Summary: A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of exogenous horizontally-transmitted viruses found in a few groups of mammals. Infections caused by these viruses include human B- or adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), and bovine leukemia (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS). The type species is LEUKEMIA VIRUS, BOVINE.

Top Publications

  1. Goubau P, van Brussel M, Vandamme A, Liu H, Desmyter J. A primate T-lymphotropic virus, PTLV-L, different from human T-lymphotropic viruses types I and II, in a wild-caught baboon (Papio hamadryas). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:2848-52 pubmed
    ..Whether PTLV-L resembles PTLV-I and PTLV-II in the extension of its host range to other primates, including humans, remains to be seen...
  2. Zrein M, Louwagie J, Boeykens H, Govers L, Hendrickx G, Bosman F, et al. Assessment of a new immunoassay for serological confirmation and discrimination of human T-cell lymphotropic virus infections. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1998;5:45-9 pubmed
    ..Due to its enhanced specificity and sensitivity, the new assay not only improves the ability to confirm and discriminate HTLV infections but also eliminates the vast majority of WB-indeterminate and false-positive specimens...
  3. Wolfe N, Heneine W, Carr J, Garcia A, Shanmugam V, Tamoufe U, et al. Emergence of unique primate T-lymphotropic viruses among central African bushmeat hunters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:7994-9 pubmed
  4. McGirr K, Buehuring G. Tax & rex: overlapping genes of the Deltaretrovirus group. Virus Genes. 2006;32:229-39 pubmed
    Bovine leukemia virus and human T-cell leukemia viruses I and II, members of the Deltaretrovirus group, have two regulatory genes, tax and rex, that are coded in overlapping reading frames...
  5. Mahieux R, Gessain A. The human HTLV-3 and HTLV-4 retroviruses: new members of the HTLV family. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2009;57:161-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, molecular characterization of their viral transactivator Tax is ongoing in order to look for possible oncogenic properties...
  6. Switzer W, Salemi M, Qari S, Jia H, Gray R, Katzourakis A, et al. Ancient, independent evolution and distinct molecular features of the novel human T-lymphotropic virus type 4. Retrovirology. 2009;6:9 pubmed publisher
    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 4 (HTLV-4) is a new deltaretrovirus recently identified in a primate hunter in Cameroon...
  7. Shohat M, Hodak E, Hannig H, Bodemer W, David M, Shohat B. Evidence for the cofactor role of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 in mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome. Br J Dermatol. 1999;141:44-9 pubmed
    ..None of 10 control rats inoculated with normal donor PBMC showed antibodies to HTLV-1, nor the proviral genome. The present study suggests that HTLV-1 plays a cofactor role in MF/SS patients...
  8. Calattini S, Chevalier S, Duprez R, Bassot S, Froment A, Mahieux R, et al. Discovery of a new human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-3) in Central Africa. Retrovirology. 2005;2:30 pubmed
  9. Manel N, Battini J, Sitbon M. Human T cell leukemia virus envelope binding and virus entry are mediated by distinct domains of the glucose transporter GLUT1. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:29025-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, binding involves a discrete determinant in the carboxyl terminal ECL6, whereas post-binding events engage extracellular sequences in the amino and carboxyl terminus of GLUT1...

More Information

Publications109 found, 100 shown here

  1. Switzer W, Hewlett I, Aaron L, Wolfe N, Burke D, Heneine W. Serologic testing for human T-lymphotropic virus-3 and -4. Transfusion. 2006;46:1647-8 pubmed
  2. Hjelle B. Human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma viruses. Life cycle, pathogenicity, epidemiology, and diagnosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1991;115:440-50 pubmed
    ..In this article, I review the replication of these agents, as well as their pathogenesis, diagnosis, and mechanisms of spread. ..
