nodaviridae

Summary

Summary: A family of RNA viruses infecting INSECTA and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.

Top Publications

  1. Lu M, Chao Y, Guo T, Santi N, Evensen O, Kasani S, et al. The interferon response is involved in nervous necrosis virus acute and persistent infection in zebrafish infection model. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:1146-52 pubmed
    ..This study is the first to demonstrate NNV infection of zebrafish, which could serve as a potential animal model to study virus pathogenesis and neuron degeneration research...
  2. Aliyari R, Wu Q, Li H, Wang X, Li F, Green L, et al. Mechanism of induction and suppression of antiviral immunity directed by virus-derived small RNAs in Drosophila. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;4:387-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings, therefore, provide a model in which small RNA-directed viral immunity is induced during the initiation of viral progeny (+)RNA synthesis and suppressed by B2 inside the viral RNA replication complex...
  3. Johansen R, Grove S, Svendsen A, Modahl I, Dannevig B. A sequential study of pathological findings in Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus (L), throughout one year after an acute outbreak of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy. J Fish Dis. 2004;27:327-41 pubmed
    ..None of these findings seemed to be related to the nodavirus infection. Nodavirus was reisolated in cell culture from subclinically infected fish one year after the acute VER outbreak, which indicates that the virus was still infectious...
  4. Grove S, Johansen R, Reitan L, Press C, Dannevig B. Quantitative investigation of antigen and immune response in nervous and lymphoid tissues of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) challenged with nodavirus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2006;21:525-39 pubmed
  5. Ou M, Chen Y, Jeng M, Chu C, Yang H, Chen T. Identification of critical residues in nervous necrosis virus B2 for dsRNA-binding and RNAi-inhibiting activity through by bioinformatic analysis and mutagenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;361:634-40 pubmed
    ..This study may serve as an example where bioinformatic analysis of related viral genomes may lead to meaningful structural and functional clues for certain viral proteins. ..
  6. Lai Y, John J, Guo I, Chen S, Fang K, Lin C, et al. Establishment of cell lines from a tropical grouper, Epinephelus awoara (Temminck & Schlegel), and their susceptibility to grouper irido- and nodaviruses. J Fish Dis. 2003;26:31-42 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these cell lines upon transfection, using pEGFP-C1 and pEGFP-aMT2.5 (ayu metallothionein promoter), produced significant fluorescent signals indicating their utility for exogenous studies. ..
  7. Furusawa R, Okinaka Y, Nakai T. Betanodavirus infection in the freshwater model fish medaka (Oryzias latipes). J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2333-9 pubmed
    ..a genetic-engineering system, as has occurred with the insect alphanodaviruses, the other members of the family Nodaviridae. However, studies of virus-host interactions have been limited, as betanodaviruses basically infect marine fish ..
  8. Lu R, Yigit E, Li W, Ding S. An RIG-I-Like RNA helicase mediates antiviral RNAi downstream of viral siRNA biogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000286 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans control parallel antiviral RNAi pathways. These findings demonstrate both conserved and unique strategies of C. elegans in antiviral defense. ..
  9. Iwamoto T, Mise K, Takeda A, Okinaka Y, Mori K, Arimoto M, et al. Characterization of Striped jack nervous necrosis virus subgenomic RNA3 and biological activities of its encoded protein B2. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:2807-16 pubmed

More Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Kai Y, Su H, Tai K, Chi S. Vaccination of grouper broodfish (Epinephelus tukula) reduces the risk of vertical transmission by nervous necrosis virus. Vaccine. 2010;28:996-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..It is therefore suggested that vaccination will be a potentially practical measure to reduce the risk of vertical transmission of NNV of grouper broodfish under stress of repeated spawning...
