oncogenic viruses


Summary: Viruses that produce tumors.

Top Publications

  1. Talbot S, Crawford D. Viruses and tumours--an update. Eur J Cancer. 2004;40:1998-2005 pubmed
    ..This article attempts to summarise the current level of our knowledge with respect to tumour-associated viruses, and to place this in the context of the earlier article by Harris (Eur J Cancer 1965, 1, 183-188)...
  2. Dayaram T, Marriott S. Effect of transforming viruses on molecular mechanisms associated with cancer. J Cell Physiol. 2008;216:309-14 pubmed publisher
    ..While the transforming properties of these viruses are probably unintended consequences of replication strategies, they provide excellent systems in which to study cancer development...
  3. Rozenblatt Rosen O, Deo R, Padi M, Adelmant G, Calderwood M, Rolland T, et al. Interpreting cancer genomes using systematic host network perturbations by tumour virus proteins. Nature. 2012;487:491-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Combining systems-level studies of pathogen-encoded gene products with genomic approaches will facilitate the prioritization of cancer-causing driver genes to advance the understanding of the genetic basis of human cancer...
  4. McLaughlin Drubin M, Munger K. Viruses associated with human cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1782:127-50 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Oncogenic viruses have thus served as important experimental models to identify and molecularly investigate such cellular ..
  5. Javier R, Butel J. The history of tumor virology. Cancer Res. 2008;68:7693-706 pubmed publisher
    ..This rich history promises that tumor virology will continue to contribute to our understanding of cancer and to the development of new therapeutic and preventive measures for this disease in the 21st century...
  6. Epeldegui M, Widney D, Martinez Maza O. Pathogenesis of AIDS lymphoma: role of oncogenic viruses and B cell activation-associated molecular lesions. Curr Opin Oncol. 2006;18:444-8 pubmed
    ..We discuss recently published studies that elucidate the pathogenesis of AIDS-associated lymphoma...
  7. Gao P, Zheng J. Oncogenic virus-mediated cell fusion: new insights into initiation and progression of oncogenic viruses--related cancers. Cancer Lett. 2011;303:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is worth noting that all human oncogenic viruses, including human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (..
  8. Gurtsevitch V. Human oncogenic viruses: hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses and their role in hepatocarcinogenesis. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2008;73:504-13 pubmed
    ..are the processes that play the major role in liver cancer induced by HBV and HCV...
  9. Noch E, Khalili K. Oncogenic viruses and tumor glucose metabolism: like kids in a candy store. Mol Cancer Ther. 2012;11:14-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Oncogenic viruses represent a significant public health burden in light of the multitude of malignancies that result from chronic or spontaneous viral infection and transformation...

More Information


  1. Saha A, Kaul R, Murakami M, Robertson E. Tumor viruses and cancer biology: Modulating signaling pathways for therapeutic intervention. Cancer Biol Ther. 2010;10:961-78 pubmed
    ..This review discusses the major human tumor associated viruses and their ability to modulate numerous cell signaling pathways, which can be targeted for potential therapeutic approaches...
  2. Iacovides D, Michael S, Achilleos C, Strati K. Shared mechanisms in stemness and carcinogenesis: lessons from oncogenic viruses. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2013;3:66 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we present a synopsis of recent work from oncogenic viruses which contributes to this body of knowledge, establishing a nexus between infection, cancer, and stemness.
  3. Saha A, Robertson E. Functional modulation of the metastatic suppressor Nm23-H1 by oncogenic viruses. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:3174-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review recent studies to explore the molecular links between human oncogenic viruses and progression of metastasis, in particular the deregulation of Nm23-H1 mediated suppression.
  4. Feng H, Taylor J, Benos P, Newton R, Waddell K, Lucas S, et al. Human transcriptome subtraction by using short sequence tags to search for tumor viruses in conjunctival carcinoma. J Virol. 2007;81:11332-40 pubmed
    ..It provides, for the first time, quantitative evidence against some classes of viral etiology when no viral transcripts are found, thereby reducing the uncertainty involved in new pathogen discovery...
