betaretrovirus

Summary

Summary: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of viruses with either type B or type D morphology. This includes a few exogenous, vertically transmitted and endogenous viruses of mice (type B) and some primate and sheep viruses (type D). MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS, MOUSE is the type species.

Top Publications

  1. van der Kuyl A. Characterization of a full-length endogenous beta-retrovirus, EqERV-beta1, in the genome of the horse (Equus caballus). Viruses. 2011;3:620-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetically, EqERV-beta1 most closely resembles an unclassified retroviral sequence from cattle (Bos taurus), and the murine beta-retrovirus MMTV...
  2. McDermid J, Chen M, Li Y, Wasilenko S, Bintner J, McDougall C, et al. Reverse transcriptase activity in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and other autoimmune liver disorders. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007;26:587-95 pubmed
    Patients with biliary disease make retroviral antibodies and the Human Betaretrovirus has been characterized in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.
  3. Xu L, Sakalian M, Shen Z, Loss G, Neuberger J, Mason A. Cloning the human betaretrovirus proviral genome from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2004;39:151-6 pubmed
    ..A recently identified human betaretrovirus was originally cloned from the biliary epithelium cDNA library of a patient with PBC...
  4. Zolotukhin A, Michalowski D, Smulevitch S, Felber B. Retroviral constitutive transport element evolved from cellular TAP(NXF1)-binding sequences. J Virol. 2001;75:5567-75 pubmed
    ..Additionally, a molecular fossil of a TBE-like minisatellite is found in the genome of a modern retroelement. These findings constitute direct evidence of an evolutionary link between TBE-related minisatellites and CTE...
  5. Rosati S, Pittau M, Alberti A, Pozzi S, York D, Sharp J, et al. An accessory open reading frame (orf-x) of jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus is conserved between different virus isolates. Virus Res. 2000;66:109-16 pubmed
  6. Fujiomto K, Takano J, Narita T, Hanari K, Shimozawa N, Sankai T, et al. Simian betaretrovirus infection in a colony of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Comp Med. 2010;60:51-3 pubmed
    ..breeding colony at our institution, 397 (95%) exhibited antibodies or viral RNA (or both) specific for simian betaretrovirus (SRV) in plasma...
  7. Montiel N. An updated review of simian betaretrovirus (SRV) in macaque hosts. J Med Primatol. 2010;39:303-14 pubmed publisher
  8. Pogo B, Holland J, Levine P. Human mammary tumor virus in inflammatory breast cancer. Cancer. 2010;116:2741-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Because these conditions represent highly invasive malignancies, it is concluded that HMTV is sometimes associated with a particularly malignant phenotype...
  9. Armezzani A, Arnaud F, Caporale M, di Meo G, Iannuzzi L, Murgia C, et al. The signal peptide of a recently integrated endogenous sheep betaretrovirus envelope plays a major role in eluding gag-mediated late restriction. J Virol. 2011;85:7118-28 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications89

  1. Liu S, Duh F, Lerman M, Miller A. Role of virus receptor Hyal2 in oncogenic transformation of rodent fibroblasts by sheep betaretrovirus env proteins. J Virol. 2003;77:2850-8 pubmed
  2. Xu L, Shen Z, Guo L, Fodera B, Keogh A, Joplin R, et al. Does a betaretrovirus infection trigger primary biliary cirrhosis?. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:8454-9 pubmed
    ..The putative agent is referred to as the human betaretrovirus because it shares close homology with the murine mammary tumor virus and a human retrovirus cloned from breast ..
  3. Mayer J, Tsangaras K, Heeger F, Avila Arcos M, Stenglein M, Chen W, et al. A novel endogenous betaretrovirus group characterized from polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Virology. 2013;443:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Further analysis of the polar bear draft genome identified an endogenous betaretrovirus group comprising 26 proviral copies and 231 solo LTRs...
  4. Liu S, Lerman M, Miller A. Putative phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) binding motifs in ovine betaretrovirus Env proteins are not essential for rodent fibroblast transformation and PI3K/Akt activation. J Virol. 2003;77:7924-35 pubmed
    ..We conclude that ovine betaretrovirus Env proteins transform the rodent fibroblasts by indirectly activating the PI3K/Akt pathway.
