avian sarcoma viruses

Summary

Summary: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.

Top Publications

  1. Elleder D, Melder D, Trejbalova K, Svoboda J, Federspiel M. Two different molecular defects in the Tva receptor gene explain the resistance of two tvar lines of chickens to infection by subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses. J Virol. 2004;78:13489-500 pubmed
    ..Line 7(2) tva(r2) contains a 4-bp insertion in exon 1 that causes a change in the reading frame, which blocks expression of the Tva receptor...
  2. Xiang Y, Thorick R, Vana M, Craven R, Leis J. Proper processing of avian sarcoma/leukosis virus capsid proteins is required for infectivity. J Virol. 2001;75:6016-21 pubmed
    ..These results support the idea that infectivity of the virus is closely linked to proper processing of the carboxyl terminus to form two mature CA proteins...
  3. Chen A, Weber I, Harrison R, Leis J. Identification of amino acids in HIV-1 and avian sarcoma virus integrase subsites required for specific recognition of the long terminal repeat Ends. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:4173-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, amino acid residues involved in recognition of the LTRs are among these positions that change in development of drug resistance...
  4. Katz R, DiCandeloro P, Kukolj G, Skalka A. Role of DNA end distortion in catalysis by avian sarcoma virus integrase. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:34213-20 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these results are consistent with our previous observations indicating that unpairing of target DNA promotes the joining reaction...
  5. Chen C, Smith D, Peters M, Samson M, Zitz J, Tabin C, et al. Production and design of more effective avian replication-incompetent retroviral vectors. Dev Biol. 1999;214:370-84 pubmed
    ..These modified retroviral vectors and the VSV-G pseudotyping technique constitute significant improvements that allow for expanded use of avian replication-incompetent viral vectors in ovo...
  6. Melikyan G, Barnard R, Markosyan R, Young J, Cohen F. Low pH is required for avian sarcoma and leukosis virus Env-induced hemifusion and fusion pore formation but not for pore growth. J Virol. 2004;78:3753-62 pubmed
    ..At this point, but not before, low pH can induce fusion and is in fact required for fusion to occur. However, low pH is no longer necessary after formation of the initial fusion pore: pore enlargement does not require low pH...
  7. Delos S, Godby J, White J. Receptor-induced conformational changes in the SU subunit of the avian sarcoma/leukosis virus A envelope protein: implications for fusion activation. J Virol. 2005;79:3488-99 pubmed
    ..Low pH does not alter the off rate for the complex, further alter the secondary structure of SU-A, or induce measurable changes in tryptophan environment. The implications of these findings for fusion are discussed...
  8. Mitchell R, Beitzel B, Schroder A, Shinn P, Chen H, Berry C, et al. Retroviral DNA integration: ASLV, HIV, and MLV show distinct target site preferences. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E234 pubmed
    ..Thus, each of the three retroviruses studied showed unique integration site preferences, suggesting that virus-specific binding of integration complexes to chromatin features likely guides site selection...
  9. Butterfield Gerson K, Scheifele L, Ryan E, Hopper A, Parent L. Importin-beta family members mediate alpharetrovirus gag nuclear entry via interactions with matrix and nucleocapsid. J Virol. 2006;80:1798-806 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the nucleocytoplasmic dynamics of RSV Gag depend upon the counterbalance of Crm1p-mediated export with two independent NLSs, each interacting with distinct nuclear import factors...

More Information

Publications94

  1. Markosyan R, Bates P, Cohen F, Melikyan G. A study of low pH-induced refolding of Env of avian sarcoma and leukosis virus into a six-helix bundle. Biophys J. 2004;87:3291-8 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the six-helix bundle can form before hemifusion and that subsequent conformational changes, such as formation of the trimeric hairpin, are responsible for pore formation and/or growth...
  2. Barnard R, Narayan S, Dornadula G, Miller M, Young J. Low pH is required for avian sarcoma and leukosis virus Env-dependent viral penetration into the cytosol and not for viral uncoating. J Virol. 2004;78:10433-41 pubmed
    ..These studies provide strong support for the model, indicating that low pH is required for ASLV Env-dependent viral penetration into the cytosol and not for viral uncoating...