  3. Tagawa S, Okamoto Y, Inada E, Hakura A, Kitani T. IgA multiple myeloma coexistent with atypical adult T-cell leukemia. Eur J Haematol. 1987;38:410-4 pubmed
    ..Fine needle aspiration revealed pathologic flaming plasma cells. Multiple osteolytic lesions appeared on his skull 5 yr after the initial examination. Thus, a diagnosis of MM concomitant with ATL was made. ..
  4. Ball M. Effect of two disinfectant treatments on laboratory analyses. J R Soc Med. 1987;80:482-4 pubmed
    ..BPL caused less reduction of enzyme activities, and assay of many analytes, including electrolytes, plasma proteins, haemoglobin, white cell and platelet counts, was not significantly affected. ..
  5. Morikawa K, Kuroda M, Tofuku Y, Uehara H, Akizawa T, Kitaoka T, et al. Prevalence of HTLV-1 antibodies in hemodialysis patients in Japan. Am J Kidney Dis. 1988;12:185-93 pubmed
    ..3. In the endemic area of Okinawa, the relationship to blood transfusion was not so close, probably masked by the high background prevalence. ..
  6. Polat M, Takeshima S, Aida Y. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of bovine leukemia virus. Virol J. 2017;14:209 pubmed publisher
    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), an oncogenic member of the Deltaretrovirus genus, is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I and II). BLV infects cattle worldwide and causes important economic losses...
  7. Hiramatsu K, Yonemoto R, Yoshikura H. Epigenetic control and reintegration of extrachromosomal proviral DNA in HL60 cells chronically infected with human T cell leukaemia virus type 1. J Gen Virol. 1988;69 ( Pt 3):651-8 pubmed
    ..Persistence of extrachromosomal proviruses appeared to be caused by an intracellular rather than an intercellular mechanism. ..
  8. Ikai K, Uchiyama T, Maeda M, Takigawa M. Sézary-like syndrome in a 10-year-old girl with serologic evidence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I infection. Arch Dermatol. 1987;123:1351-5 pubmed
    ..The patient showed a high titer (1:1280) of antihuman T-cell lymphotropic virus type I antibody. Her mother was also positive with a titer of 1:40 and seems to be a healthy carrier. ..
  9. Hewitt P, Davison K, Howell D, Taylor G. Human T-lymphotropic virus lookback in NHS Blood and Transplant (England) reveals the efficacy of leukoreduction. Transfusion. 2013;53:2168-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, the one infected recipient of a leukoreduced component had existing risk factors for HTLV infection. HTLV lookback was much less efficient in identifying infected recipients than was hepatitis virus C lookback. ..
  10. Zhang X, Constantine N, Bansal J, Callahan J, Marsiglia V. Evaluation of a new generation synthetic peptide combination assay for detection of antibodies to HIV-1, HIV-2, HTLV-I, and HTLV-II simultaneously. J Med Virol. 1992;38:49-53 pubmed
  11. Wainberg M, Blain N, Spira B. Inhibition of human lymphocyte mitogenesis by human and other retroviruses. Differential effect of interleukin-2 in restoration of responsiveness. AIDS. 1987;1:83-7 pubmed
  12. Nakada K, Kohakura M, Komoda H, Hinuma Y. High incidence of HTLV antibody in carriers of Strongyloides stercoralis. Lancet. 1984;1:633 pubmed
  13. Pantazis P, Sariban E, Bohan C, Antoniades H, Kalyanaraman V. Synthesis of PDGF by cultured human T cells transformed with HTLV-I and II. Oncogene. 1987;1:285-9 pubmed
    ..It is possible that one of the pathways of immortalization of T cells by HTLV-I or II might be by activation of PDGF-related genes. ..
  14. Goldman Leikin R, Herst C, Kies M, Variakojis D, Marder R, Rosen S. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in an atypical host. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1987;111:1054-6 pubmed
    ..The incidence of antibodies in this individual with a T-cell malignancy strongly suggests HTLV-I virus as the causative agent. Direct identification of viral DNA using an HTLV-I-specific probe provides definitive evidence of infection. ..
