murine hepatitis virus


Summary: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).

Top Publications

  1. Rempel J, Quina L, Blakely Gonzales P, Buchmeier M, Gruol D. Viral induction of central nervous system innate immune responses. J Virol. 2005;79:4369-81 pubmed
    ..Further understanding of how these innate responses participate in immune protection or immunopathology in the CNS will be critical in efforts to intervene in severe encephalitis. ..
  2. Donaldson E, Graham R, Sims A, Denison M, Baric R. Analysis of murine hepatitis virus strain A59 temperature-sensitive mutant TS-LA6 suggests that nsp10 plays a critical role in polyprotein processing. J Virol. 2007;81:7086-98 pubmed
    ..1:e39, 2005), based upon complementation studies of known temperature-sensitive (TS) mutants of murine hepatitis virus (MHV) strain A59, proposes that an intermediate comprised of nsp4 to nsp10/11 ( approximately 150 kDa) is ..
  3. Stohlman S, Hinton D, Parra B, Atkinson R, Bergmann C. CD4 T cells contribute to virus control and pathology following central nervous system infection with neurotropic mouse hepatitis virus. J Virol. 2008;82:2130-9 pubmed
    ..Although the antiviral effector mechanism is initially independent of IFN-gamma secretion, sustained control of CNS virus replication by CD4(+) T cells requires IFN-gamma. ..
  4. Templeton S, Perlman S. Pathogenesis of acute and chronic central nervous system infection with variants of mouse hepatitis virus, strain JHM. Immunol Res. 2007;39:160-72 pubmed
    ..The mechanisms by which these immune effectors induce demyelination share an ability to activate and recruit macrophages and microglia, thus increasing the putative role of these cells in myelin destruction. ..
  5. Cervantes Barragan L, Kalinke U, Zust R, König M, Reizis B, Lopez Macias C, et al. Type I IFN-mediated protection of macrophages and dendritic cells secures control of murine coronavirus infection. J Immunol. 2009;182:1099-106 pubmed
  6. Brockway S, Denison M. Mutagenesis of the murine hepatitis virus nsp1-coding region identifies residues important for protein processing, viral RNA synthesis, and viral replication. Virology. 2005;340:209-23 pubmed
    ..the 28-kDa amino-terminal product (nsp1) of the gene 1 polyprotein during replication of the coronavirus murine hepatitis virus (MHV) in cell culture...
  7. Roth Cross J, Bender S, Weiss S. Murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus is recognized by MDA5 and induces type I interferon in brain macrophages/microglia. J Virol. 2008;82:9829-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that secretion of IFN-beta by macrophages and microglia plays a role in protecting the host from MHV infection of the central nervous system. ..
  8. Khanolkar A, Hartwig S, Haag B, Meyerholz D, Harty J, Varga S. Toll-like receptor 4 deficiency increases disease and mortality after mouse hepatitis virus type 1 infection of susceptible C3H mice. J Virol. 2009;83:8946-56 pubmed publisher
    ..C3H/HeJ mice exhibit enhanced morbidity and mortality following i.n. MHV-1 infection compared to wild-type C3H/HeN mice. Our results indicate that TLR4 plays an important role in respiratory CoV pathogenesis. ..
  9. Lehoux M, Jacques A, Lusignan S, Lamontagne L. Murine viral hepatitis involves NK cell depletion associated with virus-induced apoptosis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2004;137:41-51 pubmed
    ..Larger NK+ syncytia were observed in L2-MHV3-infected cells than in YAC-MHV3-infected cells. These results suggest that NK cell production is impaired by viral infection favouring fulminant hepatitis. ..

More Information

Publications110 found, 100 shown here

  1. Zhu C, Yan W, Zhu F, Zhu Y, Xi D, Tian D, et al. Fibrinogen-like protein 2 fibroleukin expression and its correlation with disease progression in murine hepatitis virus type 3-induced fulminant hepatitis and in patients with severe viral hepatitis B. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:6936-40 pubmed
    ..Balb/cJ or A/J mice were infected intraperitoneally (ip) with 100 PFU of murine hepatitis virus type 3 (MHV-3), liver and serum were harvested at 24, 48, and 72 h post infection for further use...
  2. Zhu C, Sun Y, Luo X, Yan W, Xi D, Ning Q. Novel mfgl2 antisense plasmid inhibits murine fgl2 expression and ameliorates murine hepatitis virus type 3-induced fulminant hepatitis in BALB/cJ mice. Hum Gene Ther. 2006;17:589-600 pubmed
    ..necrosis; prolonged the survival time period; and elevated the survival rate among BALB/cJ mice with murine hepatitis virus type 3-induced fulminant hepatitis...