  5. Chung H, Unangst T, Treece J, Weiss D, Markham P. Development of real-time PCR assays for quantitation of simian betaretrovirus serotype-1, -2, -3, and -5 viral DNA in Asian monkeys. J Virol Methods. 2008;152:91-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These quantitative real-time PCR assays enhance the detection and quantitation of SRV infection and will facilitate the elimination of this virus from macaque colonies...
  6. Hopwood P, Wallace W, Cousens C, Dewar P, Muldoon M, Norval M, et al. Absence of markers of betaretrovirus infection in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2010;41:1631-40 pubmed publisher
    ..pulmonary adenocarcinomas has been shown previously to express an antigen related to the Gag protein of a betaretrovirus, Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus, that causes ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma...
  7. Baillie G, Wilkins R. Endogenous type D retrovirus in a marsupial, the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). J Virol. 2001;75:2499-507 pubmed
    ..However, variability in fragment patterns between possums was observed and suggests recent (or ongoing) retrotranspositional activity...
  8. Sun R, Grogan E, Shedd D, Bykovsky A, Kushnaryov V, Grossberg S, et al. Transmissible retrovirus in Epstein-Barr virus-producer B95-8 cells. Virology. 1995;209:374-83 pubmed
    ..SMRV-B95-8 did not by itself cause lymphocyte immortalization or enhance immortalization by EBV. Thus SMRV-B95-8 does not contribute to the major biologic properties of the B95-8 strain of EBV...
  9. Palmarini M, Dewar P, De las Heras M, Inglis N, Dalziel R, Sharp J. Epithelial tumour cells in the lungs of sheep with pulmonary adenomatosis are major sites of replication for Jaagsiekte retrovirus. J Gen Virol. 1995;76 ( Pt 11):2731-7 pubmed
    ..JSRV was detected only in the respiratory tract of sheep affected by pulmonary adenomatosis and specifically in the transformed epithelial cells of the alveoli of SPA-affected sheep...
  10. Lemos de Matos A, de Sousa Pereira P, Lissovsky A, van der Loo W, Melo Ferreira J, Cui J, et al. Endogenization of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-like elements in genomes of pikas (Ochotona sp.). Virus Res. 2015;210:22-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Different mammalian genomes harbor endogenous viral sequences phylogenetically close to the betaretrovirus mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), propelling us to look for such retroviral "fossil" in American pika (..
  11. Palmarini M, Fan H, Sharp J. Sheep pulmonary adenomatosis: a unique model of retrovirus-associated lung cancer. Trends Microbiol. 1997;5:478-83 pubmed
    ..SPA represents a unique model for lung cancer, and studies on its aetiopathogenesis can provide further insight into the mechanisms of epithelial neoplasms...
  12. Chang H, Lin Z, Wu M, Wang L, Chow Y, Jiang S, et al. Characterization of a transgenic mouse model exhibiting spontaneous lung adenocarcinomas with a metastatic phenotype. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175586 pubmed publisher
    ..pulmonary adenocarcinomas (OPAs) present the same symptoms as adenocarcinomas in humans and are caused by a betaretrovirus. OPAs have served as an exquisite model of carcinogenesis for human lung adenocarcinomas...
  13. de Sousa Pereira P, Abrantes J, Baldauf H, Esteves P. Evolutionary studies on the betaretrovirus RERV-H in the Leporidae family reveal an endogenization in the ancestor of Oryctolagus, Bunolagus and Pentalagus at 9 million years ago. Virus Res. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..To what extent RERV-H and other endogenous viruses might have had an impact on the rabbit genome and its immune system remains elusive...
  14. Wasilenko S, Montano Loza A, Mason A. Is there a role for cyclophilin inhibitors in the management of primary biliary cirrhosis?. Viruses. 2013;5:423-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we discuss the evidence supporting the role of MMTV-like human betaretrovirus in the development of PBC and de novo AIH and speculate on the possibility that the agent may be associated ..
  15. Bindra A, Muradrasoli S, Kisekka R, Nordgren H, Warnberg F, Blomberg J. Search for DNA of exogenous mouse mammary tumor virus-related virus in human breast cancer samples. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1806-9 pubmed
    ..The absence of HMTV DNA in both breast cancer samples and controls indicates either that the concentration of putative HMTV DNA in the breast cancers was too low for detection or that it did not exist there. ..