  15. Wang S, Chang J, Lin M, Chiang C, Chang H. Establishing the reactivity of monoclonal antibodies against porcine endogenous retrovirus envelope protein. Intervirology. 2004;47:93-101 pubmed
    ..This work reveals that recombinant PERV Env protein and mAb may be effective in detecting antibodies against PERV in xenotransplanted patients, or for butchers who have extensive contact with pigs. ..
  16. Flaig M, Rommel F, Campe H, Emmerich B, Sander C. [Adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia: a very rare disease in Europe]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2001;126:389-92 pubmed
    ..Adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia is a rare disease in Europe. However, in patients with skin rashes, and lymphadenopathy, which are originally from HTLV-I endemic areas, adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia should be considered. ..
  17. Shida H, Tochikura T, Sato T, Konno T, Hirayoshi K, Seki M, et al. Effect of the recombinant vaccinia viruses that express HTLV-I envelope gene on HTLV-I infection. EMBO J. 1987;6:3379-84 pubmed
    ..A single inoculation of the recombinant virus induced antibodies to the env proteins of HTLV-I in rabbits and had a protective effect against HTLV-I infection. ..
  18. Su I, Wang C, Cheng A, Chen Y, Hsieh H, Chen C, et al. Characterization of the spectrum of postthymic T-cell malignancies in Taiwan. A clinicopathologic study of HTLV-1-positive and HTLV-1-negative cases. Cancer. 1988;61:2060-70 pubmed
    ..Post-thymic T-cell malignancies in Taiwan include HTLV-1-positive and HTLV-1-negative diseases, both of which have a poor prognosis and resemble similar T-cell malignancies in the East and West. ..
  19. Kobayashi S, Yoshida T, Hiroshige Y, Matsui T, Yamamoto N. Comparative studies of commercially available particle agglutination assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening of human T-cell leukemia virus type I antibodies in blood donors. J Clin Microbiol. 1988;26:308-12 pubmed
    ..The PA was further shown to detect not only IgG antibody but also IgM antibody to HTLV-I after separation of this serum sample by high-performance liquid chromatography. ..
  20. Grimes P, Sevall J, Vojdani A. Cytomegalovirus DNA identified in skin biopsy specimens of patients with vitiligo. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996;35:21-6 pubmed
    ..CMV DNA in the depigmented and uninvolved skin of some patients with vitiligo and its absence in control subjects suggest that vitiligo may indeed be triggered by a viral infection in select patients. ..
  21. Ljungman P. Risk assessment in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: viral status. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2007;20:209-17 pubmed
    ..The aim of this review is to describe current knowledge regarding recipient and donor serological status for viral infections. ..
  22. Bellon M, Nicot C. Regulation of telomerase and telomeres: human tumor viruses take control. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100:98-108 pubmed publisher
  23. Hirashima M, Ueno M, Higuchi S, Matsumoto T, Sakata K, Matsumoto R, et al. Establishment of a human T-cell line constitutively producing several eosinophil chemotactic lymphokines and their functional heterogeneity on eosinophils. Lymphokine Cytokine Res. 1992;11:331-8 pubmed
    ..In further experiments, the chemotactic response of eosinophils from patients with eosinophilia was compared to that of eosinophils from healthy individuals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  24. Montefiori D, Mitchell W. Persistent coinfection of T lymphocytes with HTLV-II and HIV and the role of syncytium formation in HIV-induced cytopathic effect. Virology. 1987;160:372-8 pubmed
    ..The results of these studies further demonstrate that there exists a lack of viral interference by HTLV-II infection, and that HTLV-II-transformed lymphocytes could act as a chronic reservoir for HIV in vivo. ..
  25. Nishimura M, Akiguchi I, Takigawa M, Fujita M, Kameyama M, Maeda M. Human T cell lines established from the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with human T lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy (HAM). J Neuroimmunol. 1988;17:229-36 pubmed
    ..These HTLV-I(+) T cell lines may be valuable for investigating the possible neutrotropism of HTLV-I and the role of HTLV-I in the pathogenesis of HAM. ..
