mouse mammary tumor virus

Summary

Summary: The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.

Top Publications

  1. Andarawewa K, Boulay A, Masson R, Mathelin C, Stoll I, Tomasetto C, et al. Dual stromelysin-3 function during natural mouse mammary tumor virus-ras tumor progression. Cancer Res. 2003;63:5844-9 pubmed
    ..Such a dual effect for an MMP might shed light, at least partially, for the absence of survival benefit for patients included in anti-MMP clinical trials. ..
  2. Qiu Y, Zhao Y, Becker M, John S, Parekh B, Huang S, et al. HDAC1 acetylation is linked to progressive modulation of steroid receptor-induced gene transcription. Mol Cell. 2006;22:669-79 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that HDAC1 is required for the induction of some genes by the GR, and this activator function is dynamically modulated by acetylation. ..
  3. Jude B, Pobezinskaya Y, Bishop J, Parke S, Medzhitov R, Chervonsky A, et al. Subversion of the innate immune system by a retrovirus. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:573-8 pubmed
    ..We show here that the wild-type mouse mammary tumor virus MMTV(C3H) persisted indefinitely in C3H/HeN mice...
  4. Bhadra S, Lozano M, Dudley J. Conversion of mouse mammary tumor virus to a lymphomagenic virus. J Virol. 2005;79:12592-6 pubmed
    Type B leukemogenic virus is a variant of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) that causes thymic lymphomas rather than mammary tumors in mice...
  5. Fukuoka H, Moriuchi M, Yano H, Nagayasu T, Moriuchi H. No association of mouse mammary tumor virus-related retrovirus with Japanese cases of breast cancer. J Med Virol. 2008;80:1447-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is the causative agent of breast tumors in mice...
  6. Maroulakou I, Oemler W, Naber S, Tsichlis P. Akt1 ablation inhibits, whereas Akt2 ablation accelerates, the development of mammary adenocarcinomas in mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-ErbB2/neu and MMTV-polyoma middle T transgenic mice. Cancer Res. 2007;67:167-77 pubmed
  7. Mant C, Cason J. A human murine mammary tumour virus-like agent is an unconvincing aetiological agent for human breast cancer. Rev Med Virol. 2004;14:169-77 pubmed
    ..Indeed positive PCR results may be readily explained by the mis-amplification of host genomic DNA. Hence, the burden of proof currently lies with those who champion a viral cause for sporadic cases of breast cancer. ..
  8. Yang X, Edgerton S, Kosanke S, Mason T, Alvarez K, Liu N, et al. Hormonal and dietary modulation of mammary carcinogenesis in mouse mammary tumor virus-c-erbB-2 transgenic mice. Cancer Res. 2003;63:2425-33 pubmed
    ..In addition, dietary phytoestrogens modified mammary development and tumor latency, suggesting a need for greater stringency in dietary assignment for transgenic mouse models of mammary neoplasia. ..
  9. Vicent G, Melià M, Beato M. Asymmetric binding of histone H1 stabilizes MMTV nucleosomes and the interaction of progesterone receptor with the exposed HRE. J Mol Biol. 2002;324:501-17 pubmed
    Packaging of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter sequences in nucleosomes modulates access of DNA binding proteins and influences the interaction among DNA bound transcription factors...

More Information

Publications86

  1. Ross S, Schofield J, Farr C, Bucan M. Mouse transferrin receptor 1 is the cell entry receptor for mouse mammary tumor virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12386-90 pubmed
    ..Species-specific virus tropism is usually determined by these entry receptors. Because mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is unable to infect Chinese hamster cells, we used phenotypic screening of the T31 mouse/hamster ..
  2. Vicent G, Ballaré C, Nacht A, Clausell J, Subtil Rodríguez A, Quiles I, et al. Induction of progesterone target genes requires activation of Erk and Msk kinases and phosphorylation of histone H3. Mol Cell. 2006;24:367-81 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of Msk1 activation blocks recruitment of the kinase complex, H3 phosphorylation, and HP1gamma displacement, thus precluding remodeling and induction of the promoter. ..
  3. Li Y, Zhang Y, Hill J, Shen Q, Kim H, Xu X, et al. The Rexinoid LG100268 prevents the development of preinvasive and invasive estrogen receptor negative tumors in MMTV-erbB2 mice. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:6224-31 pubmed
    ..Rexinoid LG100268 is an effective chemopreventive agent in preventing the development of both malignant and premalignant mammary lesions in MMTV-erbB2 mice. ..