  16. Onions D, Cote C, Love B, Toms B, Koduri S, Armstrong A, et al. Ensuring the safety of vaccine cell substrates by massively parallel sequencing of the transcriptome. Vaccine. 2011;29:7117-21 pubmed publisher
    ..the presence of porcine circoviruses in the ATCC Vero cell bank (CCL-81), however, we found that a full length betaretrovirus related to SRV can be expressed in these cells, a factor that may be of importance in the production of ..
  17. Asikainen K, Vesanen M, Kuittinen T, Vaheri A. Identification of human type D retrovirus as a contaminant in a neuroblastoma cell line. Arch Virol. 1993;129:357-61 pubmed
    ..However, we obtained no evidence for the virus in earlier passage of the Paju cell line and therefore we must consider this isolate a laboratory contamination. contamination. ..
  18. Walsh S, Linnerth Petrik N, Yu D, Foster R, Menzies P, Diaz Mendez A, et al. Experimental transmission of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma in sheep. Vet Res. 2013;44:66 pubmed publisher
    ..It is associated with the betaretrovirus, enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV), but a causative relationship has yet to be demonstrated...
  19. Côté M, Kucharski T, Liu S. Enzootic nasal tumor virus envelope requires a very acidic pH for fusion activation and infection. J Virol. 2008;82:9023-34 pubmed publisher
  20. Wüthrich D, Boujon C, Truchet L, Selimovic Hamza S, Oevermann A, Bouzalas I, et al. Exploring the virome of cattle with non-suppurative encephalitis of unknown etiology by metagenomics. Virology. 2016;493:22-30 pubmed publisher
    ..polyomavirus 2 (BPyV-2 SF), ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), bovine herpesvirus 6 (BHV-6) and a novel bovine betaretrovirus termed BoRV-CH15. In a case-control study using PCR, BoAstV-CH13 (p=0.046), BoPV-2 SF (p=0...
  21. Rhee S, Hunter E. A single amino acid substitution within the matrix protein of a type D retrovirus converts its morphogenesis to that of a type C retrovirus. Cell. 1990;63:77-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, capsid assembly processes for different retroviruses appear to differ only in the intracellular site to which capsid precursors are directed. ..
  22. Martin J, Cao S, Maldonado J, Zhang W, Mansky L. Distinct Particle Morphologies Revealed through Comparative Parallel Analyses of Retrovirus-Like Particles. J Virol. 2016;90:8074-84 pubmed publisher
    ..where YFP is yellow fluorescent protein) created from all representative retroviral genera: Alpharetrovirus, Betaretrovirus, Deltaretrovirus, Epsilonretrovirus, Gammaretrovirus, Lentivirus, and Spumavirus...
  23. Vile R, Ali M, Hunter E, McClure M. Identification of a generalised packaging sequence for D-type retroviruses and generation of a D-type retroviral vector. Virology. 1992;189:786-91 pubmed
    ..Hence, we have localized a packaging sequence that is recognized by D-type, but not by C-type, retroviruses and have constructed a D-type vector which may be useful in gene transfer experiments. ..
  24. Titti F, Zamarchi R, Maggiorella M, Sernicola L, Geraci A, Negri D, et al. Infection of simian B lymphoblastoid cells with simian immunodeficiency virus is associated with upregulation of CD23 and CD40 cell surface markers. J Med Virol. 2002;68:129-40 pubmed
    ..These findings support the hypothesis that SIV induce phenotypic perturbations in B cells that might eventually contribute to the development of lymphoproliferative disease...
  25. Palmarini M, Sharp J, De las Heras M, Fan H. Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus is necessary and sufficient to induce a contagious lung cancer in sheep. J Virol. 1999;73:6964-72 pubmed
    ..The resulting tumors were positive for JSRV DNA and protein. Thus, JSRV21 is an infectious and pathogenic molecular clone and is necessary and sufficient to induce sheep pulmonary adenomatosis...
  26. Burmeister T, Schwartz S, Thiel E. A PCR primer system for detecting oncoretroviruses based on conserved DNA sequence motifs of animal retroviruses and its application to human leukaemias and lymphomas. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:2205-13 pubmed
    ..The retrovirus detection system developed here may be used to confirm suspected retroviral involvement in other (malignant or nonmalignant) human diseases as well as to identify new animal retroviruses. ..