  3. Navas Martin S, Brom M, Chua M, Watson R, Qiu Z, Weiss S. Replicase genes of murine coronavirus strains A59 and JHM are interchangeable: differences in pathogenesis map to the 3' one-third of the genome. J Virol. 2007;81:1022-6 pubmed
  4. Kang H, Bhardwaj K, Li Y, Palaninathan S, Sacchettini J, Guarino L, et al. Biochemical and genetic analyses of murine hepatitis virus Nsp15 endoribonuclease. J Virol. 2007;81:13587-97 pubmed publisher
    The goal of this project was to better define the relationship between the endoribonuclease activity of murine hepatitis virus (MHV) Nsp15 (mNsp15) and its role in virus infection...
  5. Raaben M, Prins H, Martens A, Rottier P, de Haan C. Non-invasive imaging of mouse hepatitis coronavirus infection reveals determinants of viral replication and spread in vivo. Cell Microbiol. 2009;11:825-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide new insights in coronavirus pathogenesis and demonstrate the potential of BLI to study coronavirus-host interactions in vivo. ..
  6. Koetzner C, Kuo L, Goebel S, Dean A, Parker M, Masters P. Accessory protein 5a is a major antagonist of the antiviral action of interferon against murine coronavirus. J Virol. 2010;84:8262-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the major IFN-induced antiviral activities that are specifically inhibited by MHV, and possibly by other coronaviruses, remain to be identified. ..
  7. Dellanno C, Vega Q, Boesenberg D. The antiviral action of common household disinfectants and antiseptics against murine hepatitis virus, a potential surrogate for SARS coronavirus. Am J Infect Control. 2009;37:649-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the antiviral activity of standard household products was assayed against murine hepatitis virus (MHV), as a potential surrogate for SARS-CoV...
  8. de Haan C, van Genne L, Stoop J, Volders H, Rottier P. Coronaviruses as vectors: position dependence of foreign gene expression. J Virol. 2003;77:11312-23 pubmed
    ..Altogether, our observations clearly demonstrate the potential of coronaviruses as (multivalent) expression vectors. ..
  9. Matthews A, Weiss S, Shlomchik M, Hannum L, Gombold J, Paterson Y. Antibody is required for clearance of infectious murine hepatitis virus A59 from the central nervous system, but not the liver. J Immunol. 2001;167:5254-63 pubmed
  10. Versteeg G, Bredenbeek P, van den Worm S, Spaan W. Group 2 coronaviruses prevent immediate early interferon induction by protection of viral RNA from host cell recognition. Virology. 2007;361:18-26 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that shielding of viral RNA to host cell sensors might be the main general mechanism for coronaviruses to prevent IFN induction. ..
  11. Raaben M, Groot Koerkamp M, Rottier P, de Haan C. Mouse hepatitis coronavirus replication induces host translational shutoff and mRNA decay, with concomitant formation of stress granules and processing bodies. Cell Microbiol. 2007;9:2218-29 pubmed
  12. Kim T, Perlman S. Viral expression of CCL2 is sufficient to induce demyelination in RAG1-/- mice infected with a neurotropic coronavirus. J Virol. 2005;79:7113-20 pubmed
    ..Thus, these results suggest that the minimal requirement for demyelination is increased expression of a single macrophage-attracting chemokine in the context of an inflammatory milieu, such as that induced by a viral infection. ..
  13. Navas Martin S, Hingley S, Weiss S. Murine coronavirus evolution in vivo: functional compensation of a detrimental amino acid substitution in the receptor binding domain of the spike glycoprotein. J Virol. 2005;79:7629-40 pubmed publisher
  14. Zhou H, Perlman S. Preferential infection of mature dendritic cells by mouse hepatitis virus strain JHM. J Virol. 2006;80:2506-14 pubmed
    ..This preferential infection of mature DCs may inhibit the development of an efficient immune response to the virus. ..