  4. Sarkar N. Mouse mammary tumor virus derived from wild mice does not target Notch-4 protooncogene for the development of mammary tumors in inbred mice. Virology. 2009;388:121-7 pubmed publisher
    The colony of wild mice, named Jyg, has been shown to express an exogenous mouse mammary tumor virus (Jyg-MMTV)...
  5. Strumane K, Rygiel T, van der Valk M, Collard J. Tiam1-deficiency impairs mammary tumor formation in MMTV-c-neu but not in MMTV-c-myc mice. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2009;135:69-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that the Rac activator Tiam1 contributes to tumorigenicity induced by specific oncogenic signaling pathways only. ..
  6. Moraes R, Zhang X, Harrington N, Fung J, Wu M, Hilsenbeck S, et al. Constitutive activation of smoothened (SMO) in mammary glands of transgenic mice leads to increased proliferation, altered differentiation and ductal dysplasia. Development. 2007;134:1231-42 pubmed
    ..We now show that expression of activated human SMO (SmoM2) under the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter in transgenic mice leads to increased proliferation, altered differentiation, and ductal ..
  7. Lowther W, Wiley K, Smith G, Callahan R. A new common integration site, Int7, for the mouse mammary tumor virus in mouse mammary tumors identifies a gene whose product has furin-like and thrombospondin-like sequences. J Virol. 2005;79:10093-6 pubmed
    A novel common integration site for the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) was identified (designated Int7) in five independently arising mouse mammary tumors...
  8. Cadieux C, Kedinger V, Yao L, Vadnais C, Drossos M, Paquet M, et al. Mouse mammary tumor virus p75 and p110 CUX1 transgenic mice develop mammary tumors of various histologic types. Cancer Res. 2009;69:7188-97 pubmed publisher
    ..into the Hprt locus to generate transgenic mice expressing p75 or p110 CUX1 under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus-long terminal repeat...
  9. Ackler S, Ahmad S, Tobias C, Johnson M, Glazer R. Delayed mammary gland involution in MMTV-AKT1 transgenic mice. Oncogene. 2002;21:198-206 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that AKT1 is involved in cell survival in the lactating and involuting mammary gland, but that overexpression of AKT1 alone is insufficient to induce transformation. ..
  10. Maitra U, Seo J, Lozano M, Dudley J. Differentiation-induced cleavage of Cutl1/CDP generates a novel dominant-negative isoform that regulates mammary gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7466-78 pubmed
    Cutl1/CCAAT displacement protein (CDP) is a transcriptional repressor of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), a betaretrovirus that is a paradigm for mammary-specific gene regulation...
  11. Wagner K, McAllister K, Ward T, Davis B, Wiseman R, Hennighausen L. Spatial and temporal expression of the Cre gene under the control of the MMTV-LTR in different lines of transgenic mice. Transgenic Res. 2001;10:545-53 pubmed
    ..earlier the generation of transgenic mice that express the Cre recombinase under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) long terminal repeat (LTR)...
  12. Pond A, Herschkowitz J, Schwertfeger K, Welm B, Zhang Y, York B, et al. Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling dramatically accelerates tumorigenesis and enhances oncoprotein translation in the mouse mammary tumor virus-Wnt-1 mouse model of breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2010;70:4868-79 pubmed publisher
    ..engineered a model of inducible FGF receptor (iFGFR) signaling in the context of the well-established mouse mammary tumor virus-Wnt-1 transgenic mouse...
  13. Purdy A, Case L, Duvall M, Overstrom Coleman M, Monnier N, Chervonsky A, et al. Unique resistance of I/LnJ mice to a retrovirus is due to sustained interferon gamma-dependent production of virus-neutralizing antibodies. J Exp Med. 2003;197:233-43 pubmed
    ..Like other retroviruses, mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is not efficiently eliminated by the immune system of susceptible mice...
  14. Müllner M, Salmons B, Gunzburg W, Indik S. Identification of the Rem-responsive element of mouse mammary tumor virus. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:6284-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) has previously been shown to encode a functional homolog of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) nuclear export protein Rev, termed Rem...