  26. Stephens R, Casey J, Rice N. Equine infectious anemia virus gag and pol genes: relatedness to visna and AIDS virus. Science. 1986;231:589-94 pubmed
    ..Within the family, EIAV, HTLV-III, and visna appear to be equally divergent from a common evolutionary ancestor...
  27. Chorba T, Kalyanaraman V, Lacher M, Schulof R. Lack of evidence of circulating retroviral antibodies in patients with classic Hodgkin's disease. Am J Hematol. 1988;27:13-6 pubmed
  28. Gessain A, Caudie C, Gout O, Vernant J, Maurs L, Giordano C, et al. Intrathecal synthesis of antibodies to human T lymphotropic virus type I and the presence of IgG oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with endemic tropical spastic paraparesis. J Infect Dis. 1988;157:1226-34 pubmed
    ..These data, in association with similar HTLV-I antibody patterns between patients with TSP who were from these three regions, strengthen the probable etiologic role of HTLV-I in the pathogenesis of such chronic neuromyelopathies. ..
  29. Huey D, Bolon B, La Perle K, Kannian P, Jacobson S, Ratner L, et al. Role of Wild-type and Recombinant Human T-cell Leukemia Viruses in Lymphoproliferative Disease in Humanized NSG Mice. Comp Med. 2018;68:4-14 pubmed
    ..Our results show that T-cell transformation in vivo is guided by the Env protein of the virus. Furthermore, our humanized mouse model is useful for exploring the preferred T-cell tropisms of HTLV1 and HTLV2. ..
  30. Tsujimoto A, Teruuchi T, Imamura J, Shimotohno K, Miyoshi I, Miwa M. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a provirus derived from HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM). Mol Biol Med. 1988;5:29-42 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that this provirus, derived from a patient with HAM, belongs to the same species as HTLV-1 derived from patients with ATL. ..
  31. Nakano S, Ando Y, Ichijo M, Moriyama I, Saito S, Sugamura K, et al. Search for possible routes of vertical and horizontal transmission of adult T-cell leukemia virus. Gan. 1984;75:1044-5 pubmed
    ..Cells from breast milk of all of 12 anti-ATLA-positive mothers and semen from one of three anti-ATLA positive men were ATLA-positive. ..
  32. Bourhis J, Dupuis O. [Virus and human oncogenesis]. Rev Prat. 1994;44:900-5 pubmed
    ..A better knowledge of these viruses may also have therapeutic implications in a not too distant future such as the vaccination against HBV in order minimize the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in endemic countries. ..
  33. Kuehn B. New human retroviruses discovered: evidence that cross-species leap not a rare event. JAMA. 2005;293:2989-90 pubmed
  34. Hahn B, Kong L, Lee S, Kumar P, Taylor M, Arya S, et al. Relation of HTLV-4 to simian and human immunodeficiency-associated viruses. Nature. 1987;330:184-6 pubmed
    ..We conclude that HTLV-4 (ref. 4) and STLV-3AGM (ref. 7) are not independent virus isolates and that HIV-2 is present in Senegal as it is in other West African countries. ..
  35. Rosenblatt J, Giorgi J, Golde D, Ezra J, Wu A, Winberg C, et al. Integrated human T-cell leukemia virus II genome in CD8 + T cells from a patient with "atypical" hairy cell leukemia: evidence for distinct T and B cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Blood. 1988;71:363-9 pubmed
  36. Varmier O, Melioli G, Lillo F, Schito G, Repetto C, Ravegnani M, et al. HTLV antibodies in Italian patients with multiple sclerosis. Ital J Neurol Sci. 1987;Suppl 6:51-2 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, it cannot be ruled out that a distinct retrovirus is the etiologic factor of MS. ..