  3. Morris S, Johnson M, Stavnezer E, Leis J. Replication of avian sarcoma virus in vivo requires an interaction between the viral RNA and the TpsiC loop of the tRNA(Trp) primer. J Virol. 2002;76:7571-7 pubmed
    ..These observations confirm the importance of the U5-T psi C interaction in vivo...
  4. Melikyan G, Barnard R, Abrahamyan L, Mothes W, Young J. Imaging individual retroviral fusion events: from hemifusion to pore formation and growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:8728-33 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we conclude that, after receptor-activation, Env undergoes low pH-dependent refolding into a six-helix bundle and, in doing so, sequentially catalyzes hemifusion, fusion pore opening, and enlargement...
  5. Scheifele L, Garbitt R, Rhoads J, Parent L. Nuclear entry and CRM1-dependent nuclear export of the Rous sarcoma virus Gag polyprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:3944-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings provide evidence that nuclear entry and egress of the Gag polyprotein are intrinsic components of the Rous sarcoma virus assembly pathway...
  6. Netter R, Amberg S, Balliet J, Biscone M, Vermeulen A, Earp L, et al. Heptad repeat 2-based peptides inhibit avian sarcoma and leukosis virus subgroup a infection and identify a fusion intermediate. J Virol. 2004;78:13430-9 pubmed
    ..These experiments support a model in which receptor interaction promotes formation of an envelope conformation in which the TM subunit is stably associated with its target membrane and is able to bind a C-terminal peptide...
  7. Cameron C, Grinde B, Jacques P, Jentoft J, Leis J, Wlodawer A, et al. Comparison of the substrate-binding pockets of the Rous sarcoma virus and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteases. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:11711-20 pubmed
    ..The molecular basis for similarities and differences of the individual subsites for both proteases is discussed using steady state kinetic data and modeling based on crystal structures...
  8. Lim K, Narayan S, Young J, Yin J. Effects of lipid rafts on dynamics of retroviral entry and trafficking: Quantitative analysis. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2004;86:650-60 pubmed
    ..Overall, the model provides a means to generate new experimentally testable hypotheses and sets a foundation for building a quantitative and integrated understanding of viral entry, trafficking, and intracellular dynamics...
  9. Knauss D, Young J. A fifteen-amino-acid TVB peptide serves as a minimal soluble receptor for subgroup B avian leukosis and sarcoma viruses. J Virol. 2002;76:5404-10 pubmed
  10. Jha N, Latinovic O, Martin E, Novitskiy G, Marin M, Miyauchi K, et al. Imaging single retrovirus entry through alternative receptor isoforms and intermediates of virus-endosome fusion. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1001260 pubmed publisher
  11. Hatziioannou T, Goff S. Infection of nondividing cells by Rous sarcoma virus. J Virol. 2001;75:9526-31 pubmed
    ..The efficiency of infection of nondividing cells by the three viruses correlates with the respective ability of each viral DNA to enter the nucleus...
  12. Hindmarsh P, Johnson M, Reeves R, Leis J. Base-pair substitutions in avian sarcoma virus U5 and U3 long terminal repeat sequences alter the process of DNA integration in vitro. J Virol. 2001;75:1132-41 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, IN interacts with U3 and U5 termini differently, and aberrant end-processing events leading to nonconcerted DNA integration are more common in U5 than in U3...
  13. Andrake M, Sauter M, Boland K, Goldstein A, Hussein M, Skalka A. Nuclear import of Avian Sarcoma Virus integrase is facilitated by host cell factors. Retrovirology. 2008;5:73 pubmed publisher
    ..The sequence is distinct from all known NLSs but, like many, contains basic residues that are essential for activity...
  14. Greger J, Katz R, Taganov K, Rall G, Skalka A. Transduction of terminally differentiated neurons by avian sarcoma virus. J Virol. 2004;78:4902-6 pubmed
    ..The transduction efficiency of the ASV vector was found to be intermediate between the relatively high and low efficiencies obtained with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and murine leukemia virus vectors, respectively...
  15. Narayan S, Young J. Reconstitution of retroviral fusion and uncoating in a cell-free system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:7721-6 pubmed
    ..The cell-free system should now allow for the definition of retroviral uncoating mechanisms and facilitate the identification and characterization of the cellular factors involved...