  15. Bergmann C, Parra B, Hinton D, Ramakrishna C, Dowdell K, Stohlman S. Perforin and gamma interferon-mediated control of coronavirus central nervous system infection by CD8 T cells in the absence of CD4 T cells. J Virol. 2004;78:1739-50 pubmed
  16. Coley S, Lavi E, Sawicki S, Fu L, Schelle B, Karl N, et al. Recombinant mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 from cloned, full-length cDNA replicates to high titers in vitro and is fully pathogenic in vivo. J Virol. 2005;79:3097-106 pubmed
  17. Verheije M, Wurdinger T, van Beusechem V, de Haan C, Gerritsen W, Rottier P. Redirecting coronavirus to a nonnative receptor through a virus-encoded targeting adapter. J Virol. 2006;80:1250-60 pubmed
    ..The results provide interesting leads for further investigations of the use of coronaviruses as antitumor agents. ..
  18. Bergmann C, Lane T, Stohlman S. Coronavirus infection of the central nervous system: host-virus stand-off. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2006;4:121-32 pubmed
    ..Distinct from cytolytic effector mechanisms expressed during acute infection, non-lytic humoral immunity prevails in suppressing infectious virus during persistence. ..
  19. De Albuquerque N, Baig E, Ma X, Zhang J, He W, Rowe A, et al. Murine hepatitis virus strain 1 produces a clinically relevant model of severe acute respiratory syndrome in A/J mice. J Virol. 2006;80:10382-94 pubmed
    ..Intranasal infection of A/J mice with the coronavirus murine hepatitis virus strain 1 (MHV-1) produced pulmonary pathological features of SARS...
  20. Zhou H, Perlman S. Mouse hepatitis virus does not induce Beta interferon synthesis and does not inhibit its induction by double-stranded RNA. J Virol. 2007;81:568-74 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the notion that double-stranded RNA, produced during MHV infection, is not accessible to cellular PRRs. ..
  21. Hosking M, Liu L, Ransohoff R, Lane T. A protective role for ELR+ chemokines during acute viral encephalomyelitis. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000648 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings highlight a previously unappreciated role for ELR-positive chemokines in enhancing host defense during acute viral infections of the CNS. ..
  22. Kuo L, Masters P. The small envelope protein E is not essential for murine coronavirus replication. J Virol. 2003;77:4597-608 pubmed
    ..The properties of this mutant provide further support for the importance of E protein in MHV replication, but surprisingly, they also show that E protein is not essential. ..
  23. Totoiu M, Nistor G, Lane T, Keirstead H. Remyelination, axonal sparing, and locomotor recovery following transplantation of glial-committed progenitor cells into the MHV model of multiple sclerosis. Exp Neurol. 2004;187:254-65 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates for the first time that transplant-mediated remyelination is possible in the pathogenic environment of the MHV demyelination model and that it is associated with locomotor improvement. ..
  24. Trifilo M, Lane T. The CC chemokine ligand 3 regulates CD11c+CD11b+CD8alpha- dendritic cell maturation and activation following viral infection of the central nervous system: implications for a role in T cell activation. Virology. 2004;327:8-15 pubmed
  25. Sawicki S, Sawicki D. Coronavirus transcription: a perspective. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2005;287:31-55 pubmed
  26. Das Sarma J, Kenyon L, Hingley S, Shindler K. Mechanisms of primary axonal damage in a viral model of multiple sclerosis. J Neurosci. 2009;29:10272-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have important implications for the design of neuroprotective strategies for CNS demyelinating disease, and our model identifies the spike protein as a therapeutic target to prevent axonal transport of neurotropic viruses. ..
  27. Raaben M, Grinwis G, Rottier P, de Haan C. The proteasome inhibitor Velcade enhances rather than reduces disease in mouse hepatitis coronavirus-infected mice. J Virol. 2010;84:7880-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, however, the drug did not reduce replication of the virus in mice. Rather, inhibition of the proteasome caused enhanced infection with lethal outcome, calling for caution when using this type of drug during infection. ..
  28. Aparicio J, Peña C, Retegui L. Autoimmune hepatitis-like disease in C57BL/6 mice infected with mouse hepatitis virus A59. Int Immunopharmacol. 2011;11:1591-8 pubmed publisher
  29. Liu Y, Zhang X. Expression of cellular oncogene Bcl-xL prevents coronavirus-induced cell death and converts acute infection to persistent infection in progenitor rat oligodendrocytes. J Virol. 2005;79:47-56 pubmed
    ..The data also suggest that direct virus-host cell interaction is one of the underlying mechanisms that regulate viral persistence in CNS cells. ..
  30. Phares T, Ramakrishna C, Parra G, Epstein A, Chen L, Atkinson R, et al. Target-dependent B7-H1 regulation contributes to clearance of central nervous system infection and dampens morbidity. J Immunol. 2009;182:5430-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the beneficial role of PD-1:B7-H1 interactions in limiting morbidity highlights the need to evaluate tissue-specific intervention strategies...