  5. Moore P, Chang Y. Why do viruses cause cancer? Highlights of the first century of human tumour virology. Nat Rev Cancer. 2010;10:878-89 pubmed publisher
    ..This Timeline article describes common features of human tumour viruses and discusses how new technologies can be used to identify infectious causes of cancer...
  6. Davidson I, Borenstein R. Multiple infection of chickens and turkeys with avian oncogenic viruses: prevalence and molecular analysis. Acta Virol. 1999;43:136-42 pubmed
  7. Levy L, Renard C, Wei Y, Buendia M. Genetic alterations and oncogenic pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;963:21-36 pubmed
    ..This search might shed some light on the tumorigenic role of HBV and HCV. It might also permit accurate evaluation of major targets for prognostic and therapeutic intervention. ..
  8. Catarino R, Pereira D, Breda E, Coelho A, Matos A, Lopes C, et al. Oncogenic virus-associated neoplasia: a role for cyclin D1 genotypes influencing the age of onset of disease?. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;370:118-22 pubmed publisher
  9. Smyth M, Godfrey D, Trapani J. A fresh look at tumor immunosurveillance and immunotherapy. Nat Immunol. 2001;2:293-9 pubmed
  10. Furth M, Davis L, Fleurdelys B, Scolnick E. Monoclonal antibodies to the p21 products of the transforming gene of Harvey murine sarcoma virus and of the cellular ras gene family. J Virol. 1982;43:294-304 pubmed
  11. Neerukonda S, Katneni U, Golovan S, Parcells M. Evaluation and validation of reference gene stability during Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection. J Virol Methods. 2016;236:111-116 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Bestkeeper and Normfinder analyses both determined BACT to be the least stable reference gene during MDV infection of CEF with oncogenic viruses, vaccine viruses, as well as in vv+ TK-2a-induced spleen lymphomas.
  12. Johnson E. Cancer mortality in workers employed in cattle, pigs, and sheep slaughtering and processing plants. Environ Int. 2011;37:950-9 pubmed publisher
    ..There is now sufficient evidence for steps to be taken to protect workers from carcinogenic exposures at the workplace. There are also serious implications for the general population which may also be exposed to some of these viruses. ..
  13. Li H, Chen G, Wang X, Han F, Pan C. [Carcinogenesis of hepatitis C virus core protein using recombinant adenoassociated virus technology]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2003;11:353, 357 pubmed
  14. Phelan J. Viruses and neoplastic growth. Dent Clin North Am. 2003;47:533-43 pubmed
    ..The identification of viral agents as causative agents of neoplasia and the pathogenetic mechanisms by which they act will have a profound effect on our approaches to oral cancer...
  15. Tak Manesh A, Azizi G, Heydari A, Kiaee F, Shaghaghi M, Hossein Khannazer N, et al. Epidemiology and pathophysiology of malignancy in common variable immunodeficiency?. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2017;45:602-615 pubmed publisher
    ..including impaired genetic stability, genetic predisposition, immune dysregulation, impaired clearance of oncogenic viruses and bacterial infections, and iatrogenic causes have been proposed to contribute to the high susceptibility ..
  16. Truyen U, Lochelt M. Relevant oncogenic viruses in veterinary medicine: original pathogens and animal models for human disease. Contrib Microbiol. 2006;13:101-17 pubmed
    b>Oncogenic viruses are important pathogens in farm and companion animals. These original pathogens are classified in various virus families, such as Retroviridae, Papillomaviridae, and Herpesviridae...
  17. El Araby A, Fouad A, Hanbal A, Abdelwahab S, Qassem O, El Araby M. Epigenetic Pathways of Oncogenic Viruses: Therapeutic Promises. Arch Pharm (Weinheim). 2016;349:73-90 pubmed publisher
    ..To convert normal cells into cancerous cells, oncogenic viruses must function at the epigenetic level to communicate with their host cells...
  18. Woller N, Kuhnel F. Virus infection, inflammation and prevention of cancer. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2014;193:33-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the chapter discusses latest aspects in prevention of inflammation-related cancer and provides a short outlook on the future prospects of cancer immunotherapy. ..
