insect viruses

Summary

Summary: Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.

Top Publications

  1. Olivier V, Blanchard P, Chaouch S, Lallemand P, Schurr F, Celle O, et al. Molecular characterisation and phylogenetic analysis of Chronic bee paralysis virus, a honey bee virus. Virus Res. 2008;132:59-68 pubmed publisher
    ..However, no similarities were found between the other CBPV deduced amino acid sequences and sequences in the NCBI databases, suggesting that CBPV is the prototype of a new family of positive single-stranded RNA viruses...
  2. Yue C, Genersch E. RT-PCR analysis of Deformed wing virus in honeybees (Apis mellifera) and mites (Varroa destructor). J Gen Virol. 2005;86:3419-24 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, virus replication in mites was correlated with wing deformity. DWV was also detected in the larval food, implicating that in addition to transmission by V. destructor DWV is also transmitted by feeding. ..
  3. Berényi O, Bakonyi T, Derakhshifar I, Köglberger H, Nowotny N. Occurrence of six honeybee viruses in diseased Austrian apiaries. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:2414-20 pubmed
    ..A limited number of bee samples from surrounding central European countries (Germany, Poland, Hungary, and Slovenia) were also tested for the presence of the above viruses. Variances were found in the distribution of BQCV and SBV. ..
  4. Malik H, Henikoff S, Eickbush T. Poised for contagion: evolutionary origins of the infectious abilities of invertebrate retroviruses. Genome Res. 2000;10:1307-18 pubmed
    ..This has implications for the evolutionary history of retroviruses as well as for the potential ability of all LTR-retrotransposable elements to become infectious agents. ..
  5. Blanchard P, Schurr F, Celle O, Cougoule N, Drajnudel P, Thiery R, et al. First detection of Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) in France, a dicistrovirus affecting honeybees (Apis mellifera). J Invertebr Pathol. 2008;99:348-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Since IAPV was detected in only 14% of the affected apiaries, it was not possible to establish a causal link between IAPV and the severe winter losses that occurred. ..
  6. Marquez C, Pritham E. Phantom, a new subclass of Mutator DNA transposons found in insect viruses and widely distributed in animals. Genetics. 2010;185:1507-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly three Phantom proteins were also identified in two insect viruses and phylogenetic analysis suggests horizontal movement from insect to virus, providing a new line of evidence ..
  7. Lanzi G, de Miranda J, Boniotti M, Cameron C, Lavazza A, Capucci L, et al. Molecular and biological characterization of deformed wing virus of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). J Virol. 2006;80:4998-5009 pubmed publisher
    ..The genome organization, capsid morphology, and sequence comparison data indicate that DWV is a member of the recently established genus Iflavirus...
  8. Wang X, Aliyari R, Li W, Li H, Kim K, Carthew R, et al. RNA interference directs innate immunity against viruses in adult Drosophila. Science. 2006;312:452-4 pubmed
    ..These findings establish a Drosophila model for studying the innate immunity against viruses in animals...
  9. Lietze V, Abd Alla A, Vreysen M, Geden C, Boucias D. Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses: a novel group of insect pathogenic viruses. Annu Rev Entomol. 2011;56:63-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the potential use of SGHVs as sterilizing agents for house fly control and the deleterious impact of SGHVs on colonized tsetse flies reared for sterile insect technique are discussed...

More Information

Publications99

  1. Nayak A, Berry B, Tassetto M, Kunitomi M, Acevedo A, Deng C, et al. Cricket paralysis virus antagonizes Argonaute 2 to modulate antiviral defense in Drosophila. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:547-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Insect viruses have evolved strategies to control the host RNAi antiviral defense mechanism...
  2. Boyapalle S, Beckett R, Pal N, Miller W, Bonning B. Infectious genomic RNA of Rhopalosiphum padi virus transcribed in vitro from a full-length cDNA clone. Virology. 2008;375:401-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This infectious transcript of a cloned RhPV genome provides a valuable tool, and a more tractable system without interference from baculovirus infection, for investigating replication and pathogenesis of dicistroviruses. ..