  37. Itoyama Y, Minato S, Kira J, Goto I, Sato H, Okochi K, et al. Altered subsets of peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM). Neurology. 1988;38:816-8 pubmed
    ..These altered PBL subsets and high HTLV-I antibody titers in the patients suggest that immune functions are in an activated state in HAM. ..
  38. Landesman S, Ginzburg H, Weiss S. The AIDS epidemic. N Engl J Med. 1985;312:521-5 pubmed
    ..Finally, the threasts to confidentiality posed by licensure of the HTLV-III antibody test must be recongnized. ..
  39. Cross S, Feinberg M, Wolf J, Holbrook N, Wong Staal F, Leonard W. Regulation of the human interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain promoter: activation of a nonfunctional promoter by the transactivator gene of HTLV-I. Cell. 1987;49:47-56 pubmed
    ..Tat-I also augments IL2-CAT expression under some conditions, suggesting possible autocrine or paracrine mechanisms for HTLV-I-induced leukemogenesis. ..
  40. Tozawa H, Andoh S, Takayama Y, Tanaka Y, Lee B, Nakamura H, et al. Species-dependent antigenicity of the 34-kDa glycoprotein found on the membrane of various primate lymphocytes transformed by human T-cell leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-I) and simian T-cell leukemia virus (STLV-I). Int J Cancer. 1988;41:231-8 pubmed
    ..2 at 37 degrees C, TA34 antigen lost its reactivity with TAG34, suggesting that the antigen has an intramolecular S-S bond. Twenty sera of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) patients did not react with TA34 antigen in RIP tests. ..
  41. Marolleau J, Henni T, Gaulard P, Le Couedic J, Gourdin M, Divine M, et al. Hairy cell leukemia associated with large granular lymphocyte leukemia: immunologic and genomic study, effect of interferon treatment. Blood. 1988;72:655-60 pubmed
    ..Although the authors cannot definitely exclude that both HC and LGL proliferations stem in a common leukemic precursor, their findings support an association of the two entities...
  42. Posnett D, McGrath H, Scott R, McNutt N, Folkl R, Hickey T, et al. Polyclonal lymphocytosis of T-cells associated with human T-cell leukemia virus I. Cancer Res. 1988;48:2585-9 pubmed
    ..Polyclonal T-cell infection by human T-cell leukemia virus type I may represent an infrequently observed stage of leukemogenesis. ..
  43. Aguzzi A, Bothe K, Wagner E, Rethwilm A, Horak I. Human foamy virus: an underestimated neuropathogen?. Brain Pathol. 1992;2:61-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the transgenic mouse model will be useful for studying the molecular basis of HFV-induced neurotoxicity, the role of individual disease-associated HFV genes and the regulation of retroviral latency. ..
  44. Yip M, Chen I. Modes of transformation by the human T-cell leukemia viruses. Mol Biol Med. 1990;7:33-44 pubmed
    ..Models are proposed for how these events mediated by HTLV may contribute to T-cell transformation and ultimately, leukemia. ..
  45. Dube D, Dube S, Erensoy S, Jones B, Bryz Gornia V, Spicer T, et al. Serological and nucleic acid analyses for HIV and HTLV infection on archival human plasma samples from Zaire. Virology. 1994;202:379-89 pubmed
    ..The Zairean HTLV-II isolate is closely grouped with the HTLV-II substrain of isolates found in Paleo-Amerindians of the New World, making it unlikely that it represents an endemic African strain. ..
  46. Bagossi P, Bander P, Bozóki B, Tozser J. Discovery and significance of new human T-lymphotropic viruses: HTLV-3 and HTLV-4. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2009;7:1235-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential risks associated with these viruses and the potential antiretroviral therapies are also discussed. ..
