human hepatitis a virus


Summary: A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.

Top Publications

  1. Morris Cunnington M, Edmunds W, Miller E. Immunity and exposure to hepatitis A virus in pre-adolescent children from a multi-ethnic inner city area. Commun Dis Public Health. 2004;7:134-7 pubmed
    ..Association with the place of birth of the child, but not that of the parent indicates that infection within this group occurs mainly abroad. Larger studies among ethnic minority groups are needed to investigate this claim further. ..
  2. Fujiwara K, Yokosuka O, Ehata T, Saisho H, Saotome N, Suzuki K, et al. Association between severity of type A hepatitis and nucleotide variations in the 5' non-translated region of hepatitis A virus RNA: strains from fulminant hepatitis have fewer nucleotide substitutions. Gut. 2002;51:82-8 pubmed
    ..Type A hepatitis is still a considerable problem in both underdeveloped and developed countries. Why some patients progress to fulminant type A hepatitis and others do not is unclear...
  3. Tjon G, Gotz H, Koek A, de Zwart O, Mertens P, Coutinho R, et al. An outbreak of hepatitis A among homeless drug users in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. J Med Virol. 2005;77:360-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it was shown by molecular techniques that the unique subtype 3a strain was not found before the Rotterdam outbreak or afterwards, indicating that the mass vaccination campaign was successful...
  4. Wells R, Fisher D, Fenaughty A, Cagle H, Jaffe A. Hepatitis A prevalence among injection drug users. Clin Lab Sci. 2006;19:12-7 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to develop a descriptive model of the association between injection drug use and hepatitis A (HAV) in a sample of injection drug users (IDUs)...
  5. Cuthbert J. Hepatitis A: old and new. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2001;14:38-58 pubmed
    ..More recently, active immunoprophylaxis by vaccination has been accomplished. Future eradication of this disease can now be contemplated...
  6. Sanchez G, Bosch A, Gomez Mariano G, Domingo E, Pinto R. Evidence for quasispecies distributions in the human hepatitis A virus genome. Virology. 2003;315:34-42 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that despite antigenic conservation, HAV replicates as a complex distribution of mutants, a feature of viral quasispecies...
  7. Costa Mattioli M, Di Napoli A, Ferre V, Billaudel S, Perez Bercoff R, Cristina J. Genetic variability of hepatitis A virus. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:3191-201 pubmed
    ..Its evolutionary mechanisms are described with particular emphasis on genetic recombination and HAV mutation rate. Genotypic classification methods are also discussed...
  8. Stene Johansen K, Jonassen T, Skaug K. Characterization and genetic variability of Hepatitis A virus genotype IIIA. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:2739-45 pubmed
    ..This high nucleotide variability, which may be characteristic of this HAV genotype, the mode of transmission in this outbreak or parallel introductions, is discussed...
  9. Park J, Lee J, Jeong S, Lee S, Lee M, Choi H. Molecular characterization of an acute hepatitis A outbreak among healthcare workers at a Korean hospital. J Hosp Infect. 2007;67:175-81 pubmed
    ..This HAV outbreak highlights the importance of standard infection control precautions within a hospital. Molecular study of patients' blood would be useful for clarifying the epidemiology of a suspicious HAV outbreak in a hospital...

More Information

Publications159 found, 100 shown here

  1. de Alencar Ximenes R, Martelli C, Merchan Hamann E, Montarroyos U, Braga M, de Lima M, et al. Multilevel analysis of hepatitis A infection in children and adolescents: a household survey in the Northeast and Central-west regions of Brazil. Int J Epidemiol. 2008;37:852-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences in age trends of infection were detected among settings. This multilevel model allowed for quantification of contextual predictors of hepatitis A infection in urban areas. ..
  2. Davoudi S, Soudbakhsh A, EmadiKouchak H, Nikbakht G, Modabbernia A. Meningoencephalitis associated with hepatitis A infection: a case report and review of literature. Trop Doct. 2010;40:176-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these manifestations meningoencephalitis is very rare. We describe the clinical and laboratory features of a young boy with hepatitis A associated meningoencephalitis and compare it with other cases which had the same diagnoses. ..
  3. Pichl L, Heitmann A, Herzog P, Oster J, Smets H, Schottstedt V. Magnetic bead technology in viral RNA and DNA extraction from plasma minipools. Transfusion. 2005;45:1106-10 pubmed
    ..Minipools as well as subpools can be directly processed. ..