  19. Evans G, Caller L, Foster V, Crump C. Anion homeostasis is important for non-lytic release of BK polyomavirus from infected cells. Open Biol. 2015;5: pubmed publisher
    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is a member of a family of potentially oncogenic viruses, whose reactivation can cause severe pathological conditions in transplant patients, leading to graft rejection...
  20. Weis N, Krogsgaard K. [Hepatitis B--a viral oncogene?]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2002;164:5940-4 pubmed
  21. Dartnell L, Simeonidis E, Hubank M, Tsoka S, Bogle I, Papageorgiou L. Robustness of the p53 network and biological hackers. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:3037-42 pubmed
    ..The significance of the results is considered with respect to mutational knockouts of proteins and the directed attacks mounted by tumour inducing viruses. ..
  23. Cardiff R, Anver M, Boivin G, Bosenberg M, Maronpot R, Molinolo A, et al. Precancer in mice: animal models used to understand, prevent, and treat human precancers. Toxicol Pathol. 2006;34:699-707 pubmed
    ..The experimental use of oncogenic viruses and chemical carcinogens in mice led to operational definitions of initiation, promotion, and preneoplasia ..
  24. Du Y, Spence S, Jenkins N, Copeland N. Cooperating cancer-gene identification through oncogenic-retrovirus-induced insertional mutagenesis. Blood. 2005;106:2498-505 pubmed
    ..Insertional mutagenesis of cooperating cancer genes by a defective oncogenic retrovirus provides a new method for identifying cooperating cancer genes and could aid in the development of better therapies for treating cancer. ..
  25. Schiller J, Lowy D. Virus infection and human cancer: an overview. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2014;193:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Oncogenic viruses include various classes of DNA and RNA viruses and induce cancer by a variety of mechanisms...
  26. Chen C, Hsu W, Yang H, Lee M, Chen H, Chien Y, et al. Epidemiology of virus infection and human cancer. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2014;193:11-32 pubmed publisher
    ..However, only a proportion of persons infected by these oncogenic viruses will develop specific cancers...
  27. Hu X, Zhu W, Chen S, Liu Y, Sun Z, Geng T, et al. Expression patterns of endogenous avian retrovirus ALVE1 and its response to infection with exogenous avian tumour viruses. Arch Virol. 2017;162:89-101 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may be of significance for understanding the role and function of ERVs that are present in the host genome. ..
  28. Marcucci F, Mele A. Hepatitis viruses and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: epidemiology, mechanisms of tumorigenesis, and therapeutic opportunities. Blood. 2011;117:1792-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Available evidence on the association with other hematologic malignancies is also addressed briefly. ..
  29. Wood C, Chen Z, Cline J, Miller B, Burk R. Characterization and experimental transmission of an oncogenic papillomavirus in female macaques. J Virol. 2007;81:6339-45 pubmed
    ..These findings identify key similarities between macaque and human oncogenic PVs which should prove useful in the study of viral persistence, carcinogenesis, and therapeutic development. ..
  30. Svoboda J. Foundations in cancer research. The turns of life and science. Adv Cancer Res. 2008;99:1-32 pubmed
    ..Other areas covering epigenetic reversion of RSV-transformed cells and long-term persistence of chicken leucosis viruses in foreign avian species are discussed. ..
  31. Valencia Ortega M. Malignancies and infection due to the human immunodeficiency virus. Are these emerging diseases?. Rev Clin Esp. 2018;218:149-155 pubmed publisher
    ..and the main causes that have led to an increase in tumour disease are immunosuppression, coinfection with oncogenic viruses and life prolongation secondary to the use of antiretroviral therapy...
  32. Svoboda J. Postulation of and evidence for provirus existence in RSV-transformed cells and for an oncogenic activity associated with only part of the RSV genome. Gene. 2003;317:209-13 pubmed
    ..Two sets of experiments are mentioned, which provided an early indication of a transforming gene present in RSV...
  33. Du Z, Podsypanina K, Huang S, McGrath A, Toneff M, Bogoslovskaia E, et al. Introduction of oncogenes into mammary glands in vivo with an avian retroviral vector initiates and promotes carcinogenesis in mouse models. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:17396-401 pubmed
    ..We conclude that infection of mammary glands with retrovirus vectors is an efficient means to screen candidate oncogenes for their capacity to initiate or promote mammary carcinogenesis in the mouse. ..