  16. Werner S, Hindmarsh P, Napirei M, Vogel Bachmayr K, Wohrl B. Subcellular localization and integration activities of rous sarcoma virus reverse transcriptase. J Virol. 2002;76:6205-12 pubmed
    ..Integration with RSV RT alphabeta could be stimulated in the presence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein or HMG-I(Y)...
  17. Katz R, Greger J, Darby K, Boimel P, Rall G, Skalka A. Transduction of interphase cells by avian sarcoma virus. J Virol. 2002;76:5422-34 pubmed
    ..Lastly, we observed that ASV can transduce postmitotic mouse neurons. These results support an active nuclear import mechanism for the oncoretrovirus ASV and suggest that this mechanism can operate in both nondividing and dividing cells...
  18. Yang Z, Mueser T, Bushman F, Hyde C. Crystal structure of an active two-domain derivative of Rous sarcoma virus integrase. J Mol Biol. 2000;296:535-48 pubmed
    ..The observed asymmetric arrangement of C domains suggests that they could form a rotationally symmetric tetramer that may be important for bridging integrase complexes at each cDNA end...
  19. Smart J, Oppermann H, Czernilofsky A, Purchio A, Erikson R, Bishop J. Characterization of sites for tyrosine phosphorylation in the transforming protein of Rous sarcoma virus (pp60v-src) and its normal cellular homologue (pp60c-src). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981;78:6013-7 pubmed
    ..It is therefore possible that pp60v-src and pp60c-src respond differently to regulatory influences in the intact cell. ..
  20. Lewis W, Lee J, Dodgson J. Adult chicken alpha-globin gene expression in transfected QT6 quail cells: evidence for a negative regulatory element in the alpha D gene region. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:5321-9 pubmed
  21. Klucking S, Adkins H, Young J. Resistance to infection by subgroups B, D, and E avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses is explained by a premature stop codon within a resistance allele of the tvb receptor gene. J Virol. 2002;76:7918-21 pubmed
    ..This mutation generates an in-frame stop codon that is predicted to lead to the production of a severely truncated protein. ..
  22. Yu X, Wang Q, Guo Y, Dolmer K, Young J, Gettins P, et al. Kinetic analysis of binding interaction between the subgroup A Rous sarcoma virus glycoprotein SU and its cognate receptor Tva: calcium is not required for ligand binding. J Virol. 2003;77:7517-26 pubmed
    ..Thus, these results may have broad implications for the mechanism of protein folding and ligand recognition of the LDL receptor and other members of the LDL receptor superfamily. ..
  23. Higuchi H, Mori K, Kato A, Ohkuma T, Endo T, Kaji H, et al. Antiretroviral activities of anthraquinones and their inhibitory effects on reverse transcriptase. Antiviral Res. 1991;15:205-16 pubmed
    ..Simultaneous administration of AC with RSV to newborn chickens also delayed tumor induction by RSV...
  24. Natesan S, Kataria J, Dhama K, Bhardwaj N, Sylvester A. Anti-neoplastic effect of chicken anemia virus VP3 protein (apoptin) in Rous sarcoma virus-induced tumours in chicken. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2933-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Further improvements in the dose, delivery method and delivery frequency of the apoptin-expressing recombinant vector could help to develop apoptin as an anti-neoplastic drug...
  25. Kahane S, Greenberg D, Friedman M, Haikin H, Dagan R. High prevalence of "Simkania Z," a novel Chlamydia-like bacterium, in infants with acute bronchiolitis. J Infect Dis. 1998;177:1425-9 pubmed
    ..The high prevalence of "Z" in infants with bronchiolitis, often accompanied by an immune response, suggests a possible etiologic role of this agent in the disease. ..
  26. O Sullivan C, Polony T, Paca R, Beemon K. Rous sarcoma virus negative regulator of splicing selectively suppresses SRC mRNA splicing and promotes polyadenylation. Virology. 2002;302:405-12 pubmed
    ..In addition, increased transcriptional readthrough of the poly(A) site in the 3' LTR was observed with the NRS mutant viruses, suggesting that the wild-type NRS sequence promotes polyadenylation. ..
  27. Carlberg K, Chamberlin M, Beemon K. The avian sarcoma virus PRCII lacks 1020 nucleotides of the fps transforming gene. Virology. 1984;135:157-67 pubmed
    ..These alterations in the structure and location of the PRCII protein may prevent it from phosphorylating certain substrates involved in oncogenic transformation. ..