  4. de Paula V, Niel C, Teves S, Villar L, Virgolino H, Gaspar A. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis A virus in Brazilian Amazon. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;21:1435-8 pubmed
    ..Subgenotype IB circulates in the Brazilian Amazon but the predominant genotype is 1A, similar to what occurs in most South American countries. ..
  5. Dagan R, Amir J, Livni G, Greenberg D, Abu Abed J, Guy L, et al. Concomitant administration of a virosome-adjuvanted hepatitis a vaccine with routine childhood vaccines at age twelve to fifteen months: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:787-93 pubmed
    ..Coadministration of pediatric Epaxal with routine childhood vaccines showed immunogenicity and safety equal to Epaxal alone as well as to Havrix Junior. After first dose, Epaxal was significantly more immunogenic than Havrix Junior. ..
  6. Barameechai K, Sa nguanmoo P, Suwannakarn K, Thongmee C, Payungporn S, Chongsrisawat V, et al. Molecular characterisation of the hepatitis A virus circulating in the 2001-2005 outbreaks in Thailand. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2008;102:247-57 pubmed publisher
  7. Dagan R, Greenberg D, Weber F. Immunogenicity of an inactivated hepatitis A pediatric vaccine: three-year post-booster follow-up. Vaccine. 2005;23:5144-8 pubmed
  8. Magdzik W. [Hepatitis A in Poland in 2003]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2005;59:289-95 pubmed
    ..25/100 000). The number and percentage of unimmunized persons, especially among children, adolescents and young adults increases very rapidly. In such situation vaccination against hepatitis A of persons from risk groups is necessary. ..
  9. de Paula V, Perse A, Amado L, de Morais L, de Lima S, Tourinho R, et al. Kinetics of hepatitis A virus replication in vivo and in vitro using negative-strand quantitative PCR. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28:1167-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This model is an approach for assessing the dynamic patterns of replication and should represent a valuable tool for the monitoring of HAV replications in cell cultures and for the evaluation of experimental infections in animal models...
  10. Zago Gomes M, Stantolin G, Perazzio S, Aikawa K, Gonçalves C, Pereira F. Prevalence of anti-hepatits A antibodies in children of different socioeconomic conditions in Vila Velha, ES. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2005;38:285-9 pubmed
    ..A consideration must be given to the feasibility of vaccination programs for children and adolescents in our country. ..
  11. Santos D, Villar L, Paula V, Lima G, Gaspar A. Hepatitis A virus subgenotypes dissemination during a community outbreak in a surrounding region of Rio de Janeiro. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2008;103:254-8 pubmed
    ..Prophylactic measures as vaccination strategies added to improvements in hygienic and sanitary conditions would be highly effective to reduction of infection. ..
  12. Umetsu D, DeKruyff R. 99th Dahlem conference on infection, inflammation and chronic inflammatory disorders: microbes, apoptosis and TIM-1 in the development of asthma. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010;160:125-9 pubmed publisher
  13. Victor J, Surdina T, Suleimenova S, Favorov M, Bell B, Monto A. Person-to-person transmission of hepatitis A virus in an urban area of intermediate endemicity: implications for vaccination strategies. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;163:204-10 pubmed
    ..If vaccine is determined to be highly effective postexposure and if it is feasible, vaccinating household contacts could be a useful additional control strategy. ..
  14. Lu J, Zhou Y, Lin X, Jiang Y, Tian R, Zhang Y, et al. General epidemiological parameters of viral hepatitis A, B, C, and E in six regions of China: a cross-sectional study in 2007. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8467 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provided much important information concerning hepatitis A, B, C, and E prevalence in China and will contribute to worldwide oversight of viral hepatitis. ..
  15. Carlsson U, Brudin L, Eliasson I, Hansson B. Hepatitis A vaccination by intracutaneous low dose administration: a less expensive alternative. Scand J Infect Dis. 1996;28:435-8 pubmed
    ..After the booster dose, which is given 6 months to 1 year later, the serological response is comparable to the standard procedure of two doses of the 1,440 EU vaccine given i.m. and with 100% seroconversion in all three programs. ..
  16. Valenzuela M, Jacobs R, Arteaga O, Navarrete M, Meyerhoff A, Innis B. Cost-effectiveness of universal childhood hepatitis A vaccination in Chile. Vaccine. 2005;23:4110-9 pubmed
    ..Further, approximately 70 fatal infections would be averted and >4600 quality-adjusted life years would be saved. This analysis supports the cost-effectiveness of universal childhood hepatitis A vaccination in Chile. ..