  34. Albert D, Phelps P, Surapaneni K, Thuro B, Potter H, Ikeda A, et al. The Significance of the Discordant Occurrence of Lens Tumors in Humans versus Other Species. Ophthalmology. 2015;122:1765-70 pubmed publisher
    ..in zebrafish, rainbow trout, hamsters, and mice by carcinogenic agents (methylcholanthrene, thioacetamide), oncogenic viruses (SV40, HPV-16), and genetic manipulation. Our results suggest that lens tumors do not occur in humans...
  35. Flippot R, Malouf G, Su X, Khayat D, Spano J. Oncogenic viruses: Lessons learned using next-generation sequencing technologies. Eur J Cancer. 2016;61:61-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Although much remains to be discovered, many improvements are expected from the clinical point of view, from better prognosis classifications to better therapeutic strategies. ..
  36. DeCaprio J. Merkel cell polyomavirus and Merkel cell carcinoma. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2017;372: pubmed publisher
    ..How MCPyV causes MCC and what oncogenic events must transpire to enable this virus to cause MCC is the focus of this essay.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human oncogenic viruses'.
  37. Banks L, Pim D, Thomas M. Human tumour viruses and the deregulation of cell polarity in cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2012;12:877-86 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a body of data from human tumour viruses is now providing compelling evidence of a central role for the perturbation of cell polarity in the development of cancer. ..
  38. Chang Y, Moore P, Weiss R. Human oncogenic viruses: nature and discovery. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2017;372: pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of the themed issue 'Human oncogenic viruses'.
  39. Gatza M, Chandhasin C, Ducu R, Marriott S. Impact of transforming viruses on cellular mutagenesis, genome stability, and cellular transformation. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2005;45:304-25 pubmed
    ..This review discusses mechanisms utilized by these viral oncoproteins, Tax, HBx, and E6/E7, to mediate genomic instability and cellular transformation. ..
  40. Delgado Enciso I, Rojas Martinez A, Barrera Saldaña H, Ortiz Lopez R. [Viruses: an important cause of human cancer]. Rev Invest Clin. 2004;56:495-506 pubmed
    ..Great efforts are being initiated to decrease incidence of the neoplasms by preventing the initial infection or by prophylactic vaccination. ..
  41. Bourhis J, Dupuis O. [Virus and human oncogenesis]. Rev Prat. 1994;44:900-5 pubmed
    ..A better knowledge of these viruses may also have therapeutic implications in a not too distant future such as the vaccination against HBV in order minimize the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in endemic countries. ..
  42. Sun A, Li Y, Wang J, Su S, Chen H, Zhu H, et al. Deletion of 1.8-kb mRNA of Marek's disease virus decreases its replication ability but not oncogenicity. Virol J. 2010;7:294 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of a MDV field strain GX0101 was used as the platform to generate mutant MDV to examine the functional roles of 1.8-kb mRNA...
  43. Johne R, Muller H. Polyomaviruses of birds: etiologic agents of inflammatory diseases in a tumor virus family. J Virol. 2007;81:11554-9 pubmed
  44. Wu J, Byrne H, Kirn D, Wein L. Modeling and analysis of a virus that replicates selectively in tumor cells. Bull Math Biol. 2001;63:731-68 pubmed
    ..For all three injection methods, simple and accurate conditions that predict whether the virus will control the tumor are derived...
  45. Goodman R, Smolik S. CBP/p300 in cell growth, transformation, and development. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1553-77 pubmed
  46. Wade M, Wahl G. c-Myc, genome instability, and tumorigenesis: the devil is in the details. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2006;302:169-203 pubmed
    ..The degree to which c-myc-induced genomic instability influences the initiation or progression of cancer is likely to depend on other factors, which are discussed herein...
  47. Connolly D. Animal models of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Res. 2009;149:353-91 pubmed publisher
  48. Johnson E, Zhou Y, Yau C, Sarda V, Preacely N, Bankuru S, et al. Update of cancer and non-cancer mortality in the Missouri poultry cohort. Am J Ind Med. 2011;54:49-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The general population is also exposed to these transmissible agents...