  28. Dong Y, Soung D, Schwarz E, O Keefe R, Drissi H. Wnt induction of chondrocyte hypertrophy through the Runx2 transcription factor. J Cell Physiol. 2006;208:77-86 pubmed
  29. Bera S, Vora A, Chiu R, Heyduk T, Grandgenett D. Synaptic complex formation of two retrovirus DNA attachment sites by integrase: a fluorescence energy transfer study. Biochemistry. 2005;44:15106-14 pubmed
    ..Our FRET analysis provided the first direct physical evidence that IN forms synaptic complexes with two DNA att sites in vitro, yielding a complex that exhibits properties comparable to that of the PIC. ..
  30. Logan M, Tabin C. Targeted gene misexpression in chick limb buds using avian replication-competent retroviruses. Methods. 1998;14:407-20 pubmed
  31. Gould K, Woodgett J, Cooper J, Buss J, Shalloway D, Hunter T. Protein kinase C phosphorylates pp60src at a novel site. Cell. 1985;42:849-57 pubmed
    ..Third, purified protein kinase C phosphorylates a synthetic peptide corresponding to the N-terminal 20 amino acids of pp60c-src at serine 12. The physiological significance of this novel phosphorylation is discussed. ..
  32. Uttamsingh S, Zong C, Wang L. Matrix-independent activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Stat3, and cyclin A-associated Cdk2 Is essential for anchorage-independent growth of v-Ros-transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:18798-810 pubmed
  33. Powell C, Gschwend J, Fair W, Brittis N, Stec D, Huryk R. Overexpression of protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-zeta) inhibits invasive and metastatic abilities of Dunning R-3327 MAT-LyLu rat prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res. 1996;56:4137-41 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that increased PKC-zeta expression can substantially suppress invasion and metastasis by an aggressive rat prostate tumor. ..
  34. Yu M, Wu P, Widelitz R, Chuong C. The morphogenesis of feathers. Nature. 2002;420:308-12 pubmed
  35. Finn J, MacLachlan I, Cullis P. Factors limiting autogene-based cytoplasmic expression systems. FASEB J. 2005;19:608-10 pubmed
    ..It follows that mRNA production, as well as translation, are important factors limiting autogene-based cytoplasmic expression. ..
  36. Nakajima N, Enomoto T, Watanabe T, Matsuura N, Ubukata M. Synthesis and activity of pyrimidinylpropenamide antibiotics: the alkyl analogues of sparsomycin. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2003;67:2556-66 pubmed
    ..Studies on the biological activity of morphological reversion on src(ts)-NRK cells were also carried out. ..
  37. Cooper J, Hunter T. Four different classes of retroviruses induce phosphorylation of tyrosines present in similar cellular proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1981;1:394-407 pubmed
    Chicken embryo cells transformed by the related avian sarcoma viruses PRC II and Fujinami sarcoma virus, or by the unrelated virus Y73, contain three phosphoproteins not observed in untransformed cells and increased levels of up to four ..
  38. Minemura M, Shimizu Y, Hirano K, Nakayama Y, Tokimitsu Y, Tajiri K, et al. Functional analysis of transactivation by mutants of hepatitis B virus X gene in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2005;14:495-9 pubmed
  39. Skinner L, Sudol M, Harper A, Katzman M. Nucleophile selection for the endonuclease activities of human, ovine, and avian retroviral integrases. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:114-24 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that interaction with target DNA is the critical step before catalysis and suggest that integrase does not reach an active conformation until target DNA has bound to the enzyme. ..
  40. Kaspar R, Kakegawa T, Cranston H, Morris D, White M. A regulatory cis element and a specific binding factor involved in the mitogenic control of murine ribosomal protein L32 translation. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:508-14 pubmed
    ..This protein is a member of what may be an emerging family of polyribopyrimidine-binding proteins with diverse biochemical functions. ..
  41. Kingston R, Olson N, Vogt V. The organization of mature Rous sarcoma virus as studied by cryoelectron microscopy. J Struct Biol. 2001;136:67-80 pubmed
    ..From estimates of RNA packing density we conclude that either the RNA within the core is loosely packed or, more probably, that it does not fill the core. ..