  3. Huszar T, Imler J. Drosophila viruses and the study of antiviral host-defense. Adv Virus Res. 2008;72:227-65 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster model to study antiviral innate immunity and to better understand the complex interaction between arthropod-borne viruses and their insect vectors. ..
  4. Whitford M, Stewart S, Kuzio J, Faulkner P. Identification and sequence analysis of a gene encoding gp67, an abundant envelope glycoprotein of the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. J Virol. 1989;63:1393-9 pubmed
    ..The final seven amino acid residues at the C terminus contain basic amino acids and may have a role in virion assembly. ..
  5. Osborne S, Leong Y, O Neill S, Johnson K. Variation in antiviral protection mediated by different Wolbachia strains in Drosophila simulans. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000656 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Wolbachia-mediated antiviral protection is not ubiquitous, a finding that is important for understanding the distribution of Wolbachia and virus in natural insect populations. ..
  6. Liu S, Vijayendran D, Bonning B. Next generation sequencing technologies for insect virus discovery. Viruses. 2011;3:1849-69 pubmed publisher
    ..We will also discuss implications of the ubiquity of viruses in insects and in insect cell lines. All of the methods described in this article can also apply to the discovery of viruses in other organisms. ..
  7. Fujiyuki T, Ohka S, Takeuchi H, Ono M, Nomoto A, Kubo T. Prevalence and phylogeny of Kakugo virus, a novel insect picorna-like virus that infects the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.), under various colony conditions. J Virol. 2006;80:11528-38 pubmed
  8. Boyapalle S, Pal N, Miller W, Bonning B. A glassy-winged sharpshooter cell line supports replication of Rhopalosiphum padi virus (Dicistroviridae). J Invertebr Pathol. 2007;94:130-9 pubmed
    ..padi, was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot. The GWSS-Z10 cell line provides a valuable tool to investigate replication, structure and assembly of RhPV. ..
  9. Cox Foster D, Conlan S, Holmes E, Palacios G, Evans J, Moran N, et al. A metagenomic survey of microbes in honey bee colony collapse disorder. Science. 2007;318:283-7 pubmed
    ..One organism, Israeli acute paralysis virus of bees, was strongly correlated with CCD. ..
  10. Chen Y, Pettis J, Collins A, Feldlaufer M. Prevalence and transmission of honeybee viruses. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:606-11 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of vertical transmission of viruses in honeybee colonies. ..
  11. Burand J, Rallis C. In vivo dose-response of insects to Hz-2V infection. Virol J. 2004;1:15 pubmed
    ..The results of these experiments indicate that high virus doses produced a higher level of agonadal progeny and lower doses produced higher levels of asymptomatic carriers. ..
  12. Ribiere M, Lallemand P, Iscache A, Schurr F, Celle O, Blanchard P, et al. Spread of infectious chronic bee paralysis virus by honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) feces. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:7711-6 pubmed
    ..This is the first experimental confirmation that infectious CBPV particles excreted in the feces of infected bees can infect naive bees and provoke overt disease by mere confinement of naive bees in a soiled environment. ..
  13. Chen Y, Pettis J, Feldlaufer M. Detection of multiple viruses in queens of the honey bee Apis mellifera L. J Invertebr Pathol. 2005;90:118-21 pubmed
    ..The detection of viruses in queens raises the possibility of a vertical transmission pathway wherein infected queens can pass virus through their eggs to their offspring. ..
  14. Kukielka D, Sanchez Vizcaino J. One-step real-time quantitative PCR assays for the detection and field study of Sacbrood honeybee and Acute bee paralysis viruses. J Virol Methods. 2009;161:240-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The one-step real-time SG RT-PCR methods are fast, accurate, and useful for detecting and quantifying these honeybee viruses, which cause inapparent infections and contribute to the increasing depopulation of honeybee colonies. ..