  49. Dorsman J, Teunisse A, Zantema A, van der Eb A. The adenovirus 12 E1A proteins can bind directly to proteins of the p300 transcription co-activator family, including the CREB-binding protein CBP and p300. J Gen Virol. 1997;78 ( Pt 2):423-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, we show that the Ad12 E1A proteins can also bind directly to p300. These results suggest that E1A can modulate the function of proteins of the p300 family via direct protein-protein interactions...
  50. Depuydt C, Boulet G, Horvath C, Benoy I, Vereecken A, Bogers J. Comparison of MY09/11 consensus PCR and type-specific PCRs in the detection of oncogenic HPV types. J Cell Mol Med. 2007;11:881-91 pubmed
    ..3%) and specificity (MY09/11 PCR: 38.7%; type-specific PCRs: 76.14%), and predictive values for histologically confirmed CIN2+, suggest that type-specific PCRs could be used in a clinical setting as a reliable screening tool...
  51. Facchinetti V, Seresini S, Longhi R, Garavaglia C, Casorati G, Protti M. CD4+ T cell immunity against the human papillomavirus-18 E6 transforming protein in healthy donors: identification of promiscuous naturally processed epitopes. Eur J Immunol. 2005;35:806-15 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our data indicate that healthy donors may develop spontaneous CD4 immunity against HPV-18 E6 epitopes, thus strongly suggesting the potential for this protein to elicit in the host a natural productive immune response...
  52. Hernandez Lopez H, Graham S. Alternative splicing in human tumour viruses: a therapeutic target?. Biochem J. 2012;445:145-56 pubmed publisher
  53. Kato M, Yasui N, Seki M, Kishimoto H, Sato Otsubo A, Hasegawa D, et al. Aggressive transformation of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia associated with duplication of oncogenic KRAS due to acquired uniparental disomy. J Pediatr. 2013;162:1285-8, 1288.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated that duplication of oncogenic KRAS is associated with rapid JMML progression...
  54. Cheng F, Pekkonen P, Ojala P. Instigation of Notch signaling in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and other human tumor viruses. Future Microbiol. 2012;7:1191-205 pubmed publisher
  55. Lawson J, Glenn W. Multiple oncogenic viruses are present in human breast tissues before development of virus associated breast cancer. Infect Agent Cancer. 2017;12:55 pubmed publisher
    Multiple oncogenic viruses including, mouse mammary tumor virus, bovine leukemia virus, human papilloma virus, and Epstein Barr virus, have been identified as separate infectious pathogens in human breast cancer...
  56. Shera K, Shera C, McDougall J. Small tumor virus genomes are integrated near nuclear matrix attachment regions in transformed cells. J Virol. 2001;75:12339-46 pubmed
    ..we analyzed the positions of integrated viral genomes in tumors and tumor cell lines induced by the small oncogenic viruses, including the high-risk human papillomaviruses, hepatitis B virus, simian virus 40, and human T-cell ..
  57. Dalgleish A, O Byrne K. Inflammation and cancer: the role of the immune response and angiogenesis. Cancer Treat Res. 2006;130:1-38 pubmed
    ..A full study of these processes reveals that there are key molecules in these pathways which may provide therapeutic as well as anti-inflammatory targets...
  58. Irigaray P, Newby J, Clapp R, Hardell L, Howard V, Montagnier L, et al. Lifestyle-related factors and environmental agents causing cancer: an overview. Biomed Pharmacother. 2007;61:640-58 pubmed
  59. Cupic M, Lazarevic I, Kuljić Kapulica N. [Oncogenic viruses and their role in tumour formation]. Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2005;133:384-7 pubmed
    b>Oncogenic viruses trigger persistent infections, which can stimulate uncontrolled cell growth by inducing cell transformation. Different oncogenic viruses use different mechanisms for infecting cells...
  60. White E. Mechanisms of apoptosis regulation by viral oncogenes in infection and tumorigenesis. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:1371-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, both infected cells and tumor cells require inhibition of the apoptotic host defense mechanism, the insights from which can be exploited for therapy development...