  2. Chen S, Wu J, Su Y, Hong J. Anti-Bcl-2 family members, zfBcl-x(L) and zfMcl-1a, prevent cytochrome c release from cells undergoing betanodavirus-induced secondary necrotic cell death. Apoptosis. 2007;12:1043-60 pubmed
    ..Thus, new protein synthesis and release of cytochrome c are required for RGNNV-induced necrotic cell death, which can be blocked by anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 members. ..
  3. Patel S, Overgård A, Nerland A. CD8alpha and CD8beta in Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus: cloning, characterization and gene expression during viral and bacterial infection. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2008;25:570-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Both CD8alpha and CD8beta were significantly (P<0.05) down-regulated in spleen at 48h compared to their levels at 12h post-infection with nodavirus and V. anguillarum...
  4. Kampmueller K, Miller D. The cellular chaperone heat shock protein 90 facilitates Flock House virus RNA replication in Drosophila cells. J Virol. 2005;79:6827-37 pubmed
    ..These results identify Hsp90 as a host factor involved in FHV RNA replication and suggest that FHV uses established cellular chaperone pathways to assemble its RNA replication complexes on intracellular membranes. ..
  5. Su Y, Wu J, Hong J. Betanodavirus non-structural protein B2: A novel necrotic death factor that induces mitochondria-mediated cell death in fish cells. Virology. 2009;385:143-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that B2 upregulates Bax and triggers mitochondria-mediated necrotic cell death independent of cytochrome c release...
  6. Chen L, Su Y, Hong J. Betanodavirus non-structural protein B1: A novel anti-necrotic death factor that modulates cell death in early replication cycle in fish cells. Virology. 2009;385:444-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding provides new insights into RNA viral pathogenesis and disease control. ..
  7. Jovel J, Schneemann A. Molecular characterization of Drosophila cells persistently infected with Flock House virus. Virology. 2011;419:43-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a basis for further investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying persistent infections. ..
  8. Gomez D, Sato J, Mushiake K, Isshiki T, Okinaka Y, Nakai T. PCR-based detection of betanodaviruses from cultured and wild marine fish with no clinical signs. J Fish Dis. 2004;27:603-8 pubmed
  9. Onions D, Cote C, Love B, Toms B, Koduri S, Armstrong A, et al. Ensuring the safety of vaccine cell substrates by massively parallel sequencing of the transcriptome. Vaccine. 2011;29:7117-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these studies have reinforced the role of MP-Seq as an integral tool for the identification of contaminating agents in vaccine cell substrates. ..
  10. Korsnes K, Devold M, Nerland A, Nylund A. Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar after intraperitoneal challenge with a nodavirus from Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;68:7-15 pubmed
    ..This susceptibility suggests that co-location of salmon and marine species should be avoided until further studies of possible transmission have been carried out...
  11. Okinaka Y, Nakai T. Comparisons among the complete genomes of four betanodavirus genotypes. Dis Aquat Organ. 2008;80:113-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these apparent contradictions in sequence identity suggest that betanodavirus genomes have been constructed via complex evolutionary processes. ..
  12. Chao J, Lee J, Chapados B, Debler E, Schneemann A, Williamson J. Dual modes of RNA-silencing suppression by Flock House virus protein B2. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:952-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that B2 blocks both cleavage of the FHV genome by Dicer and incorporation of FHV small interfering RNAs into the RNA-induced silencing complex. ..
  13. F lix M, Ashe A, Piffaretti J, Wu G, Nuez I, B licard T, et al. Natural and experimental infection of Caenorhabditis nematodes by novel viruses related to nodaviruses. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1000586 pubmed publisher
    ..This discovery establishes a bona fide viral infection system to explore the natural ecology of nematodes, host-pathogen co-evolution, the evolution of small RNA responses, and innate antiviral mechanisms...
  14. Li T, Scotti P, Miyamura T, Takeda N. Latent infection of a new alphanodavirus in an insect cell line. J Virol. 2007;81:10890-6 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis suggested that this new nodavirus belongs to the genus Alphanodavirus in the family Nodaviridae.