  15. Hartley C, Greenwood D, Gilbert R, Masoumi A, Gordon K, Hanzlik T, et al. Kelp fly virus: a novel group of insect picorna-like viruses as defined by genome sequence analysis and a distinctive virion structure. J Virol. 2005;79:13385-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The architecture of the KFV capsid is unique among the members of the picornavirus superfamily for which structures have previously been determined...
  16. Shen M, Cui L, Ostiguy N, Cox Foster D. Intricate transmission routes and interactions between picorna-like viruses (Kashmir bee virus and sacbrood virus) with the honeybee host and the parasitic varroa mite. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:2281-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, these results indicated that multiple infection routes exist for honeybee viral diseases. ..
  17. Fujiyuki T, Takeuchi H, Ono M, Ohka S, Sasaki T, Nomoto A, et al. Novel insect picorna-like virus identified in the brains of aggressive worker honeybees. J Virol. 2004;78:1093-100 pubmed
    ..In aggressive workers, Kakugo RNA was detected in the brain but not in the thorax or abdomen, indicating a close relation between viral infection in the brain and aggressive worker behaviors. ..
  18. Cherry S, Perrimon N. Entry is a rate-limiting step for viral infection in a Drosophila melanogaster model of pathogenesis. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:81-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, this virus model provides a sensitive and efficient approach for identifying components required for pathogenesis. ..
  19. Hedges L, Johnson K. Induction of host defence responses by Drosophila C virus. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1497-501 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that upregulation of these Drosophila genes may require virus replication and may involve the non-structural proteins of DCV. ..
  20. Geden C, Garcia Maruniak A, Lietze V, Maruniak J, Boucias D. Impact of house fly salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) on a heterologous host, Stomoxys calcitrans. J Med Entomol. 2011;48:1128-35 pubmed
    ..Virus titers were approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher in house fly than in stable fly hosts, and this difference was probably due to the absence of salivary gland hypertrophy in the latter species. ..
  21. Fujiyuki T, Matsuzaka E, Nakaoka T, Takeuchi H, Wakamoto A, Ohka S, et al. Distribution of Kakugo virus and its effects on the gene expression profile in the brain of the worker honeybee Apis mellifera L. J Virol. 2009;83:11560-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A gene encoding a similar protein was found in the parasitic wasp Nasonia genome but not in other insect genomes. These findings suggest that KV infection may affect brain functions and/or physiological states in honeybees. ..
  22. Baker A, Schroeder D. Occurrence and genetic analysis of picorna-like viruses infecting worker bees of Apis mellifera L. populations in Devon, South West England. J Invertebr Pathol. 2008;98:239-42 pubmed publisher
    ..4% were positive for both sacbrood virus (SBV) and black queen cell virus (BQCV). Multiple infections were common, with 32% of the colonies were infected by more than one virus. ..
  23. Burand J, Rallis C, Tan W. Horizontal transmission of Hz-2V by virus infected Helicoverpa zea moths. J Invertebr Pathol. 2004;85:128-31 pubmed
  24. Guttieri M, Buran J. Location, nucleotide sequence, and regulation of the p51 late gene of the hz-1 insect virus: identification of a putative late regulatory element. Virus Genes. 2001;23:17-25 pubmed
    ..The results of our study suggest that this conserved sequence may serve an important role in the regulation of Hz-1V late genes. ..
  25. Evison S, Roberts K, Laurenson L, Pietravalle S, Hui J, Biesmeijer J, et al. Pervasiveness of parasites in pollinators. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30641 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these results provide a first insight into the diversity, and potential exchange, of parasites in pollinator communities...
  26. Li J, Qin H, Wu J, Sadd B, Wang X, Evans J, et al. The prevalence of parasites and pathogens in Asian honeybees Apis cerana in China. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47955 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of these parasites and pathogens may have considerable implications for an observed population decline of Asian honeybees...
