen A, D Agostino D, Burny A, Willems L, et al. Subcellular localization of the bovine leukemia virus R3 and G4 accessory proteins. J Virol. 2002;76:7843-54 pubmed
    b>Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a complex retrovirus that belongs to the Deltaretrovirus genus, which also includes Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)...
  42. Gutiérrez S, Dolcini G, Arroyo G, Rodriguez Dubra C, Ferrer J, Esteban E. Development and evaluation of a highly sensitive and specific blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction assay for diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus infection in cattle. Am J Vet Res. 2001;62:1571-7 pubmed
    To develop a blocking ELISA for detection of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) antibodies that is comparable to a radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) assay, to evaluate use of this ELISA for identification of BLV-infected herds, and to develop a ..
  43. Tana -, Watarai S, Aida Y, Tajima S, Kakidani H, Onuma M, et al. Growth inhibition of cancer cells by co-transfection of diphtheria toxin A-chain gene plasmid with bovine leukemia virus-tax expression vector. Microbiol Immunol. 2001;45:447-55 pubmed
    We constructed a plasmid containing bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-tax gene driven by SR alpha promoter, designated as pME-BLVtax, to activate the promoter of the long terminal repeat (LTR) of BLV in various tumor cells...
  44. Mateo L, Gardner J, Suhrbier A. Delayed emergence of bovine leukemia virus after vaccination with a protective cytotoxic T cell-based vaccine. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2001;17:1447-53 pubmed
    ..a minimal cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) peptide epitope vaccine and were challenged with the retrovirus, bovine leukemia virus (BLV)...
  45. Reichert M, Winnicka A, Willems L, Kettmann R, Cantor G. Role of the proline-rich motif of bovine leukemia virus transmembrane protein gp30 in viral load and pathogenicity in sheep. J Virol. 2001;75:8082-9 pubmed
    The cytoplasmic tail of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) transmembrane protein gp30 has multiple amino acid motifs that mimic those present in signaling proteins associated with B-cell and T-cell receptors...
  46. Bondzio A, Blankenstein P, Risse S. Effects of hydrogen peroxide on bovine leukemia virus expression. Biol Chem. 2003;384:1063-72 pubmed
    Several activators of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) expression, including lipopolysaccharides, phorbol esters and calcium ionophores, are known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
  47. Choi K, Liu R, Buehring G. Relative sensitivity and specificity of agar gel immunodiffusion, enzyme immunosorbent assay, and immunoblotting for detection of anti-bovine leukemia virus antibodies in cattle. J Virol Methods. 2002;104:33-9 pubmed
    Three serologic methods for the detection of antibodies to bovine leukemia virus (BLV) were compared using the sera of 140 dairy cows...
  48. Usui T, Konnai S, Ohashi K, Onuma M. Interferon-gamma expression associated with suppression of bovine leukemia virus at the early phase of infection in sheep. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2007;115:17-23 pubmed
    Immunological control of bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infection has been reported as dependent on the expression balance of types 1 and 2 cytokines...
  49. Nguy n T, de Walque S, Veithen E, Dekoninck A, Martinelli V, De Launoit Y, et al. Transcriptional regulation of the bovine leukemia virus promoter by the cyclic AMP-response element modulator tau isoform. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:20854-67 pubmed publisher
    b>Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) expression is controlled at the transcriptional level through three Tax(BLV)-responsive elements (TxREs) responsive to the viral transactivator Tax(BLV)...
  50. Camargos M, Pereda A, Stancek D, Rocha M, dos Reis J, Greiser Wilke I, et al. Molecular characterization of the env gene from Brazilian field isolates of Bovine leukemia virus. Virus Genes. 2007;34:343-50 pubmed
    Molecular characterization of Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) isolates from Brazil using the env gene sequences revealed a high conservation of this gene. In most cases the substitutions corresponded to silent transitions...
  51. Ferens W, Grauke L, Hovde C. Shiga toxin 1 targets bovine leukemia virus-expressing cells. Infect Immun. 2004;72:1837-40 pubmed
    Direct evidence that Escherichia coli Shiga toxin (Stx) acts against bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-expressing cells was obtained...
  52. Lee J, Kim Y, Kang C, Cho D, Shin D, Yum Y, et al. Investigation of the bovine leukemia virus proviral DNA in human leukemias and lung cancers in Korea. J Korean Med Sci. 2005;20:603-6 pubmed
    The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis...
  53. Wang H, Norris K, Mansky L. Analysis of bovine leukemia virus gag membrane targeting and late domain function. J Virol. 2002;76:8485-93 pubmed
    ..exploited this in the development of a model system for studying the virus particle assembly pathway for bovine leukemia virus (BLV)...