  47. Thomsen K, Wantzin G. Lymphomatoid papulosis. A follow-up study of 30 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987;17:632-6 pubmed
    ..Treatment with psoralens plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) was effective (partial or complete remission) in six patients but they relapsed at cessation of therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  48. Knobler R, Rehle T, Grossman M, Saxinger C, Berger C, Oster M, et al. Clinical evolution of cutaneous T cell lymphoma in a patient with antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus type I. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987;17:903-9 pubmed
    ..Examination of the patient's course provides clues about the latency period and transmission of HTLV-I and highlights similarities between HTLV-I-positive and HTLV-I-negative cutaneous T cell lymphoma. ..
  49. Folks T, Kelly J, Benn S, Kinter A, Justement J, Gold J, et al. Susceptibility of normal human lymphocytes to infection with HTLV-III/LAV. J Immunol. 1986;136:4049-53 pubmed
    ..The addition of anti-human interferon-alpha did not appear to have an appreciable effect on viral production in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to the virus...
  50. Leung K, Nabel G. HTLV-1 transactivator induces interleukin-2 receptor expression through an NF-kappa B-like factor. Nature. 1988;333:776-8 pubmed
    ..Both HTLV-I and HIV-1 thus interact with NF-kappa B-like transcription factors which might normally regulate expression of a growth factor receptor gene...
  51. Gardner M. Naturally occurring leukaemia viruses in wild mice: how good a model for humans?. Cancer Surv. 1987;6:55-71 pubmed
    ..These results illustrate the importance of studying natural history in the 'real world' and the limitations of laboratory artefacts such as those created by inbreeding of laboratory mice...
  52. Kanki P, Allan J, Barin F, Redfield R, Clumeck N, Quinn T, et al. Absence of antibodies to HIV-2/HTLV-4 in six central African nations. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1987;3:317-22 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that HIV-2/HTLV-4 has a distinct geographic distribution from that of HIV-1 in Africa. Further studies are necessary to better define the pathogenicity and natural history of this distinct new virus, HIV-2/HTLV-4...
  53. Ikuta K, Morita C, Nakai M, Yamamoto N, Kato S. Defective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) particles produced by cloned cells of HTLV-I-carrying MT-4 cells persistently infected with HIV. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1988;79:418-23 pubmed
    ..Most of the constituents of the virus in the media were env proteins and many defective doughnut-shaped particles released from the cells were identified by electron microscopy...
  54. Bentwich Z, Saxinger C, Ben Ishay Z, Burstein R, Berner Y, Pecht M, et al. Immune impairments and antibodies to HTLVIII/LAV in asymptomatic male homosexuals in Israel: relevance to the risk of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). J Clin Immunol. 1987;7:376-80 pubmed
  55. Nutman T, Delespesse G, Sarfati M, Volkman D. T-cell-derived IgE-binding factors. I. Cloned and transformed T cells producing IgE-binding factors. J Immunol. 1987;139:4049-54 pubmed
    ..These cells should prove potent immunologic tools for dissecting the various regulatory mechanisms involved in IgE production both in the normal state and in pathologic conditions...
  56. Jacobson S, Raine C, Mingioli E, McFarlin D. Isolation of an HTLV-1-like retrovirus from patients with tropical spastic paraparesis. Nature. 1988;331:540-3 pubmed
    ..The monoclonal antibody OKT3 was used to generate non-transformed T-cell lines that express HTLV-I antigens. Infectious virus was demonstrated by co-cultivation and complete, replicating virions were visualized ultrastructurally...
  57. Miyajima A, Miyatake S, Schreurs J, De Vries J, Arai N, Yokota T, et al. Coordinate regulation of immune and inflammatory responses by T cell-derived lymphokines. FASEB J. 1988;2:2462-73 pubmed
    ..This inducible hemopoiesis appears to be differentially regulated from the steady state or constitutive hemopoiesis that occurs in the bone marrow microenvironment in the absence of immunological stimuli...
  58. Kuo T, Sato H, Dunn P, Shih L, Eimoto T, Kikuchi M, et al. Presence of HTLV-I proviral DNA in patients with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in Taiwan. Cancer. 1988;62:702-4 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the ATL cases diagnosed clinicopathologically in Taiwan were, for the first time, documented to be definitely related to HTLV-I...