  27. Guarino L, Summers M. Functional mapping of a trans-activating gene required for expression of a baculovirus delayed-early gene. J Virol. 1986;57:563-71 pubmed
    ..Transient assay experiments indicated that the trans-acting regulatory gene was expressed in uninfected cells and is therefore an immediate-early gene. This gene was named IE-1. ..
  28. Fujiyuki T, Takeuchi H, Ono M, Ohka S, Sasaki T, Nomoto A, et al. Kakugo virus from brains of aggressive worker honeybees. Adv Virus Res. 2005;65:1-27 pubmed
  29. Singh R, Levitt A, Rajotte E, Holmes E, Ostiguy N, vanEngelsdorp D, et al. RNA viruses in hymenopteran pollinators: evidence of inter-Taxa virus transmission via pollen and potential impact on non-Apis hymenopteran species. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14357 pubmed publisher
    ..This study adds to our present understanding of virus epidemiology and may help explain bee disease patterns and pollinator population decline in general. ..
  30. Blanchard P, Ribière M, Celle O, Lallemand P, Schurr F, Olivier V, et al. Evaluation of a real-time two-step RT-PCR assay for quantitation of Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) genome in experimentally-infected bee tissues and in life stages of a symptomatic colony. J Virol Methods. 2007;141:7-13 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the high CBPV genomic load revealed in guard bees highlights the possible pivotal role played by this category of bees in CBPV infection...
  31. Kokwaro E, Nyindo M, Chimtawi M. Ultrastructural changes in salivary glands of tsetse, Glossina morsitans morsitans, infected with virus and rickettsia-like organisms. J Invertebr Pathol. 1990;56:337-46 pubmed
    ..The microbes appear to cause damage to salivary gland cells, causing hyperplasia which assumes pathologic proportions...
  32. Meeus I, Smagghe G, Siede R, Jans K, de Graaf D. Multiplex RT-PCR with broad-range primers and an exogenous internal amplification control for the detection of honeybee viruses in bumblebees. J Invertebr Pathol. 2010;105:200-3 pubmed publisher
  33. Lietze V, Sims K, Salem T, Geden C, Boucias D. Transmission of MdSGHV among adult house flies, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), occurs via oral secretions and excreta. J Invertebr Pathol. 2009;101:49-55 pubmed publisher
  34. Genersch E, Yue C, Fries I, de Miranda J. Detection of Deformed wing virus, a honey bee viral pathogen, in bumble bees (Bombus terrestris and Bombus pascuorum) with wing deformities. J Invertebr Pathol. 2006;91:61-3 pubmed
    ..Since such deformed bumble bees are not viable DWV infection may pose a serious threat to bumble bee populations...
  35. Choe S, Nguyen L, Noh J, Koh H, Jean Y, Kweon C, et al. Prevalence and distribution of six bee viruses in Korean Apis cerana populations. J Invertebr Pathol. 2012;109:330-3 pubmed publisher
    ..61% of samples. The distribution of these viruses varied considerably throughout the geographic regions investigated. The three provinces of Gyeongbuk, Jeonnam, and Chungbuk had the highest frequency of bee viruses...
  36. Marti G, González E, Garcia J, Viguera A, Guerin D, Echeverria M. AC-ELISA and RT-PCR assays for the diagnosis of triatoma virus (TrV) in triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) species. Arch Virol. 2008;153:1427-32 pubmed publisher
    ..73 for AC-ELISA and 0.93 for RT-PCR when compared with EM. Applications and complementary uses of the two techniques reported in this work are discussed...
  37. Garcia Maruniak A, Maruniak J, Farmerie W, Boucias D. Sequence analysis of a non-classified, non-occluded DNA virus that causes salivary gland hypertrophy of Musca domestica, MdSGHV. Virology. 2008;377:184-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Although most of the homology observed was to nudiviruses, phylogenetic analysis showed that MdSGHV was not closely related to them or to the baculoviruses...