  17. Chau T, Lai S, Tse C, Ng T, Leung V, Lim W, et al. Epidemiology and clinical features of sporadic hepatitis E as compared with hepatitis A. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:292-6 pubmed
    ..Hepatitis E is a more severe disease entity as compared with hepatitis A and significant proportion of them are imported cases from an endemic area. ..
  18. Yeung L, Roberts E. Current issues in the management of paediatric viral hepatitis. Liver Int. 2010;30:5-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of children chronically infected with genotype 2 or 3 is highly successful: combination therapy of pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin is well tolerated and superior to pegylated interferon-alpha alone. ..
  19. Sencan I, Sahin I, Kaya D, Oksuz S, Yildirim M. Assessment of HAV and HEV seroprevalence in children living in post-earthquake camps from Düzce, Turkey. Eur J Epidemiol. 2004;19:461-5 pubmed
    ..Essential precautions such as providing clean water and food supply must be taken and an emergency action plan for preventing the infectious disease must be prepared before disasters such as earthquakes. ..
  20. Ceyhan M, Yildirim I, Kurt N, Uysal G, Dikici B, Ecevit C, et al. Differences in hepatitis A seroprevalence among geographical regions in Turkey: a need for regional vaccination recommendations. J Viral Hepat. 2008;15 Suppl 2:69-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the differences observed in HAV sero-positivity among various geographical regions in Turkey support a universal HAV immunization policy for children currently living in regions of intermediate endemicity. ..
  21. Shahidah K. Hepatitis A vaccines. Med J Malaysia. 2005;60 Suppl B:112-5 pubmed
    ..Vaccination efforts should be supplemented by health education and improved sanitation. Planning for large scale immunization programmes against hepatitis A should take into consideration epidemiological and cost benefit studies. ..
  22. Butot S, Putallaz T, Sanchez G. Procedure for rapid concentration and detection of enteric viruses from berries and vegetables. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:186-92 pubmed
    ..Based on our results, it is concluded that this procedure is suitable to detect and quantify enteric viruses within 6 h and can be applied for surveillance of enteric viruses in fresh and frozen products. ..
  23. Bader T. Hepatitis A vaccine. Am J Gastroenterol. 1996;91:217-22 pubmed
    ..Natural immunity levels in the United States population have undergone a significant decline since 1980 and are currently in the 21-33% range. Prescreening for immunity is likely to be cost-effective in persons over age 40. ..
  24. Garcia Aguirre L, Cristina J. Analysis of the full-length genome of hepatitis A virus isolated in South America: heterogeneity and evolutionary constraints. Arch Virol. 2008;153:1473-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of these studies revealed strong selection against amino acid replacements along the HAV polyprotein and may explain, at least in part, the presence of a single HAV serotype. ..
  25. Chen Y, Jiang R, Yu W, Li C. [Study on the effects of controlling hepatitis A epidemics by building the colony immune defence]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2003;24:366-9 pubmed
    ..The morbidity of hepatitis A decreased to the lowest level in the history. ..
  26. Anand A, Nagpal A, Seth A, Dhot P. Should one vaccinate patients with chronic liver disease for hepatitis A virus in India?. J Assoc Physicians India. 2004;52:785-7 pubmed
    ..HAV superinfection as a cause of acute exacerbation of chronic liver disease was not seen in this. ..
  27. Jäger G, Kuter B, Campe H, Lakkis H, Nitschko H, Watson M, et al. large-scale serologic testing program to assess the immunogenicity of inactivated hepatitis a vaccine (VAQTA) in prefilled syringes following product recall in Germany. Hum Vaccin. 2006;2:233-6 pubmed
    ..7% versus 99,7%; 50U: 98.6% versus 99.6%, respectively). There were less recipients of 25U doses of the affected lots, who had high hepatitis A antibody titers (> or =100 mIU/mL), compared to recipients of unaffected lots. ..
  28. Chambost H, Doncarli A, Bertrand M, Briquel M, Gay V, Pincemaille O, et al. Implementation of a hepatitis A prevention policy in haemophiliacs: results from the French cohort. Haemophilia. 2007;13:712-21 pubmed
    ..We suggest that among patients with bleeding disorder, as well as in other populations, HAV prevention policy might be stressed on those who already suffer from chronic liver disease and/or travel in endemic countries. ..