  59. Hemler M, Jacobson J, Brenner M, Mann D, Strominger J. VLA-1: a T cell surface antigen which defines a novel late stage of human T cell activation. Eur J Immunol. 1985;15:502-8 pubmed
  60. Farrugia A. Potential impact of AUSFTA on Australia's blood supply. Med J Aust. 2007;186:660 pubmed
  61. Willems L. The 14th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and related retroviruses (July 1-4, 2009; Salvador, Brazil). Retrovirology. 2009;6:77 pubmed publisher
    ..Exciting new findings were presented in these different fields, and the new advances have led to novel clinical trials. Here, highlights from this conference are summarized...
  62. Reeves W, Levine P, Cuevas M, Quiroz E, Maloney E, Saxinger W. Seroepidemiology of human T cell lymphotropic virus in the Republic of Panama. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1990;42:374-9 pubmed
    ..Clustering of infection in an isolated Amerind population must be further investigated. The small proportion of screen-positive sera which confirmed positive illustrates the importance of strict uniform criteria for seropositivity...
  63. Zahm P, Hofschneider P, Koshy R. The HBV X-ORF encodes a transactivator: a potential factor in viral hepatocarcinogenesis. Oncogene. 1988;3:169-77 pubmed
    ..These results introduce additional considerations for the role of HBV in the development of hepatocellular tumors...
  64. Dalgleish A, Fazakerley J, Webb H. Do human T-lymphotrophic viruses (HTLVs) and other enveloped viruses induce autoimmunity in multiple sclerosis?. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 1987;13:241-50 pubmed
    ..The part which T-lymphotrophic viruses (HTLVs) and other enveloped viruses may play in this phenomenon is discussed...
  65. Fujii M, Nakamura M, Ohtani K, Sugamura K, Hinuma Y. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induces the enhancer function of human T-cell leukemia virus type I. FEBS Lett. 1987;223:299-303 pubmed
  66. Faller D, Crimmins M, Mentzer S. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I infection of CD4+ or CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell clones results in immortalization with retention of antigen specificity. J Virol. 1988;62:2942-50 pubmed
  67. Hausmann E, Gelderblom H, Clapham P, Pauli G, Weiss R. Detection of HIV envelope specific antibodies by immunoelectron microscopy and correlation with antibody titer and virus neutralizing activity. J Virol Methods. 1987;16:125-37 pubmed
    ..This type of immunocryoultramicrotomy appears to be useful for the detection of antigens in and on the virion. It might turn out valuable for the characterization of the env gp120 epitopes of HIV...
  68. Simmonds P. Transfusion virology: progress and challenges. Blood Rev. 1998;12:171-7 pubmed
    ..Establishing a framework for PCR-based screening would also enable the testing for others such as hepatitis A virus, parvovirus B19 and GBV-C/HGV for which serological detection methods cannot be or have not been developed...
  69. Kimura S, Hase K, Ohno H. The molecular basis of induction and formation of tunneling nanotubes. Cell Tissue Res. 2013;352:67-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies have revealed key molecules for their induction and/or formation; HIV Nef and M-Sec can induce the formation of TNTs in coordination with the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and vesicle trafficking...
  70. Yamaguchi K, Matutes E, Kiyokawa T, Nishimura Y, Ishii T, Takatsuki K, et al. Comparison of immunoperoxidase staining with indirect immunofluorescence, ELISA, and Western blotting assays for detecting anti-HTLV-I antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Pathol. 1988;41:57-61 pubmed
    ..Indirect immunoperoxidase staining and Western blotting assay are probably useful and more specific assays for the detection of anti-HTLV-I antibodies in samples from patients with autoimmune diseases...
  71. Maio J, Brown F. Regulation of expression driven by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and human T-cell leukemia virus type I long terminal repeats in pluripotential human embryonic cells. J Virol. 1988;62:1398-407 pubmed
    ..Thus, changing cellular regulatory mechanisms influenced human retrovirus expression during human embryonic cell differentiation...