  42. Comoglio P, Di Renzo M, Tarone G, Giancotti F, Naldini L, Marchisio P. Detection of phosphotyrosine-containing proteins in the detergent-insoluble fraction of RSV-transformed fibroblasts by azobenzene phosphonate antibodies. EMBO J. 1984;3:483-9 pubmed
    ..These data show that antibodies reacting with phosphotyrosine may be usefully employed in the identification and in the intracellular localization of molecules that are potential targets of the pp60src protein kinase. ..
  43. Sugano S, Stoeckle M, Hanafusa H. Transformation by Rous sarcoma virus induces a novel gene with homology to a mitogenic platelet protein. Cell. 1987;49:321-8 pubmed
    ..The reported biological activities of CTAP-III suggest that elevated expression of 9E3 may play a role in producing some of the phenotypic features of RSV-transformed cells. ..
  44. Sakaguchi A, Mohandas T, Naylor S. A human c-src gene resides on the proximal long arm of chromosome 20 (cen----q131). Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1985;18:123-9 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that c-src is on the same chromosome arm as aberrations associated with myeloproliferative disease, although the possible involvement of c-src in these aberrations is unknown. ..
  45. Fogel B, McNally M. A cellular protein, hnRNP H, binds to the negative regulator of splicing element from Rous sarcoma virus. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:32371-8 pubmed
    ..The possible roles of hnRNP H in NRS function are discussed. ..
  46. Hensold J, Stratton C, Barth D, Galson D. Expression of the transcription factor, Spi-1 (PU.1), in differentiating murine erythroleukemia cells Is regulated post-transcriptionally. Evidence for differential stability of transcription factor mRNAs following inducer exposure. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:3385-91 pubmed
    ..The effect of Me2SO on the stability of Spi-1 mRNA provides a novel means of altering gene expression in these cells and is likely to have significance for the differentiation of these cells. ..
  47. Shiroki K, Hamaguchi M, Kawai S. Highly efficient focus formation by Rous sarcoma virus on adenovirus type 12 E1A-transformed rat 3Y1 cells. J Virol. 1992;66:1449-57 pubmed
    ..E1AY cells were found to be more sensitive to lysis by detergents. The results suggest that the enhancement is due to changes in membrane structures in E1AY cells. ..
  48. Wlodawer A, Gustchina A. Structural and biochemical studies of retroviral proteases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1477:16-34 pubmed
    ..In this review, structural and biochemical data for retroviral proteases are compared in order to analyze the similarities and differences between the enzymes from different sources and to enhance our understanding of their properties. ..
  49. Yeh C, Shatkin A. Down-regulation of Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat promoter activity by a HeLa cell basic protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:11002-6 pubmed
    ..Proliferation of chicken embryo fibroblasts transfected with an infectious molecular clone of RSV was diminished by p21 expression, which also resulted in fewer transformed foci. ..
  50. Ebara S, Shimura S, Nasu Y, Kaku H, Kumon H, Yang G, et al. Gene therapy for prostate cancer: toxicological profile of four HSV-tk transducing adenoviral vectors regulated by different promoters. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2002;5:316-25 pubmed
    ..Our studies further suggest that promoter selection can influence the toxic effects of an adenoviral gene therapy vector. ..
  51. Ballandras A, Moreau K, Robert X, Confort M, Merceron R, Haser R, et al. A crystal structure of the catalytic core domain of an avian sarcoma and leukemia virus integrase suggests an alternate dimeric assembly. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23032 pubmed publisher
    ..Such flexibility can further explain the multifunctionality of retroviral INs, which beside integration of dsDNA are implicated in different steps of the retroviral cycle in presence of viral ssRNA...
  52. Nielsen L, Pedersen R. Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase: a novel reporter gene for use in mammalian embryos. J Exp Zool. 1991;257:128-33 pubmed
    ..The RSV LTR was an efficient promoter that led to abundant ADH activity at all stages of preimplantation development. There was a high incidence of mosaicism among stained embryos...
  53. Van Eldik L, Zimmer W, Barger S, Watterson D. Perturbation of the calmodulin system in transformed cells. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1990;269:111-20 pubmed
  54. Elleder D, Stepanets V, Melder D, Senigl F, Geryk J, Pajer P, et al. The receptor for the subgroup C avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses, Tvc, is related to mammalian butyrophilins, members of the immunoglobulin superfamily. J Virol. 2005;79:10408-19 pubmed
    ..We have also identified a mutation in the tvc gene in line L15 chickens that explains why this line is resistant to ASLV(C) infection...