  15. Lopez Jimena B, Cherif N, Garcia Rosado E, Infante C, Cano I, Castro D, et al. A combined RT-PCR and dot-blot hybridization method reveals the coexistence of SJNNV and RGNNV betanodavirus genotypes in wild meagre (Argyrosomus regius). J Appl Microbiol. 2010;109:1361-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report demonstrating the presence of SJNNV and RGNNV genotypes in the same specimen. This study also demonstrates a carrier state in this fish species for the first time. ..
  16. Sri Widada J, Durand S, Cambournac I, Qian D, Shi Z, Dejonghe E, et al. Genome-based detection methods of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus, a pathogen of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii dot-blot, in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. J Fish Dis. 2003;26:583-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The application of RT-PCR on samples collected from prawn farms in China showed the possible use of this method in routine health monitoring...
  17. Azad I, Shekhar M, Thirunavukkarasu A, Jithendran K. Viral nerve necrosis in hatchery-produced fry of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer: sequential microscopic analysis of histopathology. Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;73:123-30 pubmed
  18. Fenner B, Thiagarajan R, Chua H, Kwang J. Betanodavirus B2 is an RNA interference antagonist that facilitates intracellular viral RNA accumulation. J Virol. 2006;80:85-94 pubmed
    ..This function provides appears to provide an explanation, at least in part, for why B2 mutant RNA1 is severely impaired in its intracellular accumulation. ..
  19. Castri J, Thiery R, Jeffroy J, de Kinkelin P, Raymond J. Sea bream Sparus aurata, an asymptomatic contagious fish host for nodavirus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2001;47:33-8 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, the sea bream appeared to be a potential carrier of nodavirus, as juvenile sea bass became infected when maintained in a tank containing experimentally contaminated sea bream. ..
  20. Hegde A, Teh H, Lam T, Sin Y. Nodavirus infection in freshwater ornamental fish, guppy, Poicelia reticulata--comparative characterization and pathogenicity studies. Arch Virol. 2003;148:575-86 pubmed
    ..This report forms the first description of a nodavirus infection in freshwater fish. ..
  21. Panzarin V, Patarnello P, Mori A, Rampazzo E, Cappellozza E, Bovo G, et al. Development and validation of a real-time TaqMan PCR assay for the detection of betanodavirus in clinical specimens. Arch Virol. 2010;155:1193-203 pubmed publisher
    ..The assay that was developed is capable of detecting members of all of the betanodavirus genetic groups currently described and can be considered a valid alternative to the time-consuming and contamination-prone nested PCR...
  22. Miller D, Schwartz M, Ahlquist P. Flock house virus RNA replicates on outer mitochondrial membranes in Drosophila cells. J Virol. 2001;75:11664-76 pubmed
    ..We concluded that FHV RNA replication occurs on outer mitochondrial membranes and shares fundamental biochemical and ultrastructural features with RNA replication of positive-strand RNA viruses from other families. ..
  23. Ucko M, Colorni A, Diamant A. Nodavirus infections in Israeli mariculture. J Fish Dis. 2004;27:459-69 pubmed
    ..Red Sea and Mediterranean isolated sequences grouped in distinct clusters, together with several foreign isolates from the Mediterranean area and the Far East, as phylogenetically close to the Epinephelus akaara RGNNV type...
  24. Rosskopf J, Upton J, Rodarte L, Romero T, Leung M, Taufer M, et al. A 3' terminal stem-loop structure in Nodamura virus RNA2 forms an essential cis-acting signal for RNA replication. Virus Res. 2010;150:12-21 pubmed publisher
    Nodamura virus (NoV; family Nodaviridae) contains a bipartite positive-strand RNA genome that replicates via negative-strand intermediates...