  27. Zheng X, Qiu M, Guan W, Li J, Chen S, Cheng M, et al. Viral metagenomics of six bat species in close contact with humans in southern China. Arch Virol. 2018;163:73-88 pubmed publisher
    ..whereas a number of contigs, whose sequences were taxonomically classifiable within Alphapapillomavirus, Betaretrovirus, Alpharetrovirus, Varicellovirus, Cyprinivirus, Chlorovirus and Cucumovirus had low identity to viruses in ..
  28. Westberg C, Yang J, Tang H, Reddy T, Wong Staal F. A novel shuttle protein binds to RNA helicase A and activates the retroviral constitutive transport element. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:21396-401 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of HAP95 significantly increases CTE-dependent gene expression but has no effect on general gene expression or that mediated by the Rev/Rev response element of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. ..
  29. Svec M, Bauerova H, Pichova I, Konvalinka J, Strisovsky K. Proteinases of betaretroviruses bind single-stranded nucleic acids through a novel interaction module, the G-patch. FEBS Lett. 2004;576:271-6 pubmed
    ..Oligonucleotide binding to both PRs does not inhibit their proteolytic activity...
  30. White J, Todd P, Rosenthal A, Yee J, Grant R, Lerche N. Development of a generic real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of proviral DNA of simian Betaretrovirus serotypes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 and secondary uniplex assays for specific serotype identification. J Virol Methods. 2009;162:148-54 pubmed publisher
    ..A panel of SRV serotype-specific uniplex real-time PCR assays for discrimination among the five recognized serotypes is also described. ..
  31. Jo H, Choi H, Choi M, Song N, Kim J, Oh J, et al. Identification and classification of endogenous retroviruses in the canine genome using degenerative PCR and in-silico data analysis. Virology. 2012;422:195-204 pubmed publisher
  32. Eckstrand C, Castillo D, McDonnel S, Hillman C, Vapniarsky N, Shanthalingam S, et al. Genetic variability and in vitro transcriptional permissibility of primary ovine beta-retrovirus promoter isolates. Am J Vet Res. 2013;74:1421-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The LTRs of ENTV and JSRV have extensive blocks of sequence conservation. Human 293T and goat synovial membrane cell lines may be suitable in vitro cell culture systems for further research of viral promoter functions. ..
  33. Walsh S, Stinson K, Wootton S. Seroconversion of sheep experimentally infected with enzootic nasal tumor virus. BMC Res Notes. 2016;9:15 pubmed publisher
    Enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV-1) is an exogenous betaretrovirus of sheep that transforms epithelial cells lining the ethmoid turbinates leading to a disease called enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA)...
  34. Andrade M, Yee J, Barry P, Spinner A, Roberts J, Cabello P, et al. Prevalence of antibodies to selected viruses in a long-term closed breeding colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Brazil. Am J Primatol. 2003;59:123-8 pubmed
    ..All samples were negative for antibodies against the simian retroviruses. The overall prevalence of antibodies was 95% for RhCMV, 45% for B virus, 35% for HAV, and 1% for MV. Prevalence was found to vary by age group...
  35. Yang J, Tang H, Reddy T, Wong Staal F. Mapping the functional domains of HAP95, a protein that binds RNA helicase A and activates the constitutive transport element of type D retroviruses. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:30694-700 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data support the proposal that HAP95 specifically facilitates CTE-mediated gene expression by directly binding to RHA. ..
  36. Tang H, Wong Staal F. Specific interaction between RNA helicase A and Tap, two cellular proteins that bind to the constitutive transport element of type D retrovirus. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:32694-700 pubmed
    ..The nuclear transport domain of RHA also interfered with Tap-mediated transactivation of the CTE function in quail cells, in which the function of CTE is dependent on the expression of a functional human Tap cDNA...