  31. Lane T, Hosking M. The pathogenesis of murine coronavirus infection of the central nervous system. Crit Rev Immunol. 2010;30:119-30 pubmed
    ..MHV offers a unique model system for studying host defense during acute viral infection and immune-mediated demyelination during chronic infection. ..
  32. Sperry S, Kazi L, Graham R, Baric R, Weiss S, Denison M. Single-amino-acid substitutions in open reading frame (ORF) 1b-nsp14 and ORF 2a proteins of the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus are attenuating in mice. J Virol. 2005;79:3391-400 pubmed publisher
    ..The study also demonstrates the usefulness of the reverse genetic system to confirm the role of residues or proteins in coronavirus replication and pathogenesis...
  33. Liu Y, Pu Y, Zhang X. Role of the mitochondrial signaling pathway in murine coronavirus-induced oligodendrocyte apoptosis. J Virol. 2006;80:395-403 pubmed
    ..These results thus establish the involvement of the mitochondrial pathway in MHV-induced oligodendrocyte apoptosis. ..
  34. Donaldson E, Sims A, Graham R, Denison M, Baric R. Murine hepatitis virus replicase protein nsp10 is a critical regulator of viral RNA synthesis. J Virol. 2007;81:6356-68 pubmed publisher
    ..the role of nsp10 in coronavirus transcription/replication, alanine replacements were engineered into a murine hepatitis virus (MHV) infectious clone in place of conserved residues in predicted functional domains or charged amino ..
  35. Clementz M, Kanjanahaluethai A, O Brien T, Baker S. Mutation in murine coronavirus replication protein nsp4 alters assembly of double membrane vesicles. Virology. 2008;375:118-29 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a critical role of nsp4 in directing coronavirus DMV assembly...
  36. Hussain S, Perlman S, Gallagher T. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein 6 accelerates murine hepatitis virus infections by more than one mechanism. J Virol. 2008;82:7212-22 pubmed publisher
    ..One of these accessory proteins is set apart by its function in the context of a related murine hepatitis virus (MHV) infection...
  37. Trandem K, Zhao J, Fleming E, Perlman S. Highly activated cytotoxic CD8 T cells express protective IL-10 at the peak of coronavirus-induced encephalitis. J Immunol. 2011;186:3642-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, IL-10 produced by CD8 T cells diminished disease severity in mice with coronavirus-induced acute encephalitis, suggesting a self-regulatory mechanism that minimizes immunopathological changes. ..
  38. Kanjanahaluethai A, Chen Z, Jukneliene D, Baker S. Membrane topology of murine coronavirus replicase nonstructural protein 3. Virology. 2007;361:391-401 pubmed
    ..We show that nsp3-TM is sufficient in mediating ER membrane association of a cytosolic protein. This study is the first detailed analysis of the topology and function of the coronavirus nsp3 TM domain. ..
  39. Langereis M, van Vliet A, Boot W, de Groot R. Attachment of mouse hepatitis virus to O-acetylated sialic acid is mediated by hemagglutinin-esterase and not by the spike protein. J Virol. 2010;84:8970-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Apparently, expansion of group A betacoronaviruses into new hosts and niches was accompanied by changes in HE ligand and substrate preference and in the roles of HE and S in Sia receptor usage...
  40. Prentice E, McAuliffe J, Lu X, Subbarao K, Denison M. Identification and characterization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replicase proteins. J Virol. 2004;78:9977-86 pubmed
    ..Further, the results demonstrate the ability of replicase antibodies to detect SARS-CoV-infected cells as early as 6 h postinfection and thus represent important tools for studies of SARS-CoV replication, inhibition, and diagnosis...
  41. Mahabir E, Bulian D, Needham J, Mayer A, Mateusen B, Van Soom A, et al. Transmission of mouse minute virus (MMV) but not mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) following embryo transfer with experimentally exposed in vivo-derived embryos. Biol Reprod. 2007;76:189-97 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that MMV but not MHV can be transmitted to recipients even after washing embryos 10 times before embryo transfer...
  42. Zust R, Cervantes Barragan L, Kuri T, Blakqori G, Weber F, Ludewig B, et al. Coronavirus non-structural protein 1 is a major pathogenicity factor: implications for the rational design of coronavirus vaccines. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e109 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the presented attenuation strategy provides a paradigm for the development of highly efficient coronavirus vaccines...