  25. Miller D, Ahlquist P. Flock house virus RNA polymerase is a transmembrane protein with amino-terminal sequences sufficient for mitochondrial localization and membrane insertion. J Virol. 2002;76:9856-67 pubmed
    ..We conclude that protein A targets and anchors FHV RNA replication complexes to outer mitochondrial membranes, in part through an N-proximal mitochondrial localization signal and transmembrane domain. ..
  26. Fenner B, Goh W, Kwang J. Sequestration and protection of double-stranded RNA by the betanodavirus b2 protein. J Virol. 2006;80:6822-33 pubmed
    Betanodavirus B2 belongs to a group of functionally related proteins from the sense-strand RNA virus family Nodaviridae that suppress cellular RNA interference...
  27. Nishizawa T, Kokawa Y, Wakayama T, Kinoshita S, Yoshimizu M. Enhanced propagation of fish nodaviruses in BF-2 cells persistently infected with snakehead retrovirus (SnRV). Dis Aquat Organ. 2008;79:19-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The amount of nodavirus cDNA in SJNNV-inoculated PI-BF-2 cells was clearly lower than that in SJNNV-inoculated SSN-1 cells...
  28. Sommerset I, Nerland A. Complete sequence of RNA1 and subgenomic RNA3 of Atlantic halibut nodavirus (AHNV). Dis Aquat Organ. 2004;58:117-25 pubmed
    The Nodaviridae are divided into the alphanodavirus genus, which infects insects, and the betanodavirus genus, which infects fishes...
  29. Su Y, Hong J. Betanodavirus B2 causes ATP depletion-induced cell death via mitochondrial targeting and complex II inhibition in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:39801-10 pubmed publisher
  30. Sullivan C, Ganem D. A virus-encoded inhibitor that blocks RNA interference in mammalian cells. J Virol. 2005;79:7371-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Its abilities to bind to Dicer precursor and post-Dicer RISC-processed RNAs suggest a mechanism of inhibition that is unique among known viral inhibitors of RNAi...
  31. Lin C, Lu M, Tang L, Liu W, Chao C, Lin C, et al. Characterization of virus-like particles assembled in a recombinant baculovirus system expressing the capsid protein of a fish nodavirus. Virology. 2001;290:50-8 pubmed
    ..This assembly system allows the first biophysical comparisons of fish and insect nodavirus structure, assembly, and stability...
  32. Athanassopoulou F, Billinis C, Psychas V, Karipoglou K. Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy of Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) farmed in fresh water in Greece. J Fish Dis. 2003;26:361-5 pubmed
  33. Tanaka S, Kuriyama I, Nakai T, Miyazaki T. Susceptibility of cultured juveniles of several marine fish to the sevenband grouper nervous necrosis virus. J Fish Dis. 2003;26:109-15 pubmed
    ..These results are, in part, consistent with the natural host range of RGNNV, indicating the complexity in the host specificity of betanodaviruses...
  34. Chi S, Shieh J, Lin S. Genetic and antigenic analysis of betanodaviruses isolated from aquatic organisms in Taiwan. Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;55:221-8 pubmed
  35. Li H, Li W, Ding S. Induction and suppression of RNA silencing by an animal virus. Science. 2002;296:1319-21 pubmed
    ..These findings establish RNA silencing as an adaptive antiviral defense in animal cells. B2 also inhibits RNA silencing in transgenic plants, providing evidence for a conserved RNA silencing pathway in the plant and animal kingdoms...
  36. Lee K, Chi S, Cheng T. Interference of the life cycle of fish nodavirus with fish retrovirus. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:2469-74 pubmed
    Interference of the life cycle of grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV), a member of the Nodaviridae, genus Betanodavirus, by snakehead retrovirus (SnRV) has been studied in vitro...
  37. Dasgupta R, Cheng L, Bartholomay L, Christensen B. Flock house virus replicates and expresses green fluorescent protein in mosquitoes. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:1789-97 pubmed
    Flock house virus (FHV) is a non-enveloped, positive-sense RNA virus of insect origin that belongs to the family Nodaviridae. FHV has been shown to overcome the kingdom barrier and to replicate in plants, insects, yeast and mammalian ..