  15. Wang E, Obeng Adjei N, Ying Q, Meertens L, Dragic T, Davey R, et al. Mouse mammary tumor virus uses mouse but not human transferrin receptor 1 to reach a low pH compartment and infect cells. Virology. 2008;381:230-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a pH-dependent virus that uses mouse transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) for entry into cells. Previous studies demonstrated that MMTV could induce pH 5-dependent fusion-from-with of mouse cells...
  16. Okeoma C, Petersen J, Ross S. Expression of murine APOBEC3 alleles in different mouse strains and their effect on mouse mammary tumor virus infection. J Virol. 2009;83:3029-38 pubmed publisher
    Recent work has shown that mouse APOBEC3 restricts infection by mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV) and that there are polymorphic APOBEC3 alleles found in different inbred mouse strains...
  17. Witt A, Hartmann B, Marton E, Zeillinger R, Schreiber M, Kubista E. The mouse mammary tumor virus-like env gene sequence is not detectable in breast cancer tissue of Austrian patients. Oncol Rep. 2003;10:1025-9 pubmed
    ..We did not find any exogenous MMTV env gene sequences in the 50 DNA samples of human breast cancer tissue nor in 22 breast cancer cell lines including MCF-7, which has previously been described as a positive control...
  18. Buggiano V, Levy C, Gattelli A, Cirio M, Marfil M, Nepomnaschy I, et al. Origin and progression of pregnancy-dependent mammary tumors induced by new mouse mammary tumor virus variants. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2002;75:191-202 pubmed
    In order to study mechanisms of progression of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-induced pregnancy-dependent mammary lesions, we removed and serially transplanted 17 small tumors detected in MMTV-infected pregnant females...
  19. Belikov S, Astrand C, Wrange O. Mechanism of histone H1-stimulated glucocorticoid receptor DNA binding in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:2398-410 pubmed
    ..The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) inducible mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter was reconstituted in Xenopus oocytes to address the effects of histone H1...
  20. Lee J, Kim D, Gee M, Saunders H, Sehgal C, Feldman M, et al. Interleukin-12 inhibits angiogenesis and growth of transplanted but not in situ mouse mammary tumor virus-induced mammary carcinomas. Cancer Res. 2002;62:747-55 pubmed
    ..interleukin-12 (rmIL-12) to inhibit the vasculature and growth of mammary carcinomas arising in situ in mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-infected female C3H/HeN mice...
  21. Martin P, Ruiz S, Del Hoyo G, Anjuere F, Vargas H, López Bravo M, et al. Dramatic increase in lymph node dendritic cell number during infection by the mouse mammary tumor virus occurs by a CD62L-dependent blood-borne DC recruitment. Blood. 2002;99:1282-8 pubmed
    ..changes occurring in DC subpopulations during the experimental infection by the Swiss (SW) strain of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)...
  22. Vicent G, Zaurin R, Nacht A, Font Mateu J, Le Dily F, Beato M. Nuclear factor 1 synergizes with progesterone receptor on the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter wrapped around a histone H3/H4 tetramer by facilitating access to the central hormone-responsive elements. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:2622-31 pubmed publisher
    ..On the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter progesterone induction is mediated by the reciprocal synergism between progesterone ..
  23. Flaus A, Owen Hughes T. Dynamic properties of nucleosomes during thermal and ATP-driven mobilization. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7767-79 pubmed
    ..Here we have monitored the movements of nucleosomes following deposition at well-defined locations on mouse mammary tumor virus promoter DNA...
  24. Burzyn D, Rassa J, Kim D, Nepomnaschy I, Ross S, Piazzon I. Toll-like receptor 4-dependent activation of dendritic cells by a retrovirus. J Virol. 2004;78:576-84 pubmed
    b>Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a milk-borne retrovirus that exploits the adaptive immune system. It has recently been shown that MMTV activates B cells via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a molecule involved in innate immune responses...
  25. Forrester E, Chytil A, Bierie B, Aakre M, Gorska A, Sharif Afshar A, et al. Effect of conditional knockout of the type II TGF-beta receptor gene in mammary epithelia on mammary gland development and polyomavirus middle T antigen induced tumor formation and metastasis. Cancer Res. 2005;65:2296-302 pubmed
    ..Tgfbr2MGKO mice were mated to the mouse mammary tumor virus-polyomavirus middle T antigen (PyVmT) transgenic mouse model of metastatic breast cancer...