  29. van Steenbergen J, Petrignani M, Kroneman A, Koopmans M. [The molecular epidemiology of hepatitis A in The Netherlands; the usefulness of typing isolated viral strains]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2008;152:408 pubmed
  30. Pascoli F, Pezzuto A, Buratin A, Piovesana A, Fortin A, Arcangeli G, et al. Efficacy of domestic cooking inactivation of human hepatitis A virus in experimentally infected manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum). J Appl Microbiol. 2016;121:1163-71 pubmed publisher evaluate the efficacy of domestic cooking in inactivating Manila clams experimentally infected with human hepatitis A virus (HAV)...
  31. Waheed uz Zaman Tariq -, Hussain A, Hussain T, Anwar M, Ghani E, Asad ullah -. Hepatitis A virus infection -- shifting epidemiology. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2006;16:15-8 pubmed
    ..It was because of chances of consumption of polluted food. ..
  32. Gabrieli R, Sanchez G, Macaluso A, Cenko F, Bino S, Palombi L, et al. Hepatitis in Albanian children: molecular analysis of hepatitis A virus isolates. J Med Virol. 2004;72:533-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, two potential antigenic variants were detected. The first at position 46 of VP3 in seven isolates and the second at position 23 of VP1 in six isolates. ..
  33. Helmy A. Convert hepatitis C virus into a non-enveloped virus like hepatitis A, by targeting its envelope rather than the RNA. Med Hypotheses. 2006;66:847-50 pubmed
    ..Better understanding of the structure of HCV envelop, and of the mechanisms involved in its acquisition is essential for the development of agents that can interfere with "envelopization" of the newer copies of HCV RNA genome. ..
  34. Livni G, Plotkin S, Yuhas Y, Chodik G, Aloni H, Lerman Y, et al. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis A antibodies among children's hospital staff. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002;21:618-22 pubmed
    ..Most children's hospital employees, especially pediatricians and other young (<40 years) employees, are seronegative and therefore susceptible to HAV. Vaccination of the high risk groups should be considered. ..
  35. Reuter G, Juhasz A, Kosztolányi L, Lefler E. [Molecular detection and sequence analysis of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in two outbreaks in 2004 in North East Hungary]. Orv Hetil. 2005;146:2257-62 pubmed
    ..It is also suggested that genotype IA HAV play a part in sporadic HAV cases in endemic region in Hungary, too. ..
  36. Yu C, Wales S, Mammel M, Hida K, Kulka M. Optimizing a custom tiling microarray for low input detection and identification of unamplified virus targets. J Virol Methods. 2016;234:54-64 pubmed publisher
    ..was assessed for its sensitivity in the detection and identification of low-input virus targets, human hepatitis A virus, norovirus, and coxsackievirus, individually and in combination...
  37. Komissarov A, Demidyuk I, Safina D, Roschina M, Shubin A, Lunina N, et al. Cytotoxic effect of co-expression of human hepatitis A virus 3C protease and bifunctional suicide protein FCU1 genes in a bicistronic vector. Mol Biol Rep. 2017;44:323-332 pubmed publisher
    ..A combination of cytotoxic genes in multicistronic vectors can be used to develop pluripotent gene therapy agents. ..
  38. Perrella A, Vitiello L, Atripaldi L, Sbreglia C, Grattacaso S, Bellopede P, et al. Impaired function of CD4+/CD25+ T regulatory lymphocytes characterizes the self-limited hepatitis A virus infection. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;23:e105-10 pubmed
    ..CD4+/CD25+ T cells seem to be impaired in their function during the HAV acute infection. This evidence might help to determine an optimal T helper cell immune network that is a predisposing factor for a self-limiting disease. ..
  39. Barkai G, Belmaker I, Givon Lavi N, Dagan R. The effect of universal toddlers-only hepatitis A virus vaccination program on seropositivity rate in unvaccinated toddlers: evidence for reduced virus circulation in the community. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:391-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This method is of special value in communities where no appropriate surveillance is in place. ..
  40. Hu Y, Hu N, Liu G. Complete genomes of two Human hepatitis A virus isolates from China: analysis and comparison with other isolates. Acta Virol. 2002;46:153-7 pubmed
    Complete sequences of the genomes of two wild type (wt) Human hepatitis A virus (HHAV) isolates, LU38 and LY6 from China were determined and compared with those of wt HHAV isolates AH1, AH2, AH3, FH1, FH2, FH3, GBM, HM175, LA and MBB...
  41. Crowcroft N. Hepatitis A virus infections in injecting drug users. Commun Dis Public Health. 2003;6:82-4 pubmed
  42. Ilie A, Manole A, Stanescu C, Cojocaru L, Lăzăreanu A, Pascal C. [Retrospective clinical epidemiology research on a sample of 277 patients with viral hepatitis A, 20-70 aged, from the Suceava County, between 2001-2008]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2009;113:1222-6 pubmed
    ..7% of cases. The VHA characteristic medium clinical form was kept in 80.1% of total patients. ASAT and ALAT levels were correlated with the clinical forms, age structure and early diagnosis difficulties. ..