  43. Sparks J, Donaldson E, Lu X, Baric R, Denison M. A novel mutation in murine hepatitis virus nsp5, the viral 3C-like proteinase, causes temperature-sensitive defects in viral growth and protein processing. J Virol. 2008;82:5999-6008 pubmed publisher
    Sequencing and reversion analysis of murine hepatitis virus (MHV) temperature-sensitive (ts) viruses has identified putative ts mutations in the replicase nonstructural proteins (nsp's) of these coronaviruses...
  44. Zheng D, Chen G, Guo B, Cheng G, Tang H. PLP2, a potent deubiquitinase from murine hepatitis virus, strongly inhibits cellular type I interferon production. Cell Res. 2008;18:1105-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our study uncovered a viral DUB which coronaviruses may use to escape from the host innate antiviral responses...
  45. Jacques A, Bleau C, Turbide C, Beauchemin N, Lamontagne L. Macrophage interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha are induced by coronavirus fixation to Toll-like receptor 2/heparan sulphate receptors but not carcinoembryonic cell adhesion antigen 1a. Immunology. 2009;128:e181-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that TLR2 and heparan sulphate receptors can act as new viral PPRs involved in inflammatory responses...
  46. Gadlage M, Sparks J, Beachboard D, Cox R, Doyle J, Stobart C, et al. Murine hepatitis virus nonstructural protein 4 regulates virus-induced membrane modifications and replication complex function. J Virol. 2010;84:280-90 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Murine hepatitis virus (MHV) nsp4 is glycosylated at residues Asn176 (N176) and N237 during plasmid expression of nsp4 in cells...
  47. Bender S, Weiss S. Pathogenesis of murine coronavirus in the central nervous system. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2010;5:336-54 pubmed publisher
  48. Keane S, Liu P, Leibowitz J, Giedroc D. Functional transcriptional regulatory sequence (TRS) RNA binding and helix destabilizing determinants of murine hepatitis virus (MHV) nucleocapsid (N) protein. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:7063-73 pubmed publisher
  49. Ontiveros E, Kuo L, Masters P, Perlman S. Inactivation of expression of gene 4 of mouse hepatitis virus strain JHM does not affect virulence in the murine CNS. Virology. 2001;289:230-8 pubmed
    ..These results establish a targeted recombination system for inserting mutations into MHV-JHM. Furthermore, the protein encoded by ORF 4 is not essential for growth in tissue culture cells or in the CNS of the infected host...
  50. Zhou J, Stohlman S, Atkinson R, Hinton D, Marten N. Matrix metalloproteinase expression correlates with virulence following neurotropic mouse hepatitis virus infection. J Virol. 2002;76:7374-84 pubmed
    ..By contrast, MMP-9 protein activity was associated with the infiltration of neutrophils into the CNS. These data indicate an association between the magnitude of inflammatory gene expression within the CNS and viral virulence...
  51. Phillips J, Chua M, Rall G, Weiss S. Murine coronavirus spike glycoprotein mediates degree of viral spread, inflammation, and virus-induced immunopathology in the central nervous system. Virology. 2002;301:109-20 pubmed
    ..Despite this robust and viral-specific immune response to S(4)R infection, infection of RAG1-/- mice suggested that immune-mediated pathology also contributes to the high neurovirulence of S(4)R...
  52. Kim T, Perlman S. Protection against CTL escape and clinical disease in a murine model of virus persistence. J Immunol. 2003;171:2006-13 pubmed
  53. Kazi L, Lissenberg A, Watson R, de Groot R, Weiss S. Expression of hemagglutinin esterase protein from recombinant mouse hepatitis virus enhances neurovirulence. J Virol. 2005;79:15064-73 pubmed
    b>Murine hepatitis virus (MHV) infection provides a model system for the study of hepatitis, acute encephalitis, and chronic demyelinating disease...
  54. Shalev I, Wong K, Foerster K, Zhu Y, Chan C, Maknojia A, et al. The novel CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell effector molecule fibrinogen-like protein 2 contributes to the outcome of murine fulminant viral hepatitis. Hepatology. 2009;49:387-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present insight into the immunological mechanisms involved in FH caused by murine hepatitis virus strain 3 (MHV-3), indicating a critical role for CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and production ..