  61. Lee A, Lee C. Oncogenesis and transforming viruses: the hepatitis B virus and hepatocellularcarcinoma--the etiopathogenic link. Front Biosci. 2007;12:234-45 pubmed
    ..By disrupting cellular gene expression, viral products such as HBx may modulate cellular growth, repair and death, consequently resulting in the transformation of hepatocytes to an oncogenic state...
  62. Shreffler D, David C. The H-2 major histocompatibility complex and the I immune response region: genetic variation, function, and organization. Adv Immunol. 1975;20:125-95 pubmed
  63. Weng A, Aster J. Multiple niches for Notch in cancer: context is everything. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2004;14:48-54 pubmed
    ..In addition, several viral oncoproteins and chromosomal translocations target one or more components of a Notch transcriptional activation complex...
  64. Memon A, Doll R. A search for unknown blood-borne oncogenic viruses. Int J Cancer. 1994;58:366-8 pubmed
    ..No marked disparity was observed and there was no excess of childhood leukaemia. The incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma at 15 to 49 years of age was about twice that expected, but the excess was not statistically significant...
  65. Cesarman E, Mesri E. Pathogenesis of viral lymphomas. Cancer Treat Res. 2006;131:49-88 pubmed
  66. Barbacid M, Beemon K, Devare S. Origin and functional properties of the major gene product of the Snyder-Theilen strain of feline sarcoma virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980;77:5158-62 pubmed
    ..Thus, independent transforming virus isolates from birds, mice, and cats may utilize common pathways in exerting their oncogenic potential...
  67. Yang J, Yu Y, Yao J, Chen Y, Xu G, Yang N, et al. Molecular identification of avian leukosis virus subgroup E loci and tumor virus B locus in Chinese indigenous chickens. Poult Sci. 2011;90:759-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results present molecular evidence of ALVE3, ALVE6, ALVE9, and ALVE21 insertions and TVB genotypes in Chinese indigenous chickens and could provide potential molecular insights into anti-ALV breeding in chickens...
  68. Duelli D, Lazebnik Y. Cell-to-cell fusion as a link between viruses and cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2007;7:968-76 pubmed publisher
    ..of this link can be tested and how the hypotheses that we propose might affect the search for human oncogenic viruses. In particular, we will focus on the ability of cell fusion that is caused by viruses to induce chromosomal ..
  69. Arlinghaus R. Vaccines against tumor antigens. Adv Vet Sci Comp Med. 1989;33:377-95 pubmed
    ..However, successful vaccines against RNA-containing tumor viruses have yet to be developed, although they hold much promise...
  70. Howard E, Marcus D, O Brien J, Albert D, Bernards R. Five DNA tumor viruses undetectable in human retinoblastomas. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1992;33:1564-7 pubmed
    ..Using the polymerase chain reaction, no viral sequences were detected in 50 RB DNAs. These data provide no evidence that these viruses have an etiologic role in human RB...
  71. Schulz T, Moore P. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus: a new human tumor virus, but how?. Trends Microbiol. 1999;7:196-200 pubmed
    ..Several viral genes can interfere with normal cell growth and differentiation, but their precise role in oncogenesis is still under investigation...
  72. Fax P, Lipinski K, Esche H, Brockmann D. cAMP-independent activation of the adenovirus type 12 E2 promoter correlates with the recruitment of CREB-1/ATF-1, E1A(12S), and CBP to the E2-CRE. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:8911-20 pubmed
  73. Epstein M. Reflections on Epstein-Barr virus: some recently resolved old uncertainties. J Infect. 2001;43:111-5 pubmed
    ..Finally, current progress with vaccines against EBV is reviewed...
  74. Ryu W. Molecular aspects of hepatitis B viral infection and the viral carcinogenesis. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;36:138-43 pubmed
    ..infections of the liver, and eventually HCC, confirms the concept that HBV belongs to one of the few human oncogenic viruses. Although it is clear that chronic HBV infections are major risk factors, relatively little is understood ..
  75. Picconi M. [Human papillomavirus detection in cervical cancer prevention]. Medicina (B Aires). 2013;73:585-96 pubmed
    ..Recent progress and current status of these methods are discussed in this article. ..