  38. Ai H, Yan X, Han R. Occurrence and prevalence of seven bee viruses in Apis mellifera and Apis cerana apiaries in China. J Invertebr Pathol. 2012;109:160-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In A. mellifera, DWV was the most prevalent virus, but in A. cerana, SBV was the dominant. Simultaneous multiple infections of viruses were common in both species. This is the first report of detection of IAPV and CBPV in A. cerana...
  39. Kojima Y, Toki T, Morimoto T, Yoshiyama M, Kimura K, Kadowaki T. Infestation of Japanese native honey bees by tracheal mite and virus from non-native European honey bees in Japan. Microb Ecol. 2011;62:895-906 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the infestation of native honey bees by parasite and pathogens of non-native honey bees that are traded globally...
  40. Phan T, Kapusinszky B, Wang C, Rose R, Lipton H, Delwart E. The fecal viral flora of wild rodents. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002218 pubmed publisher
    ..The next largest fraction of the rodent fecal virome was related to insect viruses of the Densoviridae, Iridoviridae, Polydnaviridae, Dicistroviriade, Bromoviridae, and Virgaviridae families ..
  41. Antúnez K, Anido M, Garrido Bailón E, Botías C, Zunino P, Martínez Salvador A, et al. Low prevalence of honeybee viruses in Spain during 2006 and 2007. Res Vet Sci. 2012;93:1441-5 pubmed publisher
    ..According to these results and considering the high prevalence of other honeybee pathogens in Spain, the role of viruses in colony losses in Spain may be discussed...
  42. Yue C, Schröder M, Gisder S, Genersch E. Vertical-transmission routes for deformed wing virus of honeybees (Apis mellifera). J Gen Virol. 2007;88:2329-36 pubmed
    ..True covert infections are a known infection strategy for insect viruses, resulting in long-term persistence of the virus in the population...
  43. Van Rij R, Saleh M, Berry B, Foo C, Houk A, Antoniewski C, et al. The RNA silencing endonuclease Argonaute 2 mediates specific antiviral immunity in Drosophila melanogaster. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2985-95 pubmed
    ..Based on these results we propose that RNAi is a major antiviral immune defense mechanism in Drosophila...
  44. Desai S, Eu Y, Whyard S, Currie R. Reduction in deformed wing virus infection in larval and adult honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) by double-stranded RNA ingestion. Insect Mol Biol. 2012;21:446-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Feeding adult workers with DWV-dsRNA in advance of inoculation with virus increased their longevity and reduced DWV concentration relative to controls...
  45. Zambon R, Vakharia V, Wu L. RNAi is an antiviral immune response against a dsRNA virus in Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Microbiol. 2006;8:880-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings establish Drosophila as an ideal model for the study of antiviral RNAi responses in animals...
  46. Martin S, Highfield A, Brettell L, Villalobos E, Budge G, Powell M, et al. Global honey bee viral landscape altered by a parasitic mite. Science. 2012;336:1304-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the global spread of Varroa has selected DWV variants that have emerged to allow it to become one of the most widely distributed and contagious insect viruses on the planet.
  47. Highfield A, El Nagar A, Mackinder L, Noël L, Hall M, Martin S, et al. Deformed wing virus implicated in overwintering honeybee colony losses. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:7212-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that DWV can potentially act independently of varroa mites to bring about colony losses. Therefore, DWV may be a major factor in overwintering colony losses...
  48. Hedges L, Brownlie J, O Neill S, Johnson K. Wolbachia and virus protection in insects. Science. 2008;322:702 pubmed publisher
    ..The antiviral protection associated with Wolbachia infection might be exploited in future strategies to reduce transmission of pathogens by insects...
  49. Forgách P, Bakonyi T, Tapaszti Z, Nowotny N, Rusvai M. Prevalence of pathogenic bee viruses in Hungarian apiaries: situation before joining the European Union. J Invertebr Pathol. 2008;98:235-8 pubmed
    ..The results could serve as a basis for monitoring further changes in the distribution of honeybee viruses in Europe...
