retroviridae

Summary

Summary: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).

Top Publications

  1. Green K, Cook W, Green W. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in murine retrovirus-induced AIDS inhibit T- and B-cell responses in vitro that are used to define the immunodeficiency. J Virol. 2013;87:2058-71 pubmed publisher
  2. White T, Brandariz Nuñez A, Valle Casuso J, Amie S, Nguyen L, Kim B, et al. Contribution of SAM and HD domains to retroviral restriction mediated by human SAMHD1. Virology. 2013;436:81-90 pubmed publisher
  3. Duggal N, Malik H, Emerman M. The breadth of antiviral activity of Apobec3DE in chimpanzees has been driven by positive selection. J Virol. 2011;85:11361-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite a difference in target specificities between human and chimpanzee Apobec3DE, Apobec3DE is likely to currently play a role in host defense against retroelements in both species...
  4. Patel M, Emerman M, Malik H. Paleovirology - ghosts and gifts of viruses past. Curr Opin Virol. 2011;1:304-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, viruses have also impacted host biology by providing genes hosts have domesticated for their own purpose...
  5. Checkley M, Mitchell J, Eizenstat L, Lockett S, Garfinkel D. Ty1 gag enhances the stability and nuclear export of Ty1 mRNA. Traffic. 2013;14:57-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Endogenously expressed Gag also localized to the nuclear periphery independent of RNA export. These results suggest that Gag is required for Ty1 mRNA stability, efficient nuclear export and localization into cytoplasmic foci...
  6. Haig D. Retroviruses and the placenta. Curr Biol. 2012;22:R609-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The evolutionary interplay between retroviruses and host defenses may have contributed to the remarkable diversity of form among mammalian placentas and to mechanisms of genomic imprinting...
  7. Cavazza A, Moiani A, Mavilio F. Mechanisms of retroviral integration and mutagenesis. Hum Gene Ther. 2013;24:119-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the current knowledge on the interactions between retroviruses and the human genome and addresses the impact of target site selection on the safety of retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy...
  8. Schott J, Galla M, Godinho T, Baum C, Schambach A. Viral and non-viral approaches for transient delivery of mRNA and proteins. Curr Gene Ther. 2011;11:382-98 pubmed
    ..The basic concepts and recent advances are put into perspective in the context of potential limitations of the technologies and strategies to overcome cellular barriers and defense mechanisms...
  9. Frankel T, Zhang L, Burns W, Zheng Z, Morgan R. The position of the AUG start codon in MFG-based ?-retroviral vectors has a dramatic effect on translation-dependent protein expression. J Gene Med. 2011;13:478-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Little is known about the impact of variations in start codon location within MFG-based vectors on protein expression...

More Information

Publications67

  1. Karow M, Sanchez R, Schichor C, Masserdotti G, Ortega F, Heinrich C, et al. Reprogramming of pericyte-derived cells of the adult human brain into induced neuronal cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;11:471-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results raise the possibility of functional conversion of endogenous cells in the adult human brain to induced neuronal fates...
  2. Bouttier M, Saumet A, Peter M, Courgnaud V, Schmidt U, Cazevieille C, et al. Retroviral GAG proteins recruit AGO2 on viral RNAs without affecting RNA accumulation and translation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:775-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results place AGO2 at the core of the retroviral life cycle and reveal original AGO2 functions that are not related to miRNAs and translation repression...
  3. Riviere I, Dunbar C, Sadelain M. Hematopoietic stem cell engineering at a crossroads. Blood. 2012;119:1107-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we place these recent advances in perspective, emphasizing the solutions emerging from a wave of new technologies and highlighting the challenges that lie ahead...
  4. Baluyot M, Grosse S, Lyddon T, Janaka S, Johnson M. CRM1-dependent trafficking of retroviral Gag proteins revisited. J Virol. 2012;86:4696-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, this cycling could be eliminated without compromising infectivity by replacing the RSV Gag N-terminal matrix (MA) domain with HIV MA...