  54. Von Beust B, Brown W, Estes D, Zarlenga D, McElwain T, Palmer G. Development and in vitro characterization of recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing bovine leukemia virus gp51 in combination with bovine IL4 or IL12. Vaccine. 1999;17:384-95 pubmed
    ..Specifically, vaccination of sheep with vaccinia virus expressing bovine leukemia virus (BLV) gp51 resulted in protective immunity with the characteristics of a type 1 response, whereas ..
  55. Xu A, van Eijk M, Park C, Lewin H. Polymorphism in BoLA-DRB3 exon 2 correlates with resistance to persistent lymphocytosis caused by bovine leukemia virus. J Immunol. 1993;151:6977-85 pubmed
    ..Ag (BoLA)-DRB3 gene and resistance and susceptibility to persistent lymphocytosis (PL) caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was investigated...
  56. Suh G, Lee J, Lee C, Hur T, Son D, Ahn B, et al. Establishment of a bovine leukemia virus-free dairy herd in Korea. J Vet Sci. 2005;6:227-30 pubmed
    In view of the high prevalence rate of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infections in cattle over the entire country, a large dairy farm in Chungnam province was chosen and 'test and segregate' program was instituted...
  57. Konnai S, Usui T, Ikeda M, Kohara J, Hirata T, Okada K, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha genetic polymorphism may contribute to progression of bovine leukemia virus-infection. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:2163-71 pubmed
    ..factor (TNF)-alpha was closely associated with disease progression in sheep experimentally infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). However, individual variabilities are observed in these responses in BLV-infected animals...
  58. VanLeeuwen J, Tiwari A, Plaizier J, Whiting T. Seroprevalences of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in Manitoba. Can Vet J. 2006;47:783-6 pubmed
    Of 1204 dairy cows and 1425 beef cows sampled, 60.8% and 10.3% were seropositive for Bovine leukemia virus, 4.5% and 1.7% were seropositive for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and 8.3% and 9...
  59. VanLeeuwen J, Forsythe L, Tiwari A, Chartier R. Seroprevalence of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in dairy cattle in Saskatchewan. Can Vet J. 2005;46:56-8 pubmed
    Blood was drawn from 1530 dairy cows in 51 herds. For antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum, 37.4%, 2.7%, and 5...
  60. Debacq C, Asquith B, Kerkhofs P, Portetelle D, Burny A, Kettmann R, et al. Increased cell proliferation, but not reduced cell death, induces lymphocytosis in bovine leukemia virus-infected sheep. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:10048-53 pubmed
    ..apoptosis during pathogenesis induced by the primate T cell lymphotropic viruses and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) has been difficult to assess because of conflicting data from a range of in vitro and ex vivo ..
  61. Adam E, Kerkhofs P, Mammerickx M, Kettmann R, Burny A, Droogmans L, et al. Involvement of the cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein in bovine leukemia virus expression in vivo. J Virol. 1994;68:5845-53 pubmed
    The TAR element (Tax-responsive element; also called TxRE) is a major determinant of the regulation of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) expression...
  62. Reichert M, Cantor G, Willems L, Kettmann R. Protective effects of a live attenuated bovine leukaemia virus vaccine with deletion in the R3 and G4 genes. J Gen Virol. 2000;81:965-9 pubmed
    ..As a model for the protection against infection by members of the human T-lymphotropic virus/BLV group, these data provide evidence that a DNA-based vaccination with an attenuated provirus is able to protect against challenge infections...
  63. Van den Broeke A, Cleuter Y, Beskorwayne T, Kerkhofs P, Szynal M, Bagnis C, et al. CD154 costimulated ovine primary B cells, a cell culture system that supports productive infection by bovine leukemia virus. J Virol. 2001;75:1095-103 pubmed
    b>Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is closely associated with the development of B-cell leukemia and lymphoma in cattle...
  64. De Giuseppe A, Feliziani F, Rutili D, De Mia G. Expression of the bovine leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein (gp51) by recombinant baculovirus and its use in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004;11:147-51 pubmed
    ..with its signal sequence, represented by an additional NH2-terminal 33-residue amino acid sequence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV), was inserted into a baculovirus transfer vector...
  65. Sperka T, Miklossy G, Tie Y, Bagossi P, Zahuczky G, Boross P, et al. Bovine leukemia virus protease: comparison with human T-lymphotropic virus and human immunodeficiency virus proteases. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:2052-63 pubmed
    b>Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a valuable model system for understanding human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1); the availability of an infectious BLV clone, together with animal-model systems, will help to explore anti-HTLV-1 strategies...