  38. Johansen R, Sommerset I, Tørud B, Korsnes K, Hjortaas M, Nilsen F, et al. Characterization of nodavirus and viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in farmed turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.). J Fish Dis. 2004;27:591-601 pubmed
    ..In addition, phylogenetic analysis based on an 823 nt region of the sequence indicated that TNV clustered outside the four established fish nodavirus genotypes, suggesting a fifth genotype within the betanodaviruses...
  39. Price B, Eckerle L, Ball L, Johnson K. Nodamura virus RNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: heterologous gene expression allows replication-dependent colony formation. J Virol. 2005;79:495-502 pubmed
    Nodamura virus (NoV) and Flock House virus (FHV) are members of the family Nodaviridae. The nodavirus genome is composed of two positive-sense RNA segments: RNA1 encodes the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and RNA2 encodes the capsid ..
  40. Takizawa N, Adachi K, Ichinose T, Kobayashi N. Efficient propagation of betanodavirus in a murine astrocytoma cell line. Virus Res. 2008;136:206-10 pubmed publisher
    Betanodavirus, a bipartite RNA virus of fishes and a member of Nodaviridae family, targets nervous tissues and is the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis in marine farmed fish...
  41. Bigarré L, Cabon J, Baud M, Heimann M, Body A, Lieffrig F, et al. Outbreak of betanodavirus infection in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), in fresh water. J Fish Dis. 2009;32:667-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The reservoir of virus at the origin of the outbreak remains unidentified. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural nodavirus infection in tilapia reared in fresh water...
  42. Scapigliati G, Buonocore F, Randelli E, Casani D, Meloni S, Zarletti G, et al. Cellular and molecular immune responses of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) experimentally infected with betanodavirus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010;28:303-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our work represents a first comprehensive analysis of cellular and molecular immune parameters in a fish species exposed to a pathogenic virus...
  43. Lu M, Liu W, Lin C. Infection competition against grouper nervous necrosis virus by virus-like particles produced in Escherichia coli. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:1577-82 pubmed
    ..The recombinant VLPs block attachment of native virus to the surface of cultured fish nerve cells, blocking infection by the native virus...
  44. Sommerset I, Lorenzen E, Lorenzen N, Bleie H, Nerland A. A DNA vaccine directed against a rainbow trout rhabdovirus induces early protection against a nodavirus challenge in turbot. Vaccine. 2003;21:4661-7 pubmed
  45. Guo Y, Chan S, Kwang J. Membrane association of greasy grouper nervous necrosis virus protein A and characterization of its mitochondrial localization targeting signal. J Virol. 2004;78:6498-508 pubmed
    ..Using GFP as the reporter by systematically introducing deletions of these two regions in the constructs, we further confirmed that the N-terminal amino acids 215 to 255 of protein A function as a mitochondrial targeting signal...
  46. Chi S, Wu Y, Cheng T. Persistent infection of betanodavirus in a novel cell line derived from the brain tissue of barramundi Lates calcarifer. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;65:91-8 pubmed
    ..The BB cell line is the first cell line reported to be persistently infected with NNV, and would be a useful model for understanding the mechanisms of NNV-persistent infection in vitro and in vivo...
  47. Wang X, Aliyari R, Li W, Li H, Kim K, Carthew R, et al. RNA interference directs innate immunity against viruses in adult Drosophila. Science. 2006;312:452-4 pubmed
    ..These findings establish a Drosophila model for studying the innate immunity against viruses in animals...
  48. Yan X, Dryden K, Tang J, Baker T. Ab initio random model method facilitates 3D reconstruction of icosahedral particles. J Struct Biol. 2007;157:211-25 pubmed
    ..The fundamental scheme embodied in the RM method should be relatively easy to integrate into other icosahedral software packages...