  26. Rizvi T, Ali J, Phillip P, Ghazawi A, Jayanth P, Mustafa F. Role of a heterologous retroviral transport element in the development of genetic complementation assay for mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) replication. Virology. 2009;385:464-72 pubmed publisher
    The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a type B retrovirus that is unique from other retroviruses in having multiple "tissue specific" and "hormone inducible" promoters...
  27. Indik S, Gunzburg W, Salmons B, Rouault F. Mouse mammary tumor virus infects human cells. Cancer Res. 2005;65:6651-9 pubmed
    b>Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) has long been speculated to be involved in human breast cancer and more recently in human primary biliary cirrhosis...
  28. Seo J, Lozano M, Dudley J. Nuclear matrix binding regulates SATB1-mediated transcriptional repression. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24600-9 pubmed
    ..many genes expressed in the thymus, including interleukin-2 receptor alpha, c-myc, and those encoded by mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), a glucocorticoid-responsive retrovirus...
  29. Mant C, Cason J. Mouse mammary tumor virus and human breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2005;65:1112; author reply 1112-3 pubmed
  30. Belikov S, Holmqvist P, Astrand C, Wrange O. Nuclear factor 1 and octamer transcription factor 1 binding preset the chromatin structure of the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter for hormone induction. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:49857-67 pubmed
    When the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is integrated into the genome of a mammalian cell, its long terminal repeat (LTR) harbors six specifically positioned nucleosomes...
  31. Lawson J, Glenn W, Salmons B, Ye Y, Heng B, Moody P, et al. Mouse mammary tumor virus-like sequences in human breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2010;70:3576-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) sequences have been reported to be present in some human breast cancers, but it is unclear whether they have any causal role...
  32. Selmi C, Ross S, Ansari A, Invernizzi P, Podda M, Coppel R, et al. Lack of immunological or molecular evidence for a role of mouse mammary tumor retrovirus in primary biliary cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 2004;127:493-501 pubmed
    Recent observations, including a pilot clinical trial, have suggested that a human mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) causes primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). We attempted to confirm such data.
  33. Vacheron S, Luther S, Acha Orbea H. Preferential infection of immature dendritic cells and B cells by mouse mammary tumor virus. J Immunol. 2002;168:3470-6 pubmed
    Until now it was thought that the retrovirus mouse mammary tumor virus preferentially infects B cells, which thereafter proliferate and differentiate due to superantigen-mediated T cell help...
  34. Ford C, Tran D, Deng Y, Ta V, Rawlinson W, Lawson J. Mouse mammary tumor virus-like gene sequences in breast tumors of Australian and Vietnamese women. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:1118-20 pubmed
    There is considerable evidence that the presence of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-like gene sequences in human breast cancer is highly associated with human breast carcinoma...
  35. Rassa J, Meyers J, Zhang Y, Kudaravalli R, Ross S. Murine retroviruses activate B cells via interaction with toll-like receptor 4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:2281-6 pubmed
    ..A candidate protein for the activation of B cells by either mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) or murine leukemia virus is the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a component of the innate immune ..
  36. Dangerfield J, Hohenadl C, Egerbacher M, Kodajova P, Salmons B, Gunzburg W. HIV-1 Rev can specifically interact with MMTV RNA and upregulate gene expression. Gene. 2005;358:17-30 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that HIV-1 Rev can directly bind to MMTV RNA as well as mediate upregulation of MMTV gene expression...
  37. Zammarchi F, Pistello M, Piersigilli A, Murr R, Di Cristofano C, Naccarato A, et al. MMTV-like sequences in human breast cancer: a fluorescent PCR/laser microdissection approach. J Pathol. 2006;209:436-44 pubmed
    ..This approach might be successfully used in large molecular studies that aim to investigate the hypothesis of a retroviral aetiology of human breast cancer...
  38. Gonzalez Suarez E, Branstetter D, Armstrong A, Dinh H, Blumberg H, Dougall W. RANK overexpression in transgenic mice with mouse mammary tumor virus promoter-controlled RANK increases proliferation and impairs alveolar differentiation in the mammary epithelia and disrupts lumen formation in cultured epithelial acini. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:1442-54 pubmed
    ..RANK overexpression under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter in a transgenic mouse model results in increased mammary epithelial cell proliferation ..