  72. Jones M, Gunapala D, Matutes E, Catovsky D, Coates A. A novel human macrophage-activating factor: distinction from interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF). Cell Immunol. 1988;113:361-75 pubmed
    ..This cell line should provide a good source of this MAF for further purification and characterization...
  73. Merelli E, Sola P, Montagnani G, Baldini E. Absence of antibodies to HTLV-I and HIV in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of Italian patients with multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 1988;84:337-9 pubmed
    ..ELISA procedure was used to detect antibodies against HTLV-I and HIV. Negative results were obtained in all samples examined...
  74. Robinson W, Montefiori D, Mitchell W. Antibody-dependent enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Lancet. 1988;1:790-4 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of action does not involve an increase in either complement-mediated cytolysis or syncytium formation. The activity has been identified in 11 of 16 patients tested to date...
  75. Kleinerman E, Lachman L, Knowles R, Snyderman R, Cianciolo G. A synthetic peptide homologous to the envelope proteins of retroviruses inhibits monocyte-mediated killing by inactivating interleukin 1. J Immunol. 1987;139:2329-37 pubmed
    ..CKS-17 also blocked IL-1-induced proliferation of murine thymocytes, the D10 T cell line, and an IL-1-responsive astrocytoma cell line. These data suggest that CKS-17 may be a potent inhibitor of IL-1...
  76. Maurer B, Flugel R. Genomic organization of the human spumaretrovirus and its relatedness to AIDS and other retroviruses. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1988;4:467-73 pubmed
    ..The results strengthen the view that HSRV and its novel genes should be studied in comparison to the new genes of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) viruses and human T cell leukemia viruses (HTLV)...
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    ..From what is known about the molecular biology and epidemiology of HTLV-I, hypotheses on the etiology of TSP are proposed, and strategies for studying the neurological syndrome are suggested...
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    ..Analysis of defective proviral clones isolated from the same genomic library is also reported, and suggests a pattern of proviral sequence deletions during the biogenesis of defective proviruses...
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    ..These results indicate that the complex of receptor molecules used by HTLV-3 to bind to primary T lymphocytes differs from that of both HTLV-1 and HTLV-2...
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    ..Real-time PCR array for rapid detection of multiple viral pathogens should be highly useful in cases where the sample volume and the time of testing are limited, i.e. in the eligibility testing of tissue and organ donors...
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    ..Receptor gene transcription is initiated at two principal sites in normal activated T cells. Adult T cell leukemia cells infected with HTLV-I show activity at both of these sites, but also at a third transcription initiation site...
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    ..This system provides a method to study the cellular tropism of HTLV-1 and additionally provides a model to facilitate molecular studies of the natural events of HTLV-1 infection and integration...
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    ..The risks associated with musculoskeletal donation will be reduced with NAT, though further cost analysis is required prior to its implementation...
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    ..HTLV-1 belongs to the Retroviridae family, the Orthoretrovirinae subfamily and to the deltaretrovirus genus. HTLV-1 preferentially infects CD4(+) lymphoid cells in vivo...
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    ..These results militate against the involvement of HTLV-I or -II but may implicate a role by a cross-reacting, previously unrecognized retrovirus in the pathogenesis of hairy cell leukemia in Japanese patients...
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    ..Thus, HIV-1 gene expression and replication appear to be regulated, via the HIV-1 LTR, by the same mitogenic signals that induce T cell activation...
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    ..The p24s of all SIVagms are more similar to the p24s of HIV-1, but with respect to p 18, one isolate is similar to HIV-1, while the two others are more related to SIVmac, SIVsm, and HIV-2...
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    ..In the sera from patients with adult T cell leukemia, large amounts of IL 2R were released, in contrast to sera from healthy carriers of HTLV-I. The molecular weight of IL 2R was determined to be about 50 KD by size-exclusion HPLC...
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