  37. C t M, Zheng Y, Albritton L, Liu S. Single residues in the surface subunits of oncogenic sheep retrovirus envelopes distinguish receptor-mediated triggering for fusion at low pH and infection. Virology. 2011;421:173-83 pubmed publisher
  38. Palmarini M, Mura M, Spencer T. Endogenous betaretroviruses of sheep: teaching new lessons in retroviral interference and adaptation. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:1-13 pubmed
  39. Bear J, Tan W, Zolotukhin A, Tabernero C, Hudson E, Felber B. Identification of novel import and export signals of human TAP, the protein that binds to the constitutive transport element of the type D retrovirus mRNAs. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:6306-17 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data show that hTAP is a dynamic protein capable of bidirectional trafficking across the nuclear envelope. These data further support hTAP's role as an export factor of the CTE-containing mRNAs...
  40. Broussard D, Mertz J, Lozano M, Dudley J. Selection for c-myc integration sites in polyclonal T-cell lymphomas. J Virol. 2002;76:2087-99 pubmed
    ..Selection for clonal growth may occur in tumor cells that have modest c-myc overexpression after proviral insertion to prevent apoptosis...
  41. Holland M, Palmarini M, Garcia Goti M, Gonzalez L, McKendrick I, De las Heras M, et al. Jaagsiekte retrovirus is widely distributed both in T and B lymphocytes and in mononuclear phagocytes of sheep with naturally and experimentally acquired pulmonary adenomatosis. J Virol. 1999;73:4004-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that JSRV can infect lymphoid and phagocytic mononuclear cells of sheep and that dissemination precedes tumor formation. Infection of lymphoid tissue, therefore, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of SPA...
  42. Tang H, Gaietta G, Fischer W, Ellisman M, Wong Staal F. A cellular cofactor for the constitutive transport element of type D retrovirus. Science. 1997;276:1412-5 pubmed
    ..In vivo colocalization of helicase A and CTE was observed in experiments that combined in situ hybridization and immunostaining. These results suggest that helicase A plays a role in the nuclear export of CTE-containing RNA...
  43. Palmarini M, Gray C, Carpenter K, Fan H, Bazer F, Spencer T. Expression of endogenous betaretroviruses in the ovine uterus: effects of neonatal age, estrous cycle, pregnancy, and progesterone. J Virol. 2001;75:11319-27 pubmed
  44. Hara M, Sata T, Kikuchi T, Nakajima N, Uda A, Fujimoto K, et al. Isolation and characterization of a new simian retrovirus type D subtype from monkeys at the Tsukuba Primate Center, Japan. Microbes Infect. 2005;7:126-31 pubmed
    ..Thus, we have tentatively designated the N27 and T150 viruses isolated from TPC cynomolgus macaques as SRV/D-Tsukuba (SRV/D-T)...
  45. Morozov V, Lagaye S, Lower J, Lower R. Detection and characterization of betaretroviral sequences, related to sheep Jaagsiekte virus, in Africans from Nigeria and Cameroon. Virology. 2004;327:162-8 pubmed
    ..Sequences obtained from orf-x amplimers varied in-between each other and differed from control endogenous ovine JSRV sequence. No association with lung cancer was found. This is the first report of JSRV-like sequences detected in humans...
  46. Green B, Lee C, Rasko J. Biodistribution of the RD114/mammalian type D retrovirus receptor, RDR. J Gene Med. 2004;6:249-59 pubmed
    ..Previous analysis of receptor expression has been performed using indirect methods due to a lack of receptor-specific antibodies...
  47. Cousens C, Minguijon E, Garcia M, Ferrer L, Dalziel R, Palmarini M, et al. PCR-based detection and partial characterization of a retrovirus associated with contagious intranasal tumors of sheep and goats. J Virol. 1996;70:7580-3 pubmed
    ..This gives further weight to the hypothesis that these retroviruses are the etiologic agents of the tumors...
  48. Palmarini M, Cousens C, Dalziel R, Bai J, Stedman K, DeMartini J, et al. The exogenous form of Jaagsiekte retrovirus is specifically associated with a contagious lung cancer of sheep. J Virol. 1996;70:1618-23 pubmed
    ..This study has demonstrated clearly that the exogenous form of JSRV is specifically associated with SPA tumors...
  49. Seifarth W, Skladny H, Krieg Schneider F, Reichert A, Hehlmann R, Leib Mösch C. Retrovirus-like particles released from the human breast cancer cell line T47-D display type B- and C-related endogenous retroviral sequences. J Virol. 1995;69:6408-16 pubmed
    ..Our results thus indicate that the retroviral particles released by the breast cancer cell line T47-D are probably generated by complementation of several endogenous proviruses and can package retroviral transcripts of different origins...