  55. Thirion G, Coutelier J. Production of protective gamma interferon by natural killer cells during early mouse hepatitis virus infection. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:442-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Transfer experiments indicated that the protective role of IFN-gamma is mediated through a direct effect on cells targeted by the virus rather than through indirect activation of T lymphocytes...
  56. Chen Y, Wu S, Guo G, Fei L, Guo S, Yang C, et al. Programmed death (PD)-1-deficient mice are extremely sensitive to murine hepatitis virus strain-3 (MHV-3) infection. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1001347 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the functional mechanisms of PD-1 as related to FH pathogenesis induced by the murine hepatitis virus strain-3 (MHV-3)...
  57. Phares T, Stohlman S, Hwang M, Min B, Hinton D, Bergmann C. CD4 T cells promote CD8 T cell immunity at the priming and effector site during viral encephalitis. J Virol. 2012;86:2416-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The data highlight the necessity for temporally and spatially distinct CD4 T cell helper functions in sustaining CD8 T cell activity during CNS infection...
  58. Banerjee S, Narayanan K, Mizutani T, Makino S. Murine coronavirus replication-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation promotes interleukin-6 production and virus replication in cultured cells. J Virol. 2002;76:5937-48 pubmed
    ..Enhancement of virus-specific protein synthesis through virus-induced eIF4E activation has not been reported in any other viruses...
  59. Schwartz T, Fu L, Lavi E. Differential induction of apoptosis in demyelinating and nondemyelinating infection by mouse hepatitis virus. J Neurovirol. 2002;8:392-9 pubmed
    ..The presence of TUNEL staining in oligodendrocytes suggests that apoptosis may play an important role in MHV-induced demyelination...
  60. Bergmann C, Parra B, Hinton D, Chandran R, Morrison M, Stohlman S. Perforin-mediated effector function within the central nervous system requires IFN-gamma-mediated MHC up-regulation. J Immunol. 2003;170:3204-13 pubmed
    ..The data further imply that IFN-gamma plays a crucial role in pathogenesis by regulating the balance between virus replication in oligodendrocytes, CD8(+) T cell effector function, and demyelination...
  61. Turner B, Hemmila E, Beauchemin N, Holmes K. Receptor-dependent coronavirus infection of dendritic cells. J Virol. 2004;78:5486-90 pubmed
  62. Wurdinger T, Verheije M, Raaben M, Bosch B, de Haan C, van Beusechem V, et al. Targeting non-human coronaviruses to human cancer cells using a bispecific single-chain antibody. Gene Ther. 2005;12:1394-404 pubmed
    ..We found that the feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) and a felinized murine hepatitis virus (fMHV), both normally incapable of infecting human cells, could rapidly and effectively kill human cancer ..
  63. DeAlbuquerque N, Baig E, Xuezhong M, Shalev I, Phillips M, Habal M, et al. Murine hepatitis virus strain 1 as a model for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS). Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;581:373-8 pubmed
  64. Raaben M, Einerhand A, Taminiau L, van Houdt M, Bouma J, Raatgeep R, et al. Cyclooxygenase activity is important for efficient replication of mouse hepatitis virus at an early stage of infection. Virol J. 2007;4:55 pubmed
    ..Thus, COX activity appears to be required for efficient MHV replication, providing a potential target for anti-coronaviral therapy...
  65. Eifart P, Ludwig K, Bottcher C, de Haan C, Rottier P, Korte T, et al. Role of endocytosis and low pH in murine hepatitis virus strain A59 cell entry. J Virol. 2007;81:10758-68 pubmed
    ..The results imply that endocytosis plays a major role in MHV-A59 infection and the acidic pH of the endosomal compartment triggers a conformational change of the S protein mediating fusion...
  66. Deming D, Graham R, Denison M, Baric R. Processing of open reading frame 1a replicase proteins nsp7 to nsp10 in murine hepatitis virus strain A59 replication. J Virol. 2007;81:10280-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined the requirement for the nsp7 to nsp10 proteins and their processing during murine hepatitis virus (MHV) replication...
  67. Jacques A, Bleau C, Martin J, Lamontagne L. Intrahepatic endothelial and Kupffer cells involved in immunosuppressive cytokines and natural killer (NK)/NK T cell disorders in viral acute hepatitis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2008;152:298-310 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that viral permissivity of KC and LSEC is involved in the decrease of IL-10 and PGE2, while KC may play an additional role in the apoptosis of NK and NK T cells during acute viral hepatitis...