  50. Welch A, Drummond F, Tewari S, Averill A, Burand J. Presence and prevalence of viruses in local and migratory honeybees (Apis mellifera) in Massachusetts. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:7862-5 pubmed publisher
    ..BQCV and SBV were present at significantly higher rates in the migratory bees assayed, bringing into question the impact that these bees have on the health of local bee populations...
  51. Hunnicutt L, Hunter W, Cave R, Powell C, Mozoruk J. Genome sequence and molecular characterization of Homalodisca coagulata virus-1, a novel virus discovered in the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Virology. 2006;350:67-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence demonstrating relatedness of these viruses regarding genome organization, amino acid sequence similarity, and putative replication strategy substantiate inclusion of HoCV-1 into this taxonomic position...
  52. Kim A, Terzian C, Santamaria P, Pelisson A, Purd homme N, Bucheton A. Retroviruses in invertebrates: the gypsy retrotransposon is apparently an infectious retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:1285-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that gypsy is an infectious retrovirus and provide evidence that retroviruses also occur in invertebrates...
  53. Galibert L, Devauchelle G, Cousserans F, Rocher J, Cerutti P, Barat Houari M, et al. Members of the Hyposoter didymator Ichnovirus repeat element gene family are differentially expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda. Virol J. 2006;3:48 pubmed
    ..In this work, we report a relative quantitative transcription study of these HdIV rep genes in several tissues of the lepidopteran host Spodoptera frugiperda as well as in the H. didymator wasps...
  54. Rallis C, Burand J. Pathology and ultrastructure of Hz-2V infection in the agonadal female corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea. J Invertebr Pathol. 2002;81:33-44 pubmed
  55. Costa C, Tanner G, Lodesani M, Maistrello L, Neumann P. Negative correlation between Nosema ceranae spore loads and deformed wing virus infection levels in adult honey bee workers. J Invertebr Pathol. 2011;108:224-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide correlational evidence for antagonistic interactions between the two pathogens in the midgut of the bees...
  56. Antúnez K, D Alessandro B, Corbella E, Ramallo G, Zunino P. Honeybee viruses in Uruguay. J Invertebr Pathol. 2006;93:67-70 pubmed
    ..The detection of viruses in different provinces, simultaneous co-infection of colonies by several viruses and the fact that 96% of the samples were infected with one or more virus, indicates they are widely spread in the region...
  57. Rortais A, Tentcheva D, Papachristoforou A, Gauthier L, Arnold G, Colin M, et al. Deformed wing virus is not related to honey bees' aggressiveness. Virol J. 2006;3:61 pubmed
    ..The deformed wing virus (DWV) and the kakugo virus (KV) genomes are very similar, but unlike KV, the presence of DWV is not related to honey bees' aggressiveness. This discrepancy is further discussed...
  58. Li J, Peng W, Wu J, Strange J, Boncristiani H, Chen Y. Cross-species infection of deformed wing virus poses a new threat to pollinator conservation. J Econ Entomol. 2011;104:732-9 pubmed
    ..Bumble bees and honey bees sometimes share nectar and pollen resources in the same field. The geographical proximity of two host species probably plays an important role in host range breadth of the virus...
  59. Thézé J, Bézier A, Periquet G, Drezen J, Herniou E. Paleozoic origin of insect large dsDNA viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:15931-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results imply ancient coevolution by resource tracking between several insect dsDNA virus families and their hosts, dating back to 310 Mya...
  60. Chen H, Tso D, Yeh W, Cheng H, Wu T. The thymidylate synthase gene of Hz-1 virus: a gene captured from its lepidopteran host. Insect Mol Biol. 2001;10:495-503 pubmed
    ..Results of both sequence divergences and phylogenetic analysis suggested that TS genes in insect viruses, Hz-1, CIV, and MsEPV may have a different history or originated from different capture events.