  5. Li W, Green W. Immunotherapy of murine retrovirus-induced acquired immunodeficiency by CD4 T regulatory cell depletion and PD-1 blockade. J Virol. 2011;85:13342-53 pubmed publisher
  6. Maiuri P, Knezevich A, De Marco A, Mazza D, Kula A, McNally J, et al. Fast transcription rates of RNA polymerase II in human cells. EMBO Rep. 2011;12:1280-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The calculated transcription rate above 50 kb min(-1) points towards a wide dynamic range of RNAPII velocities in living cells...
  7. Han K, Lou D, Sawyer S. Identification of a genomic reservoir for new TRIM genes in primate genomes. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002388 pubmed publisher
  8. Cianciolo G, Pizzo S. Anti-inflammatory and vasoprotective activity of a retroviral-derived peptide, homologous to human endogenous retroviruses: endothelial cell effects. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52693 pubmed publisher
  9. Noh M, Copeland R, Yi Y, Choi K, Meschter C, Hwang S, et al. Pre-clinical studies of retrovirally transduced human chondrocytes expressing transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TG-C). Cytotherapy. 2010;12:384-93 pubmed publisher
  10. Santoni F, Hartley O, Luban J. Deciphering the code for retroviral integration target site selection. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010;6:e1001008 pubmed publisher
  11. Smith R. Contamination of clinical specimens with MLV-encoding nucleic acids: implications for XMRV and other candidate human retroviruses. Retrovirology. 2010;7:112 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings raise important questions regarding the provenance of XMRV and its potential connection to human disease...
  12. Gijsbers R, Ronen K, Vets S, Malani N, De Rijck J, McNeely M, et al. LEDGF hybrids efficiently retarget lentiviral integration into heterochromatin. Mol Ther. 2010;18:552-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, engineered LEDGF/p75 chimeras provide technology for controlling integration site selection by lentiviral vectors...
  13. Savoldo B, Ramos C, Liu E, Mims M, Keating M, Carrum G, et al. CD28 costimulation improves expansion and persistence of chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells in lymphoma patients. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:1822-6 pubmed publisher
  14. Pertel T, Hausmann S, Morger D, Züger S, Guerra J, Lascano J, et al. TRIM5 is an innate immune sensor for the retrovirus capsid lattice. Nature. 2011;472:361-5 pubmed publisher
  15. Chen X, Chan S, Hosseini H, Layton D, Boyd R, Alderuccio F, et al. Transplantation of retrovirally transduced bone marrow prevents autoimmune disease in aged mice by peripheral tolerance mechanisms. Autoimmunity. 2011;44:384-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Peripheral tolerance mechanisms are implicated since protection is associated with higher chimerism levels in peripheral T and B lymphocytes and with elevated regulatory T cells...
  16. Biasco L, Ambrosi A, Pellin D, Bartholomae C, Brigida I, Roncarolo M, et al. Integration profile of retroviral vector in gene therapy treated patients is cell-specific according to gene expression and chromatin conformation of target cell. EMBO Mol Med. 2011;3:89-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows that MLV vector insertional profile is cell-specific according to the genetic/chromatin state of the target cell both in vitro and in vivo in patients several years after GT...
  17. Garcia Rodriguez L, Abate Daga D, Rojas A, Gonzalez J, Fillat C. E-cadherin contributes to the bystander effect of TK/GCV suicide therapy and enhances its antitumoral activity in pancreatic cancer models. Gene Ther. 2011;18:73-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose that by restoring E-cadherin in pancreatic tumor cells we will improve TK/GCV therapy, both by enhancing the bystander effect and by facilitating the induction of apoptosis...
  18. Parkhurst M, Yang J, Langan R, Dudley M, Nathan D, Feldman S, et al. T cells targeting carcinoembryonic antigen can mediate regression of metastatic colorectal cancer but induce severe transient colitis. Mol Ther. 2011;19:620-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It also emphasizes the destructive power of small numbers of highly avid T cells and the limitations of using CEA as a target for cancer immunotherapy...