  68. Gao S, Wang M, Ye H, Guo J, Xi D, Wang Z, et al. Dual interference with novel genes mfgl2 and mTNFR1 ameliorates murine hepatitis virus type 3-induced fulminant hepatitis in BALB/cJ mice. Hum Gene Ther. 2010;21:969-77 pubmed publisher
    ..the efficacy of dual short hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference with fgl2 and TNFR1 in the treatment of murine hepatitis virus strain 3 (MHV-3)-induced fulminant hepatitis in mice...
  69. Matthews A, Lavi E, Weiss S, Paterson Y. Neither B cells nor T cells are required for CNS demyelination in mice persistently infected with MHV-A59. J Neurovirol. 2002;8:257-64 pubmed
    b>Murine hepatitis virus A59 infection of the central nervous system (CNS) results in CNS demyelination in susceptible strains of mice...
  70. Liu Y, Zhang X. Murine coronavirus-induced oligodendrocyte apoptosis is mediated through the activation of the Fas signaling pathway. Virology. 2007;360:364-75 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that oligodendrocyte apoptosis is triggered by MHV infection during cell entry through the activation of the Fas signaling pathway...
  71. Butler N, Dandekar A, Perlman S. Antiviral antibodies are necessary to prevent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte escape in mice infected with a coronavirus. J Virol. 2007;81:13291-8 pubmed
    ..These data directly demonstrate a critical role for antiviral antibody in protecting from the selective outgrowth of CTL escape variant viruses...
  72. Templeton S, Perlman S. Role of IFN-gamma responsiveness in CD8 T-cell-mediated viral clearance and demyelination in coronavirus-infected mice. J Neuroimmunol. 2008;194:18-26 pubmed
    ..Although IFN-gammaR1 responsiveness is critical for maximal demyelination, increased levels of infectious virus coupled with adoptive transfer of CD8 T cells may result in myelin destruction independent of IFN-gammaR1 expression...
  73. Butler N, Theodossis A, Webb A, Dunstone M, Nastovska R, Ramarathinam S, et al. Structural and biological basis of CTL escape in coronavirus-infected mice. J Immunol. 2008;180:3926-37 pubmed
  74. Shindler K, Chatterjee D, Biswas K, Goyal A, Dutt M, Nassrallah M, et al. Macrophage-mediated optic neuritis induced by retrograde axonal transport of spike gene recombinant mouse hepatitis virus. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2011;70:470-80 pubmed publisher
  75. Gosert R, Kanjanahaluethai A, Egger D, Bienz K, Baker S. RNA replication of mouse hepatitis virus takes place at double-membrane vesicles. J Virol. 2002;76:3697-708 pubmed
    ..Newly synthesized viral RNA was found to be associated with the DMVs. We conclude from these data that the DMVs carry the MHV RNA replication complex and are the site of MHV RNA synthesis...
  76. de Haan C, Masters P, Shen X, Weiss S, Rottier P. The group-specific murine coronavirus genes are not essential, but their deletion, by reverse genetics, is attenuating in the natural host. Virology. 2002;296:177-89 pubmed
    ..Therefore, deletion of the coronavirus group-specific genes seems to provide an attractive approach to generate attenuated live coronavirus vaccines...
  77. Das Sarma J, Scheen E, Seo S, Koval M, Weiss S. Enhanced green fluorescent protein expression may be used to monitor murine coronavirus spread in vitro and in the mouse central nervous system. J Neurovirol. 2002;8:381-91 pubmed
    ..Thus, EGFP-expressing viruses will be useful in the studies of murine coronavirus pathogenesis in mice...
  78. Zhou J, Stohlman S, Hinton D, Marten N. Neutrophils promote mononuclear cell infiltration during viral-induced encephalitis. J Immunol. 2003;170:3331-6 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that infiltrating neutrophils are crucial for limiting virus replication during acute JHMV infection, contribute to the loss of blood brain barrier integrity and play a role in shaping adaptive immunity within the CNS...
  79. Glass W, Hickey M, Hardison J, Liu M, Manning J, Lane T. Antibody targeting of the CC chemokine ligand 5 results in diminished leukocyte infiltration into the central nervous system and reduced neurologic disease in a viral model of multiple sclerosis. J Immunol. 2004;172:4018-25 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the severity of CNS disease can be reduced through the use of a neutralizing mAb directed against CCL5 in a viral model of demyelination...
  80. Graham R, Sims A, Brockway S, Baric R, Denison M. The nsp2 replicase proteins of murine hepatitis virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus are dispensable for viral replication. J Virol. 2005;79:13399-411 pubmed
    ..b>Murine hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) polyproteins incorporate 16 protein ..