  49. Dye B, Miller D, Ahlquist P. In vivo self-interaction of nodavirus RNA replicase protein a revealed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. J Virol. 2005;79:8909-19 pubmed
    Flock house virus (FHV) is the best-characterized member of the Nodaviridae, a family of small, positive-strand RNA viruses. Unlike most RNA viruses, FHV encodes only a single polypeptide, protein A, that is required for RNA replication...
  50. Chen S, Yang H, Lin H, Chen M, Wu J, Hong J. Enhanced viability of a nervous necrosis virus-infected stable cell line over-expressing a fusion product of the zfBcl-xL and green fluorescent protein genes. J Fish Dis. 2006;29:347-54 pubmed
    ..We conclude that NNV-induced apoptotic cell death can be lessened in transgenic grouper fish cells...
  51. Poisa Beiro L, Dios S, Montes A, Aranguren R, Figueras A, Novoa B. Nodavirus increases the expression of Mx and inflammatory cytokines in fish brain. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:218-25 pubmed
  52. Mézeth K, Nylund S, Henriksen H, Patel S, Nerland A, Szilvay A. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Atlantic halibut nodavirus contains two signals for localization to the mitochondria. Virus Res. 2007;130:43-52 pubmed
  53. Furusawa R, Okinaka Y, Uematsu K, Nakai T. Screening of freshwater fish species for their susceptibility to a betanodavirus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;77:119-25 pubmed
    ..We believe that these susceptible freshwater fish species could act as good host models for betanodavirus-fish interaction studies...
  54. Venter P, Schneemann A. Recent insights into the biology and biomedical applications of Flock House virus. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:2675-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, applications for FHV as an epitopepresenting system are described with particular reference to its recent use for the development of a novel anthrax antitoxin and vaccine...
  55. Wu Y, Hsu C, Wang C, Liu W, Chang W, Lin C. Role of the DxxDxD motif in the assembly and stability of betanodavirus particles. Arch Virol. 2008;153:1633-42 pubmed publisher
    ..It was deduced that the three aspartate residues of the motif DxxDxD are all important for the efficient formation of DGNNV VLPs and that, among them, the DxxD provides a more stable coordinate of calcium ligand than DxD...
  56. Van Wynsberghe P, Ahlquist P. 5' cis elements direct nodavirus RNA1 recruitment to mitochondrial sites of replication complex formation. J Virol. 2009;83:2976-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish RNA recruitment to the sites of replication complex formation as an essential, distinct, and selective early step in nodavirus replication...
  57. Ohta T, Ueda Y, Ito K, Miura C, Yamashita H, Miura T, et al. Anti-viral effects of interferon administration on sevenband grouper, Epinephelus septemfasciatus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011;30:1064-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that SgIFNa1 has anti-viral activity and the administration of rSgIFNa1 to sevenband grouper is effective in preventing severe symptom development after NNV infection...
  58. Lindenbach B, Sgro J, Ahlquist P. Long-distance base pairing in flock house virus RNA1 regulates subgenomic RNA3 synthesis and RNA2 replication. J Virol. 2002;76:3905-19 pubmed
    ..In addition, replication of an RNA2 derivative was dependent on RNA1 templates capable of forming the long-distance interaction that controls RNA3 production...
  59. Krondiris J, Sideris D. Intramolecular disulfide bonding is essential for betanodavirus coat protein conformation. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:2211-4 pubmed
    ..Based on this observation, we carried out substitution of all cysteine residues. The obtained results demonstrated the importance of intramolecular disulfide bonding between cysteines 187 and 201 on coat protein conformational changes...
  60. Grove S, Johansen R, Dannevig B, Reitan L, Ranheim T. Experimental infection of Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus with nodavirus: tissue distribution and immune response. Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;53:211-21 pubmed
    ..p.-challenged fish, while a response was not detected in the bath-challenged or control fish. This experiment demonstrates a subclinical nodavirus infection in Atlantic halibut at a post-juvenile stage induced by i.p. injection of virus...