  55. Takeya T, Hanafusa H. Structure and sequence of the cellular gene homologous to the RSV src gene and the mechanism for generating the transforming virus. Cell. 1983;32:881-90 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the c-src sequence was captured by a virus through recombination at both sides of the c-src gene, and that the recombinations occurred at the level of proviral DNA...
  56. Dalton A, Murray P, Murray D, Vogt V. Biochemical characterization of rous sarcoma virus MA protein interaction with membranes. J Virol. 2005;79:6227-38 pubmed
    ..This result suggests that the clustering of MA domains, via Gag-Gag interactions during virus assembly, drives membrane association in vivo...
  57. Pepinsky R, Papayannopoulos I, Chow E, Krishna N, Craven R, Vogt V. Differential proteolytic processing leads to multiple forms of the CA protein in avian sarcoma and leukemia viruses. J Virol. 1995;69:6430-8 pubmed
    ..The resulting virus particles appeared to assembly with normal efficiencies, but the latter mutant showed slowed proteolytic processing. Neither of the mutants was infectious...
  58. Guild B, Erikson R, Strominger J. HLA-A2 and HLA-B7 antigens are phosphorylated in vitro by rous sarcoma virus kinase (pp60v-src) at a tyrosine residue encoded in a highly conserved exon of the intracellular domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:2894-8 pubmed
    ..The significance of the high degree of conservation within exon 6 is discussed...
  59. Steeg C, Vogt V. RNA-binding properties of the matrix protein (p19gag) of avian sarcoma and leukemia viruses. J Virol. 1990;64:847-55 pubmed
    ..We also found that MA can bind to DNA with an affinity similar to that for RNA. The large quantitative discrepancy between our results and earlier published reports can be traced in part to methods of data analysis...
  60. Courtneidge S, Levinson A, Bishop J. The protein encoded by the transforming gene of avian sarcoma virus (pp60src) and a homologous protein in normal cells (pp60proto-src) are associated with the plasma membrane. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980;77:3783-7 pubmed
    ..First, pp60src and pp60proto-src may have similar or even identical functions. Second, neoplastic transformation may originate from derangements in the plasma membrane or its affiliated structures...
  61. Shimizu Y, Yamamichi N, Saitoh K, Watanabe A, Ito T, Yamamichi Nishina M, et al. Kinetics of v-src-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in developing glandular stomach. Oncogene. 2003;22:884-93 pubmed
    ..These observations would partly explain why RSV does not apparently cause carcinoma formation, but induces sarcomas exclusively...
  62. Sato N, Matsuda K, Sakuma C, Foster D, Oppenheim R, Yaginuma H. Regulated gene expression in the chicken embryo by using replication-competent retroviral vectors. J Virol. 2002;76:1980-5 pubmed
    ..RSV-derived vectors coupled with the tet regulatory elements also revealed doxycycline-dependent inducible GFP expression in the chicken embryo in ovo...
  63. Voeks D, Martiniello Wilks R, Madden V, Smith K, Bennetts E, Both G, et al. Gene therapy for prostate cancer delivered by ovine adenovirus and mediated by purine nucleoside phosphorylase and fludarabine in mouse models. Gene Ther. 2002;9:759-68 pubmed
    ..Methods that improve viral dissemination and stimulate the immune system in vivo may further improve efficacy...
  64. Li J, Vogt P. The retroviral oncogene qin belongs to the transcription factor family that includes the homeotic gene fork head. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:4490-4 pubmed
    ..Within this family Qin is particularly closely related to rat brain factor 1 (BF-1), a telencephalon-specific gene presumed to play an important role in the development of the mammalian brain...
  65. Yeh C, Shatkin A. A cis-acting element in Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat required for promoter repression by HeLa nuclear protein p21. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:15815-20 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that p21 repression of RSV LTR is mediated by a cis-acting element and may occur by alteration of protein complexes formed on this promoter element...
  66. Yan N, Cherepanov P, Daigle J, Engelman A, Lieberman J. The SET complex acts as a barrier to autointegration of HIV-1. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000327 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the SET complex facilitates HIV-1 infection by preventing suicidal autointegration...