  66. Mansky L, Gajary L. The primary nucleotide sequence of the bovine leukemia virus RNA packaging signal can influence efficient RNA packaging and virus replication. Virology. 2002;301:272-80 pubmed
    ..in the gag gene have been implicated as representing the primary encapsidation (packaging) signal for bovine leukemia virus (BLV), a member of the Delta retrovirus of the Retroviridae...
  67. Florins A, Boxus M, Vandermeers F, Verlaeten O, Bouzar A, Defoiche J, et al. Emphasis on cell turnover in two hosts infected by bovine leukemia virus: a rationale for host susceptibility to disease. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2008;125:1-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus that infects and induces accumulation of B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues of cattle, leading to leukemia/lymphoma...
  68. Juliarena M, Poli M, Sala L, Ceriani C, Gutierrez S, Dolcini G, et al. Association of BLV infection profiles with alleles of the BoLA-DRB3.2 gene. Anim Genet. 2008;39:432-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The RS genotype could not be associated with any particular profile. Our results show that allele ISAG*0902 appears to be the best BLV resistance marker in Holstein cattle...
  69. Zandomeni R, Carrera Zandomeni M, Esteban E, Ferrer J. The trans-activating C-type retroviruses share a distinct epitope(s) that induces antibodies in certain infected hosts. J Gen Virol. 1991;72 ( Pt 9):2113-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is likely that CE can be used to define serologically a subgroup of C-type retroviruses, the genomes of which display unique features and functional activities...
  70. Gutierrez G, Alvarez I, Fondevila N, Politzki R, LoMonaco M, Rodriguez S, et al. Detection of bovine leukemia virus specific antibodies using recombinant p24-ELISA. Vet Microbiol. 2009;137:224-34 pubmed publisher
    ..an indirect ELISA test (rp24-ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against the p24 capsid protein of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in bovine serum samples...
  71. Florins A, Gillet N, Asquith B, Boxus M, Burteau C, Twizere J, et al. Cell dynamics and immune response to BLV infection: a unifying model. Front Biosci. 2007;12:1520-31 pubmed
    b>Bovine Leukemia virus (BLV) is the natural etiological agent of a lymphoproliferative disease in cattle. BLV can also be transmitted experimentally to a related ruminant species, sheep, in which the pathogenesis is more acute...
  72. Nuotio L, Rusanen H, Sihvonen L, Neuvonen E. Eradication of enzootic bovine leukosis from Finland. Prev Vet Med. 2003;59:43-9 pubmed
    ..It nevertheless took 30 years to eradicate the disease and the infection. EBL was eradicated from mainland Finland in 1996 and from the island district of Ahvenanmaa in 1999. Annual monitoring of the EBL situation continues...
  73. Twizere J, Kruys V, Lef bvre L, Vanderplasschen A, Collete D, Debacq C, et al. Interaction of retroviral Tax oncoproteins with tristetraprolin and regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95:1846-59 pubmed
    ..e., primate T-cell leukemia viruses and bovine leukemia virus)...
  74. Kittelberger R, Reichel M, Meynell R, Tham K, Molloy J. Detection of antibodies against the core protein p24 of the bovine leukaemia virus in cattle for confirmatory serological testing. J Virol Methods. 1999;77:109-14 pubmed
    ..5%, its specificity was relatively low at 85.0 or 53.3%, respectively for the two negative sera groups...
  75. Lefebvre L, Vanderplasschen A, Ciminale V, Heremans H, Dangoisse O, Jauniaux J, et al. Oncoviral bovine leukemia virus G4 and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 p13(II) accessory proteins interact with farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase. J Virol. 2002;76:1400-14 pubmed
    G4 and p13(II) are accessory proteins encoded by the X region of bovine leukemia virus and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), respectively...
  76. Willems L, Kettmann R, Chen G, Portetelle D, Burny A, Derse D. A cyclic AMP-responsive DNA-binding protein (CREB2) is a cellular transactivator of the bovine leukemia virus long terminal repeat. J Virol. 1992;66:766-72 pubmed
    To gain insight into the cellular regulation of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) trans activation, a lambda-gt11 cDNA library was constructed with mRNA isolated from a BLV-induced tumor and the recombinant proteins were screened with an ..
  77. Cantor G, Pritchard S, Dequiedt F, Willems L, Kettmann R, Davis W. CD5 is dissociated from the B-cell receptor in B cells from bovine leukemia virus-infected, persistently lymphocytotic cattle: consequences to B-cell receptor-mediated apoptosis. J Virol. 2001;75:1689-96 pubmed
    b>Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), a retrovirus related to human T-cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2, can induce persistent nonneoplastic expansion of the CD5(+) B-cell population, termed persistent lymphocytosis (PL)...