  43. Li J, Xin Z, Wang X, Zheng J, Chao F. Mechanisms of inactivation of hepatitis A virus in water by chlorine dioxide. Water Res. 2004;38:1514-9 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the inactivation mechanism of HAV by chlorine dioxide was due to the loss of the 5'NTR and/or destruction of the antigenicity, which is not similar to that of chlorine (Appl Environ Microbiol 68: 4951). ..
  44. Amer R, Pe er J, Pappo O, Dotan S. Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma associated with choroidal infiltration and syncytial giant cell hepatitis. J Neuroophthalmol. 2005;25:189-92 pubmed
    ..NXG and syncytial giant cell hepatitis may have a common autoimmune pathogenesis. ..
  45. Sagnelli E, Stroffolini T, Almasio P, Mele A, Coppola N, Ferrigno L, et al. Exposure to HAV infection in patients with chronic liver disease in Italy, a multicentre study. J Viral Hepat. 2006;13:67-71 pubmed
    ..6%, P < 0.0001). The high prevalence of patients in Italy with chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis who lack naturally acquired immunity to HAV warrants the implementation of vaccination programmes against hepatitis A in such patients. ..
  46. Baker C. Another success for hepatitis A vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1757-9 pubmed
  47. Bell B. Hepatitis A vaccine. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2002;13:165-73 pubmed
    ..Improved vaccination coverage and continued monitoring of incidence rates are needed to determine the overall long-term impact of this strategy. ..
  48. Beyazit Y, Guven G, Kekilli M, Koklu S, Yolcu O, Shorbagi A. Acute pericarditis and renal failure complicating acute hepatitis A infection. South Med J. 2006;99:82-4 pubmed
    ..He died as a result of septic shock on the fifth day of hospitalization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of both these rare and serious complications appearing in the same patient. ..
  49. Costas L, Vilella A, Trilla A, Serrano B, Vera I, Roldán M, et al. Vaccination strategies against hepatitis A in travelers older than 40 years: an economic evaluation. J Travel Med. 2009;16:344-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we recommend systematic screening for HAV antibodies before selective vaccination of international travelers aged >40 years traveling to hepatitis A endemic zones. ..
  50. John A, Chatni S, Narayanan V, Balakrishnan V, Nair P. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus in patients with chronic liver disease from Kerala: impact on vaccination policy. J Indian Med Assoc. 2009;107:859-61 pubmed
    ..33%) tested positive for IgG anti-HAV. Routine vaccination without testing for HAV antibodies is not recommended in chronic liver disease, as there is a high prevalence of pre-existing antibodies in these patients in our region. ..
  51. LaBrecque F, LaBrecque D, Klinzman D, Perlman S, Cederna J, Winokur P, et al. Recombinant hepatitis A virus antigen: improved production and utility in diagnostic immunoassays. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:2014-8 pubmed
    ..Since production of recombinant antigen is faster and less expensive than production of traditional HAV antigen, the development of diagnostic HAV antibody tests with recombinant HAV antigen appears warranted. ..
  52. Beran J, Chlibek R, Weber F. A combined dual-chamber typhoid/hepatitis A vaccine as a booster dose in hepatitis A primed adults. Vaccine. 2003;21:4650-4 pubmed
    ..Vivaxim offers a convenient means of administering both HA and typhoid fever vaccines in subjects already primed for hepatitis A. ..
  53. Tosun S, Ertan P, Kasirga E, Atman U. Changes in seroprevalence of hepatitis A in children and adolescents in Manisa, Turkey. Pediatr Int. 2004;46:669-72 pubmed
    ..According to these results, the authors concluded that there has been a shift of seropositivity from children to adolescents especially in families with an average or high socio-economical level. ..
  54. Ansaldi F, Bruzzone B, Rota M, Bella A, Ciofi Degli Atti M, Durando P, et al. Hepatitis A incidence and hospital-based seroprevalence in Italy: a nation-wide study. Eur J Epidemiol. 2008;23:45-53 pubmed
    ..In the period from 1998 to 2005, the incidence drastically decreased (average of 3.2/100,000 inhabitants), reaching a minimum of 2/100,000 inhabitants in 2005. ..