  19. Heinz N, Schambach A, Galla M, Maetzig T, Baum C, Loew R, et al. Retroviral and transposon-based tet-regulated all-in-one vectors with reduced background expression and improved dynamic range. Hum Gene Ther. 2011;22:166-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the results indicated that successful regulation of gene expression in different target cells depended on vector architecture as well as the choice of the Ptet-promoter...
  20. Cattoglio C, Pellin D, Rizzi E, Maruggi G, Corti G, Miselli F, et al. High-definition mapping of retroviral integration sites identifies active regulatory elements in human multipotent hematopoietic progenitors. Blood. 2010;116:5507-17 pubmed publisher
  21. Ko H, Chung J, Nasa Z, Chan J, Siatskas C, Toh B, et al. Targeting MOG expression to dendritic cells delays onset of experimental autoimmune disease. Autoimmunity. 2011;44:177-87 pubmed publisher
  22. Gotoh H, Ono K, Takebayashi H, Harada H, Nakamura H, Ikenaka K. Genetically-defined lineage tracing of Nkx2.2-expressing cells in chick spinal cord. Dev Biol. 2011;349:504-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the labeled OLs were found throughout the white matter in the spinal cord including the most dorsal spinal cord. Thus p3 domain directly generates spinal cord OLs in the chick spinal cord...
  23. Carlson T, Green K, Green W. Alternative translational reading frames as a novel source of epitopes for an expanded CD8 T-cell repertoire: use of a retroviral system to assess the translational requirements for CTL recognition and lysis. Viral Immunol. 2010;23:577-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have implications for the design of ARF-epitope-based vaccines, both to counter retroviral pathogenesis, as well as potentially more broadly, including in tumor systems...
  24. Lim K, Klimczak R, Yu J, Schaffer D. Specific insertions of zinc finger domains into Gag-Pol yield engineered retroviral vectors with selective integration properties. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:12475-80 pubmed publisher
  25. Fletcher A, Hue S, Schaller T, Pillay D, Towers G. Hare TRIM5? restricts divergent retroviruses and exhibits significant sequence variation from closely related lagomorpha TRIM5 genes. J Virol. 2010;84:12463-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that, like primates, lagomorphs have been subject to selective pressure from TRIM5-sensitive viruses, possibly related to the endogenous lentivirus RELIK found in both rabbits and hares...
  26. Silverman R, Nguyen C, Weight C, Klein E. The human retrovirus XMRV in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. Nat Rev Urol. 2010;7:392-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Emerging science surrounding XMRV is contributing to our knowledge of retroviral infections while focusing intense interest on two major human diseases...
  27. Heinrich C, Blum R, Gasc n S, Masserdotti G, Tripathi P, S nchez R, et al. Directing astroglia from the cerebral cortex into subtype specific functional neurons. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000373 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, neuronal reprogramming of astroglia is not restricted to postnatal stages but can also be achieved from terminally differentiated astroglia of the adult cerebral cortex following injury-induced reactivation...
  28. Liu L, Wang S, Shan B, Sang M, Liu S, Wang G. Advances in viral-vector systemic cytokine gene therapy against cancer. Vaccine. 2010;28:3883-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we will also discuss and propose future perspectives about cancer gene therapy...
  29. Rutkowski M, Stevens C, Green W. Impaired memory CD8 T cell responses against an immunodominant retroviral cryptic epitope. Virology. 2011;412:256-68 pubmed publisher
  30. Mali P, Ye Z, Chou B, Yen J, Cheng L. An improved method for generating and identifying human induced pluripotent stem cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;636:191-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we elaborate a robust technique for monitoring and identification of potential iPS cells through live staining of reprogrammed cells. We also outline steps for characterization of the resulting iPS cell lines...
  31. Maillard P, Ecco G, Ortiz M, Trono D. The specificity of TRIM5 alpha-mediated restriction is influenced by its coiled-coil domain. J Virol. 2010;84:5790-801 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the PRYSPRY and coiled-coil domains cooperate to determine the specificity of TRIM5 alpha-mediated capture of retroviral capsids, shedding new light on this complex event...
  32. Ruiz S, Brennand K, Panopoulos A, Herrerias A, Gage F, Izpisua Belmonte J. High-efficient generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human astrocytes. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15526 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrates that a human differentiated neural cell type can be reprogrammed to pluripotency and is consistent with the universality of the somatic reprogramming procedure...