  39. Sarkar N, Golovkina T, Uz Zaman T. RIII/Sa mice with a high incidence of mammary tumors express two exogenous strains and one potential endogenous strain of mouse mammary tumor virus. J Virol. 2004;78:1055-62 pubmed
    The inbred mouse strain RIII has long been known for shedding large amounts of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) particles in milk and for the development of hormone-dependent early mammary tumors at a very high incidence (>90%)...
  40. Zapata Benavides P, Saavedra Alonso S, Zamora Avila D, Vargas Rodarte C, Barrera Rodríguez R, Salinas Silva J, et al. Mouse mammary tumor virus-like gene sequences in breast cancer samples of Mexican women. Intervirology. 2007;50:402-7 pubmed
    Previous reports related the presence of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-like gene sequences to human breast carcinoma...
  41. Bar Sinai A, Bassa N, Fischette M, Gottesman M, Love D, Hanover J, et al. Mouse mammary tumor virus Env-derived peptide associates with nucleolar targets in lymphoma, mammary carcinoma, and human breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2005;65:7223-30 pubmed
    We have previously shown that the leader peptide (p14) of the Env-precursor of mouse mammary tumor virus is translocated into the nucleoli of murine T cell lymphomas that harbor this virus...
  42. Holland J, Pogo B. Mouse mammary tumor virus-like viral infection and human breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:5647-9 pubmed
  43. Hebbar P, Archer T. Nuclear factor 1 is required for both hormone-dependent chromatin remodeling and transcriptional activation of the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:887-98 pubmed
    The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter has been used as a model to study how the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) remodels chromatin to allow other transcription factors to bind and activate transcription...
  44. Henry M, Triplett A, Oh K, Smith G, Wagner K. Parity-induced mammary epithelial cells facilitate tumorigenesis in MMTV-neu transgenic mice. Oncogene. 2004;23:6980-5 pubmed
  45. Vallejos M, Ramdohr P, Valiente Echeverría F, Tapia K, Rodriguez F, Lowy F, et al. The 5'-untranslated region of the mouse mammary tumor virus mRNA exhibits cap-independent translation initiation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:618-32 pubmed publisher
    ..of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) within the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)...
  46. Okeoma C, Shen M, Ross S. A novel block to mouse mammary tumor virus infection of lymphocytes in B10.BR mice. J Virol. 2008;82:1314-22 pubmed
    Classic studies on C57BL-derived mouse strains showed that they were resistant to mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) infection...
  47. Courreges M, Burzyn D, Nepomnaschy I, Piazzon I, Ross S. Critical role of dendritic cells in mouse mammary tumor virus in vivo infection. J Virol. 2007;81:3769-77 pubmed
    b>Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a milk-transmitted betaretrovirus that causes mammary tumors in mice...
  48. Howe L, Subbaramaiah K, Patel J, Masferrer J, Deora A, Hudis C, et al. Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor, protects against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)/neu-induced breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2002;62:5405-7 pubmed
    ..Cox-2 protein was detected in breast carcinomas from mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)/neu mice...
  49. Wu K, Zhang Y, Xu X, Hill J, Celestino J, Kim H, et al. The retinoid X receptor-selective retinoid, LGD1069, prevents the development of estrogen receptor-negative mammary tumors in transgenic mice. Cancer Res. 2002;62:6376-80 pubmed
    ..studies described here demonstrate that LGD1069 effectively suppresses ER-negative tumor development in mouse mammary tumor virus-erbB2 transgenic mice with minimal toxicity...
  50. Bhattacharjee R, Archer T. Transcriptional silencing of the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter through chromatin remodeling is concomitant with histone H1 phosphorylation and histone H3 hyperphosphorylation at M phase. Virology. 2006;346:1-6 pubmed
    ..histone phosphorylation and their effects on glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated activation of the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter (MMTV) in synchronized cells...
  51. Yamazaki K, Boyse E, Bard J, Curran M, Kim D, Ross S, et al. Presence of mouse mammary tumor virus specifically alters the body odor of mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:5612-5 pubmed
    ..In that regard, the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) and its tumors of mice, which may have human counterparts, are of special interest because of the ..