  55. Yoo S, Seo D, Choi W, Kwon O, Park J, Shin B. [Co-circulation of two genotypes of hepatitis A virus from sporadic cases in northeastern area of Seoul, Korea]. Korean J Lab Med. 2008;28:371-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-circulation of two distinct HAV genotypes (IA and IIIA) was observed from the northeastern Seoul for the year studied. ..
  56. Kovac K, Gutierrez Aguirre I, Banjac M, Peterka M, Poljsak Prijatelj M, Ravnikar M, et al. A novel method for concentrating hepatitis A virus and caliciviruses from bottled water. J Virol Methods. 2009;162:272-5 pubmed publisher
    ..When the CIM/ultracentrifugation method was compared with another concentration method employing positively charged membranes and ultrafiltration, the recovery of HAV was improved by approximately 20%. ..
  57. Fujiwara K, Yokosuka O, Imazeki F, Miki M, Suzuki K, Okita K, et al. Genetic analysis of hepatitis A virus protein 2C in sera from patients with fulminant and self-limited hepatitis A. Hepatogastroenterology. 2007;54:871-7 pubmed
    ..Fulminant hepatitis patients had fewer amino acid substitutions in 2C, indicating the association between severity of hepatitis A and amino acid variations in 2C of HAV. ..
  58. Duseja A, Sharma S, Das K, Dhiman R, Chawla Y. Is vaccination against hepatitis A virus required in patients with cirrhosis of the liver?. Trop Gastroenterol. 2004;25:162-3 pubmed
    ..Most of the patients with cirrhosis of the liver in the population studied were already exposed to HAV. Routine vaccination against HAV cannot be recommended in these patients. ..
  59. Roque Afonso A, Mackiewicz V, Dussaix E. Detection of immunoglobulin M antibody to hepatitis A virus in patients without acute hepatitis A: the usefulness of specific immunoglobulin G avidity. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:887-8 pubmed
  60. Fujiwara K, Yokosuka O, Imazeki F, Miki M, Suzuki K, Okita K, et al. Analysis of hepatitis A virus protein 2B in sera of hepatitis A of various severities. J Gastroenterol. 2007;42:560-6 pubmed
  61. Kaya A, Ozturk C, Yavuz T, Ozaydin C, Bahcebasi T. Changing patterns of hepatitis A and E sero-prevalences in children after the 1999 earthquakes in Duzce, Turkey. J Paediatr Child Health. 2008;44:205-7 pubmed
    ..01). Hepatitis A infection is still common, whereas hepatitis E infection appears to be relatively rare in paediatric age groups in Duzce, Turkey. ..
  62. Ngui S, Granerod J, Jewes L, Crowcroft N, Teo C. Outbreaks of hepatitis A in England and Wales associated with two co-circulating hepatitis A virus strains. J Med Virol. 2008;80:1181-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The association of the outbreaks to two geographically restricted strains implicates two principal transmission pathways associated with injecting behavior. Identifying these routes may be conducive to preventing further outbreaks. ..
  63. Zuckerman J, Kirkpatrick C, Huang M. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of Avaxim (160 AU) as compared with Havrix (1440 EL.U) as a booster following primary immunization with Havrix (1440 EL.U) against hepatitis A. J Travel Med. 1998;5:18-22 pubmed
    ..01). In all other respects, both preparations were safe and equally well tolerated. Either Avaxim or Havrix may be given as a booster dose of hepatitis A vaccine when Havrix has been administered as the primary dose. ..
  64. Chironna M, Grottola A, Lanave C, Villa E, Barbuti S, Quarto M. Genetic analysis of HAV strains recovered from patients with acute hepatitis from Southern Italy. J Med Virol. 2003;70:343-9 pubmed
    ..The latter finding suggests that this subgenotype variant circulates also in the Mediterranean area. The results of the phylogenetic analysis confirm the genetic heterogeneity among HAV strains in Western Europe. ..
  65. Jacobs R, Greenberg D, Koff R, Saab S, Meyerhoff A. Regional variation in the cost effectiveness of childhood hepatitis A immunization. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:904-14 pubmed
    ..A national immunization policy would prevent substantial morbidity and mortality, with cost effectiveness similar to that of other childhood immunizations. ..
  66. Schmidtke P, Habermehl P, Knuf M, Meyer C, Sanger R, Zepp F. Cell mediated and antibody immune response to inactivated hepatitis A vaccine. Vaccine. 2005;23:5127-32 pubmed
    ..The booster vaccination-induced immediate peak levels for the humoral (anti-HAV GMC=5376mIU/ml) as well as the cellular (median Deltacpm=14173cpm) response. ..