  33. Almåsbak H, Rian E, Hoel H, Pule M, Walchli S, Kvalheim G, et al. Transiently redirected T cells for adoptive transfer. Cytotherapy. 2011;13:629-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The simplicity of this methodology also facilitates rapid screening of candidate targets and novel receptors in pre-clinical studies. ..
  34. Ganser Pornillos B, Chandrasekaran V, Pornillos O, Sodroski J, Sundquist W, Yeager M. Hexagonal assembly of a restricting TRIM5alpha protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:534-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Capsid recognition therefore involves a synergistic combination of direct binding interactions, avidity effects, templated assembly, and lattice complementarity...
  35. Chang M, Kim D, Kim C, Kang H, Yang E, Moon J, et al. Direct reprogramming of rat neural precursor cells and fibroblasts into pluripotent stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9838 pubmed publisher
  36. Wang G, Berry C, Malani N, Leboulch P, Fischer A, Hacein Bey Abina S, et al. Dynamics of gene-modified progenitor cells analyzed by tracking retroviral integration sites in a human SCID-X1 gene therapy trial. Blood. 2010;115:4356-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The approaches to sequencing and bioinformatics analysis reported here should be widely useful in assessing the outcome of gene therapy trials...
  37. Galla M, Schambach A, Falk C, Maetzig T, Kuehle J, Lange K, et al. Avoiding cytotoxicity of transposases by dose-controlled mRNA delivery. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:7147-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Transposase-mediated gene transfer can thus be tuned to maintain high efficiency in the absence of overt cell damage...
  38. Tareen S, Emerman M. Human Trim5? has additional activities that are uncoupled from retroviral capsid recognition. Virology. 2011;409:113-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate functions of Trim5? that are not dependent on recognizing the retroviral capsid...
  39. Chen J, Liu J, Chen Y, Yang J, Chen J, Liu H, et al. Rational optimization of reprogramming culture conditions for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells with ultra-high efficiency and fast kinetics. Cell Res. 2011;21:884-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This new paradigm not only provides a rationale to further improve iPSC generation but also simplifies the conceptual understanding of reprogramming by defined factors...
  40. Groom H, Boucherit V, Makinson K, Randal E, Baptista S, Hagan S, et al. Absence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in UK patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Retrovirology. 2010;7:10 pubmed publisher
  41. Wong S, Kwon Y. Synthetically functionalized retroviruses produced from the bioorthogonally engineered cell surface. Bioconjug Chem. 2011;22:151-5 pubmed publisher
  42. Baum C. Parachuting in the epigenome: the biology of gene vector insertion profiles in the context of clinical trials. EMBO Mol Med. 2011;3:75-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This explains the great interest ina deeper understanding of retroviral vector–host interactions in the therapeutic setting of SCID-ADA...
  43. Emery D. The use of chromatin insulators to improve the expression and safety of integrating gene transfer vectors. Hum Gene Ther. 2011;22:761-74 pubmed publisher
  44. Trobridge G. Genotoxicity of retroviral hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2011;11:581-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These genotoxicity studies are critical to advancing HSC gene therapy...
  45. Aggen D, Chervin A, Schmitt T, Engels B, Stone J, Richman S, et al. Single-chain V?V? T-cell receptors function without mispairing with endogenous TCR chains. Gene Ther. 2012;19:365-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Such transduced T cells can respond to the targeted antigen independent of CD3 subunits via the introduced scTv, without the transduced T cells acquiring any new undefined and potentially dangerous specificities...
  46. Houzet L, Jeang K. MicroRNAs and human retroviruses. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1809:686-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: MicroRNAs in viral gene regulation. ..
  47. Bodem J, Schied T, Gabriel R, Rammling M, Rethwilm A. Foamy virus nuclear RNA export is distinct from that of other retroviruses. J Virol. 2011;85:2333-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition studies showed that both ANP32A and ANP32B, which are known to bridge HuR and CRM1, are essential for FV RNA export. By using this export pathway, FVs solve a central problem of viral replication...