  50. Rosati S, Kwang J, Tolari F, Keen J. Characterization of enzootic nasal tumor virus capsid antigen. Vet Microbiol. 1996;53:261-9 pubmed
    ..Preliminary application of this antigen in ELISA suggested its potential use to detect seropositive animals in infected flocks...
  51. Ortin A, Minguijon E, Dewar P, Garcia M, Ferrer L, Palmarini M, et al. Lack of a specific immune response against a recombinant capsid protein of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus in sheep and goats naturally affected by enzootic nasal tumour or sheep pulmonary adenomatosis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1998;61:229-37 pubmed
    ..The results support prior observations indicating that sheep and goats infected by JSRV and ENTV do not develop specific humoral responses to these retroviruses...
  52. Scocco P, Lepri E, Mercati F, Vitellozzi G, Mechelli L, Ceccarelli P. Glycohistochemical characterization of histologically normal nasal mucosa and enzootic nasal tumor of sheep. Am J Vet Res. 2012;73:1128-36 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine glycohistochemical characteristics of enzootic nasal tumors (ENTs) of sheep, compare results for ENT with those of histologically normal nasal mucosa of sheep, and identify the histologic origin of ENT...
  53. Clemenceau B, Lalain S, Martignat L, Sai P. Porcine endogenous retroviral mRNAs in pancreas and a panel of tissues from specific pathogen-free pigs. Diabetes Metab. 1999;25:518-25 pubmed
    ..Pig tissues may differ in their loads of PERV sequences, which could be a factor in the risk of PERV transmission during xenotransplantation...
  54. Arnaud F, Varela M, Spencer T, Palmarini M. Coevolution of endogenous betaretroviruses of sheep and their host. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:3422-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, endogenization of these retroviruses may still be occurring today. Therefore, sheep provide an exciting and unique system to study retrovirus-host coevolution. (Part of a multi-author review)...
  55. Archambault D, Stein C, Cohen J. Phosphorothioate oligonucleotides inhibit the replication of lentiviruses and type D retroviruses, but not that of type C retroviruses. Arch Virol. 1994;139:97-109 pubmed
    ..Since MuLV reverse transcriptase is inhibited in vitro, but its replication is not blocked in permissive cells, our data suggest that the phosphorothioate oligonucleotides are preventing virus attachment...
  56. Baba K, Nakaya Y, Shojima T, Muroi Y, Kizaki K, Hashizume K, et al. Identification of novel endogenous betaretroviruses which are transcribed in the bovine placenta. J Virol. 2011;85:1237-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they belong to the genus Betaretrovirus. By reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, both BERV-K1 and -K2 env mRNAs were detected in the placenta and cultured ..
  57. Thäle C, Kiderlen A, Kolodziej H. Anti-infective activities of Pelargonium sidoides (EPS® 7630): effects of induced NO production on Leishmania major in infected macrophages and antiviral effects as assessed in a fibroblast-virus protection assay. Planta Med. 2011;77:718-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Detection of any IFNs by ELISA was unsuccessful, which may be due to their very low concentrations in cell supernatants. The current data provide convincing support for the induction of anti-infectious responses by EPs® 7630...
  58. Cousens C, Minguijon E, Dalziel R, Ortin A, Garcia M, Park J, et al. Complete sequence of enzootic nasal tumor virus, a retrovirus associated with transmissible intranasal tumors of sheep. J Virol. 1999;73:3986-93 pubmed
    ..The genome is 7,434 nucleotides long and exhibits a genetic organization characteristic of type B and D oncoviruses. Enzootic nasal tumor virus is closely related to the Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus and to sheep endogenous retroviruses...
  59. Ikeda S, Tsutsui K, Hatsushika M, Watanabe S, Oda T. Purification and biochemical characterization of squirrel monkey retrovirus-H produced in a human lymphoblastoid cell line. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 1992;38:653-9 pubmed
    ..Major gag protein of the virus is phosphorylated, and has a molecular weight of 34 kDa. The virion-associated reverse transcriptase prefers Mg2+ to Mn2+. These properties of SMRV-H were almost the same as those of SMRV...