  67. Jacobs R, Meyerhoff A, Zink T. Hepatitis A immunization strategies: universal versus targeted approaches. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2005;44:705-9 pubmed
    ..Because adult vaccination is more costly per capita, targeted vaccination may provide modest financial savings with none of the benefits associated with reduced child-to-adult transmission. ..
  68. Belmaker I, Dukhan L, Yosef Y, Leventhal A, Dagan R. Elimination of hepatitis a infection outbreaks in day care and school settings in southern Israel after introduction of the national universal toddler hepatitis a immunization program. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:36-40 pubmed
    ..Universal hepatitis A immunization of toddlers was associated with disappearance of outbreaks in educational settings. This included cohorts of nonimmunized children representing marked herd immunity. ..
  69. Rendi Wagner P, Korinek M, Mikolasek A, Vecsei A, Kollaritsch H. Epidemiology of travel-associated and autochthonous hepatitis A in Austrian children, 1998 to 2005. J Travel Med. 2007;14:248-53 pubmed
    ..In an area of low hepatitis A endemicity such as Austria, hospitalization incidence of children is still at a considerable level. Our findings contribute to an open discussion about universal childhood vaccination. ..
  70. Salama I, Samy S, Shaaban F, Hassanin A, Abou Ismail L. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A among children of different socioeconomic status in Cairo. East Mediterr Health J. 2007;13:1256-64 pubmed
    ..Water supply and sewage disposal were the most significant risk factors for HAV seropositivity in children of low SES. Children of high SES were more likely to be vulnerable to infection in adolescence than those of low SES. ..
  71. Castillo de Febres O, Chacon de Petrola M, Casanova de Escalona L, Naveda O, Naveda M, Estopinan M, et al. Safety, immunogenicity and antibody persistence of an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in 4 to 15 year old children. Vaccine. 1999;18:656-64 pubmed
  72. Colak D, Ogunc D, Gunseren F, Velipasaoglu S, Aktekin M, Gultekin M. Seroprevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A and E viruses in pediatric age groups in Turkey. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2002;49:93-7 pubmed
    ..6% in children attending school. Our data showed that seroprevalence of anti-HAV is high among children samples but HEV infection appears to be relatively rare in pediatric age groups. ..
  73. Costa Mattioli M, Ferre V, Casane D, Perez Bercoff R, Coste Burel M, Imbert Marcille B, et al. Evidence of recombination in natural populations of hepatitis A virus. Virology. 2003;311:51-9 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that capsid-recombination can play a significant role in shaping the genetic diversity of HAV and, as such, can have important implications for its evolution, biology, and control. ..
  74. van Steenbergen J, Tjon G, van den Hoek A, Koek A, Coutinho R, Bruisten S. Two years' prospective collection of molecular and epidemiological data shows limited spread of hepatitis A virus outside risk groups in Amsterdam, 2000-2002. J Infect Dis. 2004;189:471-82 pubmed
    ..Prevention strategies need not include the vaccination of all children living in Amsterdam. ..
  75. Victor J, Monto A, Surdina T, Suleimenova S, Vaughan G, Nainan O, et al. Hepatitis A vaccine versus immune globulin for postexposure prophylaxis. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1685-94 pubmed
    ..Vaccine has other advantages, including long-term protection, and it may be a reasonable alternative to immune globulin for postexposure prophylaxis in many situations. ( number, NCT00139139 [].). ..
  76. Al Aziz A, Awad M. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus antibodies among a sample of Egyptian children. East Mediterr Health J. 2008;14:1028-35 pubmed
    ..We recommend vaccination against hepatitis A for high social class children at the preschool period without testing for HAV. Vaccination for middle social class children can be done, but only after testing for HAV. ..
  77. Lutsey P, Pankow J, Bertoni A, Szklo M, Folsom A. Serological evidence of infections and Type 2 diabetes: the MultiEthnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Diabet Med. 2009;26:149-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Following demographic adjustments, no associations were observed between infection by several pathogens and diabetes status, suggesting no aetiological role for them in the occurrence of diabetes. ..
  78. Lee K, Beyer Blodget J. Screening travelers for hepatitis A antibodies: an observational cost-comparison study of vaccine use. West J Med. 2000;173:325-9 pubmed
    ..Prevaccination screening of travelers for hepatitis A can be done selectively on the basis of age and country of origin. This strategy could lead to a more economic use of the vaccine and clinic resources. ..
  79. Villar L, Esteves da Costa M, de Paula V, Gaspar A. Hepatitis a outbreak in a public school in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2002;97:301-5 pubmed
    ..In this situation, a massive vaccination campaign could control the HAV infection. ..