  48. Hare S, Vos A, Clayton R, Thuring J, Cummings M, Cherepanov P. Molecular mechanisms of retroviral integrase inhibition and the evolution of viral resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:20057-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our structures predict physical proximity and an interaction between HIV-1 IN mutant residues His148 and Ser/Ala140, rationalizing the coevolution of Q148H and G140S/A mutations in drug-resistant viral strains...
  49. Matuskova M, Baranovicova L, Kozovska Z, Durinikova E, Pastorakova A, Hunáková L, et al. Intrinsic properties of tumour cells have a key impact on the bystander effect mediated by genetically engineered mesenchymal stromal cells. J Gene Med. 2012;14:776-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to compare the efficacy of two most frequently used systems, as well as evaluate the extent of a bystander effect mediated by therapeutic MSC towards cell lines derived from different tumours...
  50. Han B, Shi X, Zhang Y, Chu X, Gu J, Xiao J, et al. Microbiological safety of a novel bio-artificial liver support system based on porcine hepatocytes: a experimental study. Eur J Med Res. 2012;17:13 pubmed publisher
    ..In the in vitro infection experiment, no infection was found in HEK293 cells treated with plasma. No infective PERV was detected in the experimental animals, thus the novel BAL had a reliable microbiological safety profile. ..
  51. Li B, Chu X, Gao M, Xu Y. The effects of CD59 gene as a target gene on breast cancer cells. Cell Immunol. 2011;272:61-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, overexpression of CD59 promoted the proliferation of MCF-7 cells and inhibited anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression. In conclusion, CD59 may be a promising target in the gene therapy of breast cancer. ..
  52. Oh J, Kim R, Shin K, Park N, Kang M. DeltaNp63? protein triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transition and confers stem cell properties in normal human keratinocytes. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:38757-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, these cells expressed enhanced levels of Nanog and Lin28, which are transcription factors associated with pluripotency. These data indicate that EMT required ?Np63? transduction and intact TGF-? signaling in NHEK. ..
  53. Gattringer M, Baranyi U, Pilat N, Hock K, Klaus C, Buchberger E, et al. Engraftment of retrovirally transduced Bet v 1-GFP expressing bone marrow cells leads to allergen-specific tolerance. Immunobiology. 2013;218:1139-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Stable long-term chimerism was achieved under inhibition of CD26. These results provide evidence for the broad applicability of molecular chimerism as tolerance strategy in allergy. ..
  54. Jin K, Xiang M. In vitro explant culture and related protocols for the study of mouse retinal development. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;884:155-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we provide detailed descriptions about how to prepare retroviruses, dissect retinal cups, perform in vitro explant culture, and collect explant samples...
  55. Kim K, Hysolli E, Park I. Reprogramming human somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using retroviral vector with GFP. J Vis Exp. 2012;: pubmed publisher
    ..iPSC colonies isolated mechanically under a fluorescence microscope behave in a similar fashion as hESCs. In these cells, we detect the expression of multiple pluripotency genes and surface markers...
  56. Imamura M, Okuno H, Tomioka I, Kawamura Y, Lin Z, Nakajima R, et al. Derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells by retroviral gene transduction in mammalian species. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;925:21-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The iPSC technology will serve as a valuable method for studying genomic imprinting, and conversely, the insights from these studies will offer valuable criteria to assess the potential of iPSCs...
  57. Ma R, Xu J, Dong B, Kauther M, Jager M, Wedemeyer C. Inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by RNA interference targeting RANK. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012;13:154 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of inhibition of RANK expression in mouse bone marrow macrophages on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption...
  58. Dowlatshahi D, Sandrin V, Vivona S, Shaler T, Kaiser S, Melandri F, et al. ALIX is a Lys63-specific polyubiquitin binding protein that functions in retrovirus budding. Dev Cell. 2012;23:1247-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutation of these putative Ub binding sites inhibited polyUb binding to the isolated V domain in vitro and impaired budding of lentiviruses. These data reveal an important role for K63 polyUb binding by ALIX in retroviral release...