  61. Eckerle L, Albarino C, Ball L. Flock House virus subgenomic RNA3 is replicated and its replication correlates with transactivation of RNA2. Virology. 2003;317:95-108 pubmed
    ..These results imply that RNA3 is naturally produced both by transcription from RNA1 and by subsequent RNA1-independent replication and that RNA3 replication may be necessary for transactivation of RNA2...
  62. Liu W, Hsu C, Hong Y, Wu S, Wang C, Wu Y, et al. Early endocytosis pathways in SSN-1 cells infected by dragon grouper nervous necrosis virus. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:2553-61 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that DGNNV utilizes both micro- and macropinocytosis pathways to enter SSN-1 cells...
  63. Chen S, Yang H, Her G, Lin H, Jeng M, Wu J, et al. Betanodavirus induces phosphatidylserine exposure and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in secondary necrotic cells, both of which are blocked by bongkrekic acid. Virology. 2006;347:379-91 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that RGNNV induces apoptotic death via opening the mitochondrial permeability transition pore thereby triggering secondary necrosis in the mid-apoptotic phase...
  64. Galiana Arnoux D, Dostert C, Schneemann A, Hoffmann J, Imler J. Essential function in vivo for Dicer-2 in host defense against RNA viruses in drosophila. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:590-7 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate the importance of RNA interference for controlling virus replication in vivo and establish Dcr-2 as a host susceptibility locus for virus infections...
  65. Wu Y, Chi S. Persistence of betanodavirus in Barramundi brain (BB) cell line involves the induction of Interferon response. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2006;21:540-7 pubmed publisher
  66. Wu Y, Chi S. Cloning and analysis of antiviral activity of a barramundi (Lates calcarifer) Mx gene. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2007;23:97-108 pubmed
    ..Therefore, these results indicated that the expression of barramundi Mx gene was able to inhibit the proliferation of fish nodavirus and birnavirus...
  67. Ciulli S, Galletti E, Grodzki M, Alessi A, Battilani M, Prosperi S. Isolation and genetic characterization of Betanodavirus from wild marine fish from the Adriatic sea. Vet Res Commun. 2007;31 Suppl 1:221-4 pubmed
  68. Adachi K, Ichinose T, Watanabe K, Kitazato K, Kobayashi N. Potential for the replication of the betanodavirus redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus in human cell lines. Arch Virol. 2008;153:15-24 pubmed
    ..The family Nodaviridae, whose members are non-enveloped, positive-stranded bipartite RNA viruses, is comprised of the genera ..
  69. Chérif N, Thiery R, Castric J, Biacchesi S, Bremont M, Thabti F, et al. Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy of Dicentrarchus labrax and Sparus aurata farmed in Tunisia. Vet Res Commun. 2009;33:345-53 pubmed publisher
    Viruses belonging to the Nodaviridae family cause disease worldwide among a large number of species of marine fish, and have been described in all continents...
  70. Routh A, Ordoukhanian P, Johnson J. Nucleotide-resolution profiling of RNA recombination in the encapsidated genome of a eukaryotic RNA virus by next-generation sequencing. J Mol Biol. 2012;424:257-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The strategy implemented here is widely applicable and provides a highly detailed description of the complex mutational landscape of the transmissible viral genome...
  71. Barke D, MacKinnon A, Boston L, Burt M, Cone D, Speare D, et al. First report of piscine nodavirus infecting wild winter flounder Pleuronectes americanus in Passamaquoddy Bay, New Brunswick, Canada. Dis Aquat Organ. 2002;49:99-105 pubmed
  72. Lu M, Lin C. Involvement of the terminus of grouper betanodavirus capsid protein in virus-like particle assembly. Arch Virol. 2003;148:345-55 pubmed
    ..The ability of VLP formation diminished when 4 to 11 C-terminal residues were deleted. The termini that can be deleted without seriously destructing the VLPs are 25 and 3 residues at N- and C-termini, respectively...