  80. Ribao C, Torrado I, Vilarino M, Romalde J. Assessment of different commercial RNA-extraction and RT-PCR kits for detection of hepatitis A virus in mussel tissues. J Virol Methods. 2004;115:177-82 pubmed
  81. Budarina N, Belaia O, Chulanov V, Paĭmanov N, Pak S. [Characteristics of cellular immunity in children with acute viral hepatitis A]. Ter Arkh. 2003;75:31-5 pubmed
  82. Park J. [Changes in the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus antibody in Korea]. Korean J Hepatol. 2007;13:1-4 pubmed
  83. Jekarl D, Oh E, Park Y, Han K, Lee S, Park C. [Acute hemolysis and renal failure caused by hepatitis A infection with underlying glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency]. Korean J Lab Med. 2007;27:188-91 pubmed
    ..Because hepatitis A infection in patient with G6PD deficiency present much more severe clinical symptoms, G6PD enzyme should be examined in patients with triggering factors of hemolysis such as hepatitis A infection. ..
  84. Hornei B, Kammerer R, Moubayed P, Frings W, Gauss Muller V, Dotzauer A. Experimental hepatitis A virus infection in guinea pigs. J Med Virol. 2001;64:402-9 pubmed
    ..However, guinea pigs appear useful for studying some aspects of HAV pathogenesis and for testing the safety of vaccines. ..
  85. Costa Mattioli M, Monpoeho S, Nicand E, Aleman M, Billaudel S, Ferre V. Quantification and duration of viraemia during hepatitis A infection as determined by real-time RT-PCR. J Viral Hepat. 2002;9:101-6 pubmed
    ..38 x 10(5) copies/mL. In a longitudinal study, viraemia persisted for an average of 60 days after clinical onset. These results show that viraemia in HAV infection lasts for many weeks. ..
  86. Van Herck K, Van Damme P, Lievens M, Stoffel M. Hepatitis A vaccine: indirect evidence of immune memory 12 years after the primary course. J Med Virol. 2004;72:194-6 pubmed
    ..This study shows a substantial immune response to re-exposure to hepatitis A antigen after 12 years, which occurs rapidly to ensure protection within the average incubation period of hepatitis A virus. ..
  87. Vancelik S, Guraksin A, Alp H. Hepatitis A seroepidemiology in Eastern Turkey. East Afr Med J. 2006;83:86-90 pubmed
    ..The frequency of hepatitis A infection appearance in the region was found out to be high as compared to other regions of Turkey. ..
  88. Ochnio J, Scheifele D, Marion S, Bigham M, Patrick D, Ho M, et al. Participant-collected, mail-delivered oral fluid specimens can replace traditional serosurveys: a demonstration-of-feasibility survey of hepatitis A virus-specific antibodies in adults. Can J Public Health. 2007;98:37-40 pubmed
    ..This survey revealed a high anti-HAV antibody prevalence in young Canadian adults, increasing with age and travel to developing countries. ..
  89. Erwin P, Sheeler L, Lott J. A shot in the rear, not a shot in the dark: application of a mass clinic framework in a public health emergency. Public Health Rep. 2009;124:212-6 pubmed
    ..58 doses per person-hour targeted in CDC's smallpox post-event clinic plans. The mass clinic showed that CDC's smallpox post-event clinic guidelines were feasible, practical, and adaptable to other mass clinic situations. ..
  90. Kim S, Ryu I, Baek S, Chung K, Koh H. Concurrent reactivation of latent EBV with hepatitis A can affect clinical feature of childhood hepatitis. Acta Paediatr. 2010;99:1258-62 pubmed publisher
    ..EBV reactivation with HAV infection adversely affects the clinical feature of hepatitis. Therefore, we should keep in mind that the concurrence especially in older children may cause worse injury to the liver. ..
  91. Yierhali A, Cao J, Aili A, Wen Q, Yang S, Ku R, et al. [Genotyping of hepatitis A virus prevalent strains in Xinjiang Hetian of China in 2006]. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi. 2009;23:358-60 pubmed
  92. Ashur Y, Adler R, Rowe M, Shouval D. Comparison of immunogenicity of two hepatitis A vaccines--VAQTA and HAVRIX--in young adults. Vaccine. 1999;17:2290-6 pubmed
    ..These results also confirm the outstanding immunogenicity of a single dose of either of the HAV vaccines and support their use in pre- and possibly postexposure prophylaxis against hepatitis A virus infection. ..