  76. Winer R, Xi L, Shen Z, Stern J, Newman L, Feng Q, et al. Viral load and short-term natural history of type-specific oncogenic human papillomavirus infections in a high-risk cohort of midadult women. Int J Cancer. 2014;134:1889-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Intermittent detection was characterized by low viral levels, suggesting that intermittent detection of persisting oncogenic HPV infection may be of limited clinical significance. ..
  77. Swaminathan S. Noncoding RNAs produced by oncogenic human herpesviruses. J Cell Physiol. 2008;216:321-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Because each target gene may have many microRNAs acting on its mRNA, and each microRNA may have more than one target, there are likely to be many new discoveries regarding the complex interactions of viral microRNAs and host cell genes...
  78. Wen K, Damania B. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV): molecular biology and oncogenesis. Cancer Lett. 2010;289:140-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we discuss the three KSHV-associated malignancies, KSHV genome, latent and lytic aspects of the viral lifecycle, putative viral oncogenes, as well as therapeutic regimens used for the treatment of KS, PEL, and MCD...
  79. Cathomas G. Human herpes virus 8: a new virus discloses its face. Virchows Arch. 2000;436:195-206 pubmed
    ..However, the highly controversial role of HHV8 in these lesions has to be clarified. Based on the data available today, HHV8 can be assigned as a new human virus, associated with tumors...
  80. Niller H, Wolf H, Minarovits J. Viral hit and run-oncogenesis: genetic and epigenetic scenarios. Cancer Lett. 2011;305:200-17 pubmed publisher
    ..e. alterations of the host cell epigenome, especially altered DNA methylation patterns, may help to identify viral hit and run-oncogenic events, even after the complete loss of tumor viruses from neoplastic cells...
  81. . Peyton Rous: father of the tumor virus. J Exp Med. 2005;201:320 pubmed
    ..In 1910, Peyton Rous identified a transmissible avian tumor virus, a discovery that began the journey from tumor virus biology to tumor biology itself...
  82. Choudat D, Dambrine G, Delemotte B, Coudert F. Occupational exposure to poultry and prevalence of antibodies against Marek's disease virus and avian leukosis retroviruses. Occup Environ Med. 1996;53:403-10 pubmed
    ..To compare the prevalence of antibodies against Marek's disease herpes virus (MDV) and against avian leukosis viruses type C (ALV) in groups of workers exposed to poultry and in unexposed groups...
  83. Asch B. Tumor viruses and endogenous retrotransposons in mammary tumorigenesis. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 1996;1:49-60 pubmed
    ..Research efforts have therefore intensified to determine if endogenous elements such as retrotransposons participate in the development of breast cancer in animals and humans...
  84. Netto G. On the need to assess cancer risk in populations environmentally and occupationally exposed to virus and chemical agents in developing countries. Cad Saude Publica. 1998;14 Suppl 3:87-98 pubmed
    Evidence exists that exposure to poultry oncogenic viruses may produce elevated cancer mortality in human populations, particularly excesses of cancer of lung and excesses of cancer of lymphopoietic tissues...
  85. Spatz S, Silva R. Polymorphisms in the repeat long regions of oncogenic and attenuated pathotypes of Marek's disease virus 1. Virus Genes. 2007;35:41-53 pubmed
  86. Yi D. Cancer, viruses, and mass migration: Paul Berg's venture into eukaryotic biology and the advent of recombinant DNA research and technology, 1967-1980. J Hist Biol. 2008;41:589-636 pubmed
  87. Allenspach E, Maillard I, Aster J, Pear W. Notch signaling in cancer. Cancer Biol Ther. 2002;1:466-76 pubmed
    ..Then, we critically review literature pertaining to the role of Notch signaling in several cancers, and discuss possible therapeutic targets in the Notch pathway...
  88. Ewald P, Swain Ewald H. Infection, mutation, and cancer evolution. J Mol Med (Berl). 2012;90:535-41 pubmed publisher
    ..An evolutionary perspective also suggests that oncogenic viruses will tend to be transmitted by routes that provide infrequent opportunities for transmission, such as ..