  81. Stiles L, Hosking M, Edwards R, Strieter R, Lane T. Differential roles for CXCR3 in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell trafficking following viral infection of the CNS. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:613-22 pubmed
    ..Therefore, CXCR3 signaling has a non-redundant role in T cell subset trafficking in response to viral infection...
  82. Gonzalez J, Bergmann C, Ramakrishna C, Hinton D, Atkinson R, Hoskin J, et al. Inhibition of interferon-gamma signaling in oligodendroglia delays coronavirus clearance without altering demyelination. Am J Pathol. 2006;168:796-804 pubmed
    ..In addition, the absence of a correlation between increased oligodendroglial infection and the extent of demyelination suggests a complex pathobiology of myelin loss in which infection of oligodendroglia is required but not sufficient...
  83. Graham R, Denison M. Replication of murine hepatitis virus is regulated by papain-like proteinase 1 processing of nonstructural proteins 1, 2, and 3. J Virol. 2006;80:11610-20 pubmed
    ..In murine hepatitis virus (MHV), nsps 1, 2, and 3 are processed by two papain-like proteinase activities within nsp3 (PLP1 and PLP2) ..
  84. Scott E, Branigan P, Del Vecchio A, Weiss S. Chemokine expression during mouse-hepatitis-virus-induced encephalitis: contributions of the spike and background genes. J Neurovirol. 2008;14:5-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Chemokine mRNA patterns were in general agreement. Thus, chemokine patterns correspond with the cellular infiltrate, and the spike protein influences levels of macrophage, but not T-cell, chemokines...
  85. Ireland D, Stohlman S, Hinton D, Kapil P, Silverman R, Atkinson R, et al. RNase L mediated protection from virus induced demyelination. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000602 pubmed publisher
    ..Protective function is rather associated with cell type specific and regional restriction of viral replication in grey matter and ameliorated neurodegeneration and demyelination...
  86. Matthews A, Weiss S, Paterson Y. Murine hepatitis virus--a model for virus-induced CNS demyelination. J Neurovirol. 2002;8:76-85 pubmed
    Most murine hepatitis virus (MHV) strains, as their name suggests, infect the liver. However, several murine strains are tropic for the central nervous system (CNS) and cause encephalitis with subsequent CNS demyelination...
  87. Nanda S, Johnson R, Liu Q, Leibowitz J. Mitochondrial HSP70, HSP40, and HSP60 bind to the 3' untranslated region of the Murine hepatitis virus genome. Arch Virol. 2004;149:93-111 pubmed
    ..previously shown that mitochondrial-aconitase binds specifically to the 3' terminal 42 nucleotides of the Murine hepatitis virus (MHV) RNA along with three additional proteins of 70, 58 and 40 kDa to form a stable RNA-protein complex...
  88. Pewe L, Netland J, Heard S, Perlman S. Very diverse CD8 T cell clonotypic responses after virus infections. J Immunol. 2004;172:3151-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that T cell response diversity is greater by 1-2 orders of magnitude than predicted previously...
  89. Ye Y, Hauns K, Langland J, Jacobs B, Hogue B. Mouse hepatitis coronavirus A59 nucleocapsid protein is a type I interferon antagonist. J Virol. 2007;81:2554-63 pubmed
    ..However, it does not prevent PKR phosphorylation. The results indicate that the MHV N protein is a type I IFN antagonist that likely plays a role in circumventing the innate immune response...
  90. Roth Cross J, Martinez Sobrido L, Scott E, Garcia Sastre A, Weiss S. Inhibition of the alpha/beta interferon response by mouse hepatitis virus at multiple levels. J Virol. 2007;81:7189-99 pubmed
    ..These findings show that MHV employs unique strategies to circumvent the IFN-alpha/beta response at multiple steps...
  91. Eckerle L, Lu X, Sperry S, Choi L, Denison M. High fidelity of murine hepatitis virus replication is decreased in nsp14 exoribonuclease mutants. J Virol. 2007;81:12135-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that nsp14 ExoN remarkably increases replication fidelity of the CoV murine hepatitis virus (MHV)...
  92. Sparks J, Lu X, Denison M. Genetic analysis of Murine hepatitis virus nsp4 in virus replication. J Virol. 2007;81:12554-63 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the requirement of nsp4 for murine hepatitis virus (MHV) infection in culture, engineered deletions and mutations in TMs and intervening soluble regions were ..