  61. Prisco G, Zhang X, Pennacchio F, Caprio E, Li J, Evans J, et al. Dynamics of persistent and acute deformed wing virus infections in honey bees, Apis mellifera. Viruses. 2011;3:2425-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The information obtained from this study has important implications for enhancing our understanding of host?pathogen interactions and can be used to develop effective disease control strategies for honey bees...
  62. de Miranda J, Fries I. Venereal and vertical transmission of deformed wing virus in honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). J Invertebr Pathol. 2008;98:184-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether venereal transmission of DWV occurs during natural mating remains to be determined. The implications for the use, sale and transport of semen samples for artificial insemination are discussed...
  63. Francis R, Nielsen S, Kryger P. Patterns of viral infection in honey bee queens. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:668-76 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant differences were found among tissues for AKI. A subsample of 14 queens yielded positive results for the presence of negative-sense RNA strands, thus demonstrating active virus replication in all tissues...
  64. Rallis C, Burand J. Pathology and ultrastructure of the insect virus, Hz-2V, infecting agonadal male corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea. J Invertebr Pathol. 2002;80:81-9 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that agonadal adult males are able to mate with healthy female moths and transfer Hz-2V particles, without fertilizing female moths or altering their sexual receptivity to further mating with other male moths...
  65. Gauthier L, Ravallec M, Tournaire M, Cousserans F, Bergoin M, Dainat B, et al. Viruses associated with ovarian degeneration in Apis mellifera L. queens. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16217 pubmed publisher
  66. Geden C, Steenberg T, Lietze V, Boucias D. Salivary gland hypertrophy virus of house flies in Denmark: prevalence, host range, and comparison with a Florida isolate. J Vector Ecol. 2011;36:231-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The most effective delivery system was immersion in a homogenate of ten infected flies/ml of water, resulting in 56.2% and 49.6% infection of the house flies challenged with the Danish and Florida strains, respectively...
  67. Burand J, Tan W, Kim W, Nojima S, Roelofs W. Infection with the insect virus Hz-2v alters mating behavior and pheromone production in female Helicoverpa zea moths. J Insect Sci. 2005;5:6 pubmed
    ..The ability of Hz-2V to alter the physiology and behavior of infected females observed here may serve to facilitate the transmission of virus in insect populations...
  68. Chen Y, Siede R. Honey bee viruses. Adv Virus Res. 2007;70:33-80 pubmed
    ..The chapter has been designed to provide researchers in the field with updated information about honey bee viruses and to serve as a starting point for future research...
  69. Terio V, Martella V, Camero M, Decaro N, Testini G, Bonerba E, et al. Detection of a honeybee iflavirus with intermediate characteristics between kakugo virus and deformed wing virus. New Microbiol. 2008;31:439-44 pubmed
    ..The identification of a virus with apparently intermediate features between DWV and KV open new perspectives on the patho-biological role of iflaviruses in honeybees...
  70. Bacandritsos N, Granato A, Budge G, Papanastasiou I, Roinioti E, Caldon M, et al. Sudden deaths and colony population decline in Greek honey bee colonies. J Invertebr Pathol. 2010;105:335-40 pubmed publisher
    ..ceranae synergistically played the most important role. A follow-up in-depth survey across all Greek regions is required to provide context to these preliminary findings...
  71. Abd Alla A, Cousserans F, Parker A, Jehle J, Parker N, Vlak J, et al. Genome analysis of a Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus reveals a novel, large, double-stranded circular DNA virus. J Virol. 2008;82:4595-611 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, no homologues to DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunits were detected. Taken together, these data indicate that GpSGHV is the prototype member of a novel group of insect viruses.
  72. Yang X, Cox Foster D. Effects of parasitization by Varroa destructor on survivorship and physiological traits of Apis mellifera in correlation with viral incidence and microbial challenge. Parasitology. 2007;134:405-12 pubmed
    ..Our research indicates that the combination of mite parasitization, the interaction of DWV and microbes, and a developmental immune incompetency attribute to decreased worker survivorship and have a negative impact on colony fitness...