  60. Sears J, Repaske R, Khan A. Improved Mg2+-based reverse transcriptase assay for detection of primate retroviruses. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:1704-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the improved RT assay can be used to detect genetically divergent Mg2+-dependent retroviruses of human and simian origin that can infect human cells and that therefore pose a potential health risk to humans...
  61. Hotzel I, Cheevers W. Conservation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 inner-domain sequences in lentivirus and type A and B retrovirus envelope surface glycoproteins. J Virol. 2001;75:2014-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the antiparallel beta-strands 5 and 25 of gp120 form an SU surface highly conserved among the lentiviruses and at least partially conserved in the type A and B retroviral envelope glycoproteins...
  62. Garcia Goti M, Gonzalez L, Cousens C, Cortabarria N, Extramiana A, Minguijon E, et al. Sheep pulmonary adenomatosis: characterization of two pathological forms associated with jaagsiekte retrovirus. J Comp Pathol. 2000;122:55-65 pubmed
    ..The pathological and virological features of these two forms of tumour are compared in an attempt to clarify whether classical and atypical SPA are two separate diseases or different expressions of a single disease spectrum...
  63. Palmarini M, Datta S, Omid R, Murgia C, Fan H. The long terminal repeat of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus is preferentially active in differentiated epithelial cells of the lungs. J Virol. 2000;74:5776-87 pubmed
    ..Cotransfection experiments demonstrated that exogenous HNF-3 is able to enhance the expression of pJS21-luc in NIH 3T3 cells, which normally show minimal enhancer activity for the JSRV LTR...
  64. Rai S, DeMartini J, Miller A. Retrovirus vectors bearing jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus Env transduce human cells by using a new receptor localized to chromosome 3p21.3. J Virol. 2000;74:4698-704 pubmed
  65. Palmarini M, Sharp J, Lee C, Fan H. In vitro infection of ovine cell lines by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus. J Virol. 1999;73:10070-8 pubmed
    ..It may be a useful tool for future studies on viral DNA integration, since the normal sheep genome contains 15 to 20 copies of highly JSRV-related endogenous sequences that cross-react with many JSRV hybridization probes...
  66. Sommerfelt M, Harkestad N, Hunter E. The endogenous langur type D retrovirus PO-1-Lu and its exogenous counterparts in macaque and langur monkeys. Virology. 2003;315:275-82 pubmed
    ..The potential that SRV-6 represents an exogenous form of PO-1-Lu that has arisen following a recent zoonosis is discussed...
  67. Assinger A, Yaiw K, Göttesdorfer I, Leib Mösch C, Soderberg Naucler C. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) induces human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) transcription. Retrovirology. 2013;10:132 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the high prevalence of HCMV in several different tumours, and its ability to control host cell gene expression, we sought to define whether HCMV may affect HERV transcription...
  68. Aydin H, Cook J, Lee J. Crystal structures of beta- and gammaretrovirus fusion proteins reveal a role for electrostatic stapling in viral entry. J Virol. 2014;88:143-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that salt bridges are a major stabilizing force on the MPMV and XMRV retroviral TMs and likely provide the key energetics for viral and host membrane fusion. ..
  69. Xiao R, Park K, Oh Y, Kim J, Park C. Structural characterization of the genome of BERV gamma4, the most abundant endogenous retrovirus family in cattle. Mol Cells. 2008;26:404-8 pubmed
    ..Combined with our recent reports on characterization of ERVs in bovine, this study will contribute to illuminate ERVs in the cattle of which no information was previously available...
  70. Montiel N, Todd P, Yee J, Lerche N. Effects of simian betaretrovirus serotype 1 (SRV1) infection on the differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells (CD34+) derived from bone marrow of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Comp Med. 2012;62:61-8 pubmed
    ..Peripheral blood cytopenias, particularly persistent anemia and neutropenia, are commonly associated with simian betaretrovirus infection of Asian monkeys of the genus Macaca...
  71. Hötzel I. Conservation of inner domain modules in the surface envelope glycoproteins of an ancient rabbit lentivirus and extant lentiviruses and betaretroviruses. Virology. 2008;372:201-7 pubmed
  72. Rajan L, Broussard D, Lozano M, Lee C, Kozak C, Dudley J. The c-myc locus is a common integration site in type B retrovirus-induced T-cell lymphomas. J Virol. 2000;74:2466-71 pubmed
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