  52. Kosanke S, Edgerton S, Moore D, Yang X, Mason T, Alvarez K, et al. Mammary tumor heterogeneity in wt-ErbB-2 transgenic mice. Comp Med. 2004;54:280-7 pubmed
    ..These data support a complex, multistep process of carcinogenesis and clonal evolution, with biological and phenotypic variance similar to that observed in human mammary cancer development...
  53. Stavreva D, Müller W, Hager G, Smith C, McNally J. Rapid glucocorticoid receptor exchange at a promoter is coupled to transcription and regulated by chaperones and proteasomes. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:2682-97 pubmed
    ..Moreover, our results reveal that longer GR residence times are consistently associated with greater transcriptional output, suggesting a new paradigm in which the rate of rapid exchange provides a means to tune transcriptional levels...
  54. Zábranský A, Hadravová R, Stokrova J, Sakalian M, Pichova I. Premature processing of mouse mammary tumor virus Gag polyprotein impairs intracellular capsid assembly. Virology. 2009;384:33-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is the prototypical member of the Betaretrovirus genus, but the processes of its morphogenesis are poorly characterized...
  55. Teissedre B, PINDERHUGHES A, Incassati A, Hatsell S, Hiremath M, Cowin P. MMTV-Wnt1 and -DeltaN89beta-catenin induce canonical signaling in distinct progenitors and differentially activate Hedgehog signaling within mammary tumors. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4537 pubmed publisher
    ..They further suggest that Hedgehog pathway activation maybe a critical component and useful indicator of breast tumors arising from unopposed Wnt1 ligand...
  56. Keeton E, Fletcher T, Baumann C, Hager G, Smith C. Glucocorticoid receptor domain requirements for chromatin remodeling and transcriptional activation of the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter in different nucleoprotein contexts. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:28247-55 pubmed
    ..in the context of full-length GR, this study defines those domains required for activation of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter in two distinct nucleoprotein configurations...
  57. Finkle D, Quan Z, Asghari V, Kloss J, Ghaboosi N, Mai E, et al. HER2-targeted therapy reduces incidence and progression of midlife mammary tumors in female murine mammary tumor virus huHER2-transgenic mice. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:2499-511 pubmed
  58. Li Y, Welm B, Podsypanina K, Huang S, Chamorro M, Zhang X, et al. Evidence that transgenes encoding components of the Wnt signaling pathway preferentially induce mammary cancers from progenitor cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15853-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the developmental heterogeneity of different breast cancers is in part a consequence of differential effects of oncogenes on distinct cell types in the breast...
  59. Etkind P, Stewart A, Dorai T, Purcell D, Wiernik P. Clonal isolation of different strains of mouse mammary tumor virus-like DNA sequences from both the breast tumors and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of individual patients diagnosed with both malignancies. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:5656-64 pubmed
    In a previous study, we had detected the presence of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-like envelope (ENV) gene sequences in both the breast tumors and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma tissue of two of our breast tumor patients who had been ..
  60. Ford C, Faedo M, Crouch R, Lawson J, Rawlinson W. Progression from normal breast pathology to breast cancer is associated with increasing prevalence of mouse mammary tumor virus-like sequences in men and women. Cancer Res. 2004;64:4755-9 pubmed
    b>Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-like sequences have been found in up to 40% of breast cancer samples but in <2% of normal breast tissue samples from Australian women studied by our group...
  61. Zhu Q, Maitra U, Johnston D, Lozano M, Dudley J. The homeodomain protein CDP regulates mammary-specific gene transcription and tumorigenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:4810-23 pubmed
    ..We previously have shown that CDP represses mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) transcription in tissue culture cells...
  62. Mertz J, Lozano M, Dudley J. Rev and Rex proteins of human complex retroviruses function with the MMTV Rem-responsive element. Retrovirology. 2009;6:10 pubmed publisher
    b>Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) encodes the Rem protein, an HIV Rev-like protein that enhances nuclear export of unspliced viral RNA in rodent cells...
  63. Johal H, Faedo M, Faltas J, Lau A, Mousina R, Cozzi P, et al. DNA of mouse mammary tumor virus-like virus is present in human tumors influenced by hormones. J Med Virol. 2010;82:1044-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a hormonally regulated, oncogenic virus of mice. MMTV-like virus DNA has previously been detected in human breast cancers, liver disease, and liver cancers...
  64. Wilson M, Ricci A, Deroo B, Archer T. The histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A blocks progesterone receptor-mediated transactivation of the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:15171-81 pubmed
    ..We used the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter, which adopts an ordered nucleosomal structure, to investigate the impact of a specific ..