  73. Blissard G, Rohrmann G. Location, sequence, transcriptional mapping, and temporal expression of the gp64 envelope glycoprotein gene of the Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Virology. 1989;170:537-55 pubmed
    ..The upstream regulatory regions, open reading frames, and predicted proteins from the OpMNPV and AcMNPV gp64 genes were compared.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)..
  74. Barriga G, Cifuentes Muñoz N, Rivera P, Gutiérrez M, Shmaryahu A, Valenzuela P, et al. First detection and complete genome sequence of Deformed wing virus in Chilean honeybees. Virus Genes. 2012;45:606-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the genome of a Chilean DWV isolate was completely sequenced. This is the first report of the presence of a honey bee virus in Chile...
  75. Sanpa S, Chantawannakul P. Survey of six bee viruses using RT-PCR in Northern Thailand. J Invertebr Pathol. 2009;100:116-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Kashmir bee virus was found only in the Lampang province where high infestation of Varroa destructor mite occurred. Tropilaelaps, European foulbrood, and Chalkbrood diseases were found in some apiaries...
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    ..Since artificial insemination and controlled mating is widely used in honeybee breeding, the impact of our findings for disease transmission is discussed...
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    ..The finding of this novel genome organization for DCV shows that this virus is not a member of the Picornaviridae as previously thought, but belongs to a distinct and hitherto unrecognized virus family...
  78. Benjeddou M, Leat N, Allsopp M, Davison S. Detection of acute bee paralysis virus and black queen cell virus from honeybees by reverse transcriptase pcr. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:2384-7 pubmed
    ..In a blind test, RT-PCR successfully identified the samples containing ABPV and BQCV. Sensitivities were approximately 1,600 genome equivalents of purified ABPV and 130 genome equivalents of BQCV...
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    ..These results extend our understanding of the relationships among the RNA1 segments of nodaviruses and the predicted structures of their encoded RdRps...
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    ..This attractive strategy could lead to sensitization of the insects, thus reducing the doses of insecticides and increasing the efficacy of treatments...
  81. Maori E, Lavi S, Mozes Koch R, Gantman Y, Peretz Y, Edelbaum O, et al. Isolation and characterization of Israeli acute paralysis virus, a dicistrovirus affecting honeybees in Israel: evidence for diversity due to intra- and inter-species recombination. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:3428-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The dynamics of information exchange between virus and host and the possible resistance-engendering mechanisms are discussed...
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    ..The information obtained from this present study can have important implication for understanding the population structure of bee virus as well as host-virus interactions...
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    ..Our results indicate that in addition to Toll and Imd, a third, evolutionary conserved innate immunity pathway functions in drosophila and counters viral infection...
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    ..domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus, and a tentative unassigned species, M. equestris salivary gland hypertrophy virus. Here, we present the characteristics and the justification for establishing this new virus family...
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    ..Possible biochemical explanations for the observed synergistic effects between tau-fluvalinate and virus infections are discussed...
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    ..In this report, the significance of the homology between these two types of envelope proteins is analyzed...
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    ..Additionally, our results demonstrate the validity of using a genetic approach to identify genes and pathways used in viral innate immune responses in Drosophila...
  89. Blanchard P, Olivier V, Iscache A, Celle O, Schurr F, Lallemand P, et al. Improvement of RT-PCR detection of chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) required by the description of genomic variability in French CBPV isolates. J Invertebr Pathol. 2008;97:182-5 pubmed
    ..The previously-described RT-PCR was unable to detect all these viral isolates and RT-PCR diagnosis needed improvement. The new RT-PCR test can detect up to 40% more CBPV isolates...
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    ..pallidipes not only affects colony stability and performance but, in view of their reduced mating propensity and competitiveness, releasing SGH+ sterile male G. pallidipes will reduce the efficiency of a sterile male release programme...