  67. Medina G, Pincetic A, Ehrlich L, Zhang Y, Tang Y, Leis J, et al. Tsg101 can replace Nedd4 function in ASV Gag release but not membrane targeting. Virology. 2008;377:30-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Tsg101 and Nedd4 facilitate Gag release through functionally exchangeable but independent routes and that Tsg101 can replace Nedd4 function in facilitating budding but not directing through the same membranes...
  68. Inoue H, Pan J, Hakura A. Suppression of v-src transformation by the drs gene. J Virol. 1998;72:2532-7 pubmed
  69. Bosserman M, O Quinn D, Wong I. Loop202-208 in avian sarcoma virus integrase mediates tetramer assembly and processing activity. Biochemistry. 2007;46:11231-9 pubmed
    ..We provide for the first time direct evidence of the functional relevance of a structural element, loop202-208, which appears to be required for mediating the interaction between dimer halves of the active tetramer...
  70. Rainey G, Natonson A, Maxfield L, Coffin J. Mechanisms of avian retroviral host range extension. J Virol. 2003;77:6709-19 pubmed
    ..Further, the mutant SU proteins bind well to chicken cells but do not bind any better than wild-type subgroup B to QT6 or human cells, even though the corresponding viruses are capable of infecting these cells...
  71. Yang X, Kurteva S, Ren X, Lee S, Sodroski J. Stoichiometry of envelope glycoprotein trimers in the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 2005;79:12132-47 pubmed
    ..The different entry requirements for cooperativity among Env trimers for retroviruses and influenza A virus may influence viral strategies for replication and evasion of the immune system...
  72. Pani P, Naithani S. Induced liver tumour deaths by subgroup A Rous sarcoma virus in chicks inoculated via chorioallantoic membrane, a genetic marker. Indian J Exp Biol. 1990;28:825-30 pubmed
  73. Oh J, Chang K, Hughes S. Mutations in the U5 sequences adjacent to the primer binding site do not affect tRNA cleavage by rous sarcoma virus RNase H but do cause aberrant integrations in vivo. J Virol. 2006;80:451-9 pubmed
    ..These unusual events generate either large duplications or, less frequently, deletions in the host genomic DNA instead of the normal 5- to 6-base duplications...
  74. Sieweke M, Stoker A, Bissell M. Evaluation of the cocarcinogenic effect of wounding in Rous sarcoma virus tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 1989;49:6419-24 pubmed
    ..We discuss the possibility of activation of integrated, silent virus or the preferential infection of a special target cell population as a result of wounding as well as the potential role of wound factors in transformation...
  75. Werner S, Vogel Bachmayr K, Hollinderbäumer B, Wöhrl B. Requirements for minus-strand transfer catalyzed by Rous sarcoma virus reverse transcriptase. J Virol. 2001;75:10132-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a two- to fivefold increase in minus-strand transfer activities was observed in the presence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein...
  76. Vogt V, Simon M. Mass determination of rous sarcoma virus virions by scanning transmission electron microscopy. J Virol. 1999;73:7050-5 pubmed
    ..The mean masses for virions carrying genomes of 7.4 or 9.3 kb were indistinguishable, suggesting that mass variability is not due to differences in RNA incorporation...
  77. Wu Y, Kita K, Suzuki N. Involvement of human heat shock protein 90 alpha in nicotine-induced apoptosis. Int J Cancer. 2002;100:37-42 pubmed
    ..Thus, it was suggested that nicotine induces apoptosis, possibly via Hsp90 alpha expression, in human cells tested...
  78. Chang H, Aoki M, Fruman D, Auger K, Bellacosa A, Tsichlis P, et al. Transformation of chicken cells by the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of PI 3-kinase. Science. 1997;276:1848-50 pubmed
    ..CEFs transformed with either gene showed elevated levels of phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and activation of Akt kinase...
  79. Semba K, Yamanashi Y, Nishizawa M, Sukegawa J, Yoshida M, Sasaki M, et al. Location of the c-yes gene on the human chromosome and its expression in various tissues. Science. 1985;227:1038-40 pubmed
    ..There was evidence for multiple copies of yes-related genes in the human genome; however, only a single RNA species, 4.8 kilobases in length, was related to yes in various cells...
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