  78. Tajima S, Tsukamoto M, Aida Y. Latency of viral expression in vivo is not related to CpG methylation in the U3 region and part of the R region of the long terminal repeat of bovine leukemia virus. J Virol. 2003;77:4423-30 pubmed
    b>Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is silent in most cells detectable in vivo, and the repression of its expression allows BLV to evade the host's immune response...
  79. Nagy D, Tyler J, Kleiboeker S. Decreased periparturient transmission of bovine leukosis virus in colostrum-fed calves. J Vet Intern Med. 2007;21:1104-7 pubmed
    ..Two conclusions have been drawn from previous studies. One suggests that colostrum ingestion transmits BLV to neonatal calves. The second suggests that colostral antibodies are protective...
  80. Johnston E, Albritton L, Radke K. Envelope proteins containing single amino acid substitutions support a structural model of the receptor-binding domain of bovine leukemia virus surface protein. J Virol. 2002;76:10861-72 pubmed
    Functional domains of the strikingly conserved envelope (Env) glycoproteins of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and its close relative, human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), are still being defined...
  81. Twizere J, Lefebvre L, Collete D, Debacq C, Urbain P, Heremans H, et al. The homeobox protein MSX2 interacts with tax oncoproteins and represses their transactivation activity. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:29804-11 pubmed
    b>Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) tax is an essential gene involved in the transcriptional activation of viral expression. Tax is also believed to be implicated in leukemogenesis because of its ability to immortalize primary cells in vitro...
  82. Boris Lawrie K, Altanerova V, Altaner C, Kucerova L, Temin H. In vivo study of genetically simplified bovine leukemia virus derivatives that lack tax and rex. J Virol. 1997;71:1514-20 pubmed
    ..Previously we developed genetically simple derivatives of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) that can replicate in tissue culture independently of the BLV regulatory proteins, Tax and Rex, and ..
  83. Tanaka A, Komuro K. Targeted rearrangement of a chromosomal repeat sequence by transfection of a homologous DNA sequence using purified integrase. Gene Ther. 2005;12:783-94 pubmed
    Using a liposomal transfection with purified bovine leukemia virus (BLV) integrase, we observed an efficient DNA rearrangement of a chromosomal repeat sequence and targeted integration of a part of the transfected plasmid...
  84. Beier D, Riebe R, Blankenstein P, Starick E, Bondzio A, Marquardt O. Establishment of a new bovine leukosis virus producing cell line. J Virol Methods. 2004;121:239-46 pubmed
    ..False positive results caused by BVDV cross-reactions could be eliminated when tests were carried out with antigen derived from the new cell line...
  85. Tiwari A, VanLeeuwen J, Dohoo I, Stryhn H, Keefe G, Haddad J. Effects of seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum on culling in dairy cattle in four Canadian provinces. Vet Microbiol. 2005;109:147-58 pubmed
    The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of seropositivity for exposure to bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and Neospora caninum (NC) ..
  86. Willems L. [Bovine leukemia virus as a model for studying human leukemias]. Bull Mem Acad R Med Belg. 2004;159:473-8 pubmed
    b>Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus responsible for lymphoproliferative disorders in ruminants...
  87. Kohara J, Konnai S, Onuma M. Experimental transmission of Bovine leukemia virus in cattle via rectal palpation. Jpn J Vet Res. 2006;54:25-30 pubmed
    We examined whether Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was transmitted by rectal palpation using a common sleeve between a BLV-infected cow and BLV-negative steers...
  88. Hamilton V, Stone D, Cantor G. Translocation of the B cell receptor to lipid rafts is inhibited in B cells from BLV-infected, persistent lymphocytosis cattle. Virology. 2003;315:135-47 pubmed
    b>Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection causes a significant polyclonal expansion of CD5(+), IgM+ B lymphocytes known as persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in approximately 30% of infected cattle...
  89. Adam E, Kerkhofs P, Mammerickx M, Burny A, Kettmann R, Willems L. The CREB, ATF-1, and ATF-2 transcription factors from bovine leukemia virus-infected B lymphocytes activate viral expression. J Virol. 1996;70:1990-9 pubmed
    Efficient transcription and replication of the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) genome require both the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) and the virus-coded transcriptional activator Tax, which functions through a 21-bp sequence (Tax-..
  90. Kobayashi S, Tsutsui T, Yamamoto T, Hayama Y, Kameyama K, Konishi M, et al. Risk factors associated with within-herd transmission of bovine leukemia virus on dairy farms in Japan. BMC Vet Res. 2010;6:1 pubmed publisher
    ..Effective control of EBL requires that the transmission routes of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection should be identified and intercepted based on scientific evidence...