  65. Indik S, Gunzburg W, Kulich P, Salmons B, Rouault F. Rapid spread of mouse mammary tumor virus in cultured human breast cells. Retrovirology. 2007;4:73 pubmed
    The role of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) as a causative agent in human breast carcinogenesis has recently been the subject of renewed interest...
  66. Ross S, Schmidt J, Katz E, Cappelli L, Hultine S, Gimotty P, et al. An immunoreceptor tyrosine activation motif in the mouse mammary tumor virus envelope protein plays a role in virus-induced mammary tumors. J Virol. 2006;80:9000-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) induces breast cancer with almost 100% efficiency in susceptible strains through insertional activation of protooncogenes, such as members of the wnt and fibroblast growth factor (fgf) families...
  67. Mertz J, Simper M, Lozano M, Payne S, Dudley J. Mouse mammary tumor virus encodes a self-regulatory RNA export protein and is a complex retrovirus. J Virol. 2005;79:14737-47 pubmed
    b>Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) has been classified as a simple retrovirus with two accessory genes, dut and sag...
  68. Romieu Mourez R, Kim D, Shin S, Demicco E, Landesman Bollag E, Seldin D, et al. Mouse mammary tumor virus c-rel transgenic mice develop mammary tumors. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:5738-54 pubmed
    ..mice were generated in which overexpression of mouse c-rel cDNA was driven by the hormone-responsive mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (MMTV-LTR) promoter, and four founder lines identified...
  69. Xu L, Shen Z, Guo L, Fodera B, Keogh A, Joplin R, et al. Does a betaretrovirus infection trigger primary biliary cirrhosis?. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:8454-9 pubmed
  70. Vicent G, Ballaré C, Zaurin R, Saragueta P, Beato M. Chromatin remodeling and control of cell proliferation by progestins via cross talk of progesterone receptor with the estrogen receptors and kinase signaling pathways. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1089:59-72 pubmed
    Transcription from the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter can be induced by glucocorticoids or progestins...
  71. Johal H, Scott G, Jones R, Camaris C, Riordan S, Rawlinson W. Mouse mammary tumour virus-like virus (MMTV-LV) is present within the liver in a wide range of hepatic disorders and unrelated to nuclear p53 expression or hepatocarcinogenesis. J Hepatol. 2009;50:548-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated MMTV-LV prevalence in patients with liver disease of diverse aetiology and associations with hepatic expression of hormonal receptors, p53 protein and complicating hepatocarcinogenesis...
  72. Chatterjee G, Rosner A, Han Y, Zelazny E, Li B, Cardiff R, et al. Acceleration of mouse mammary tumor virus-induced murine mammary tumorigenesis by a p53 172H transgene: influence of FVB background on tumor latency and identification of novel sites of proviral insertion. Am J Pathol. 2002;161:2241-53 pubmed
    ..To identify other genes that cooperate with WAP-p53(172H) in tumorigenesis, we performed mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) proviral mutagenesis...
  73. Uchiumi F, Komuro M, Mizuta R, Tanuma S. Characterization of Smubp-2 as a mouse mammary tumor virus promoter-binding protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;321:355-63 pubmed
    ..Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 12499] of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter region as a probe...
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    ..in ErbB-2 mammary tumor progression, we interbred separate strains of transgenic mice carrying mouse mammary tumor virus/activated Akt-1 and mouse mammary tumor virus/activated ErbB-2 to derive progeny that coexpress the ..
  75. Zhang Y, Rassa J, deObaldia M, Albritton L, Ross S. Identification of the receptor binding domain of the mouse mammary tumor virus envelope protein. J Virol. 2003;77:10468-78 pubmed
    b>Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a betaretrovirus that infects rodent cells and uses mouse transferrin receptor 1 for cell entry...
  76. Brown M, Nicolai H, Howe K, Katagiri T, Lalani E, Simpson K, et al. Expression of a truncated Brca1 protein delays lactational mammary development in transgenic mice. Transgenic Res. 2002;11:467-78 pubmed
    ..They may also have implications for germline carriers of BRCA1 mutations...
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    ..Using the steroid-responsive mouse mammary tumor virus promoter as a model system, we discuss in detail the molecular mechanisms underlying the recruitment of ..