  73. Tihova M, Dryden K, Le T, Harvey S, Johnson J, Yeager M, et al. Nodavirus coat protein imposes dodecahedral RNA structure independent of nucleotide sequence and length. J Virol. 2004;78:2897-905 pubmed
    ..We propose that the capsid protein is able to exploit the plasticity of the RNA secondary structures, capturing those that are compatible with the geometry of the dodecahedral cage...
  74. Sommerset I, Skern R, Biering E, Bleie H, Fiksdal I, Grove S, et al. Protection against Atlantic halibut nodavirus in turbot is induced by recombinant capsid protein vaccination but not following DNA vaccination. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2005;18:13-29 pubmed
    ..The study also demonstrates evidence of viral replication inside the myocytes of intramuscularly challenged fish...
  75. Lawrence A, Bouwer J, Perkins G, Ellisman M. Transform-based backprojection for volume reconstruction of large format electron microscope tilt series. J Struct Biol. 2006;154:144-67 pubmed
    ..We will also report on new reconstruction codes and describe our results using these codes...
  76. Toffolo V, Negrisolo E, Maltese C, Bovo G, Belvedere P, Colombo L, et al. Phylogeny of betanodaviruses and molecular evolution of their RNA polymerase and coat proteins. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2007;43:298-308 pubmed
    ..Finally RNA1 and RNA2 genes substitution rates do not follow a clock-like behavior thus impeding estimation of a possible origin time for Betanodavirus genus...
  77. Nerland A, Skaar C, Eriksen T, Bleie H. Detection of nodavirus in seawater from rearing facilities for Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus larvae. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;73:201-5 pubmed
    ..6 x 10(4) TCID50 (50% tissue culture infectious dose) ml(-1). Evaluated against in vitro transcribed RNA, the concentration was estimated at 2 x 10(7) virus particles ml(-1) seawater...
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    ..We further show that, unlike that in plants and insects, FHV B2 suppresses worm RDVI mainly by interfering with the function of virus-derived primary siRNAs...
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    ..The structural similarities between fish nodaviruses and members of the tombusvirus and calicivirus groups provide significant new data for understanding the evolution of the nodavirus family...
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    Flock house virus (FHV) is a small icosahedral insect virus of the family Nodaviridae. Its genome consists of two positive-sense RNA molecules, RNA1 (replicase gene) and RNA2 (coat protein gene), which are encapsidated into a single ..
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    ..We conclude that specific intracellular membranes are not required for FHV RNA replication complex formation and function...
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    ..Spatial coordination of RNA and capsid protein synthesis may be key to specific genome packaging and assembly in other RNA viruses...
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    ..These results may provide a possible regulated pathway against nodavirus...
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    ..All these data strongly suggested that bath immunization with nano-encapsulated formalin-inactivated or BEI-inactivated betanodavirus vaccines is an effective strategy to protect grouper larvae against VNN...
  87. Gomez D, Matsuoka S, Mori K, Okinaka Y, Park S, Nakai T. Genetic analysis and pathogenicity of betanodavirus isolated from wild redspotted grouper Epinephelus akaara with clinical signs. Arch Virol. 2009;154:343-6 pubmed publisher
    ..septemfasciatus were challenged intravitreously with virus, abnormal swimming behavior and high mortality were observed. This is the first report on viral nervous necrosis in a wild population of redspotted grouper with clinical signs...
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    ..Flock House Virus (FHV), a member of the nodaviridae family, offers some unique advantages for studying non-enveloped virus entry...
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    ..These results may provide new insights into the mechanism of ER stress-mediated cell death in RNA viruses...
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    Flock house virus (FHV), a bipartite RNA virus of insects and a member of the Nodaviridae family, shares viral replication features with the tripartite brome mosaic virus (BMV), an RNA virus that infects plants and is a member of the ..