gb virus c

Summary

Summary: A species of virus (unassigned to a genus) in the family FLAVIVIRIDAE. It is genetically heterogeneous, of human origin, and transmitted by blood or blood products. Despite its alternate name (Hepatitis G virus), its pathogenicity remains controversial.

Top Publications

  1. Smith S, Donio M, Singh M, Fallon J, Jitendranath L, Chkrebtii N, et al. Prevalence of GB virus type C in urban Americans infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Retrovirology. 2005;2:38 pubmed
    ..These data provide increased insight into the prevalence of GBV-C co-infection in the HIV epidemic in this understudied population...
  2. Berzsenyi M, Bowden D, Kelly H, Watson K, Mijch A, Hammond R, et al. Reduction in hepatitis C-related liver disease associated with GB virus C in human immunodeficiency virus coinfection. Gastroenterology. 2007;133:1821-30 pubmed
    It has been reported that GB virus C infection (GBV-C) leads to improved morbidity and mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
  3. Ross R, Viazov S, Clauberg R, Wolters B, Fengler I, Eveld K, et al. Lack of de novo hepatitis C virus infections and absence of nosocomial transmissions of GB virus C in a large cohort of German haemodialysis patients. J Viral Hepat. 2009;16:230-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The fact that in a subset of about 20% of these patients no nosocomial GB virus C (GBV-C) transmission occurred during the observational period suggests that the lack of HCV seroconversions was ..
  4. Barbosa A, Baggio Zappia G, Dobo C, Alves Sousa V, Lanzara G, Silva I, et al. Analysis of GB virus C infection among HIV-HCV coinfected patients. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2009;42:591-3 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GB virus C on laboratory markers and histological parameters among HIV-seropositive patients coinfected with HCV...
  5. Levi J, Contri D, Lima L, Takaoka D, Garrini R, Santos W, et al. High prevalence of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus RNA among Brazilian blood donors. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2003;45:75-8 pubmed
    ..DNA sequencing of nine randomly chosen isolates demonstrated the presence of genotypes 1, 2 and 3 among our population but clustering of these Brazilian isolates was not detected upon phylogenetic analysis...
  6. Oliveira L, Martins R, Carneiro M, Teles S, Silva S, Cardoso D, et al. Prevalence and genotypes of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus among blood donors in Central Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2002;97:953-7 pubmed
    A survey was conducted in a blood donor population of Central Brazil aiming to investigate the prevalence of GB virus C (GBV-C)/hepatitis G virus (HGV) infection and also to analyze the virus genotypes distribution...
  7. Liu H, Teng C, Fukuda Y, Nakano I, Hayashi K, Takamatsu J, et al. A novel subtype of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus genotype 1 detected uniquely in patients with hemophilia in Japan. J Med Virol. 2003;71:385-90 pubmed
    b>GB virus C (GBV-C) or hepatitis G virus (HGV) has been transmitted to Japanese patients with hemophilia through the frequent use of unheated blood products...
  8. Mohr E, Xiang J, McLinden J, Kaufman T, Chang Q, Montefiori D, et al. GB virus type C envelope protein E2 elicits antibodies that react with a cellular antigen on HIV-1 particles and neutralize diverse HIV-1 isolates. J Immunol. 2010;185:4496-505 pubmed publisher
    ..The data provide evidence that a heterologous viral protein can induce HIV-1-neutralizing Abs. ..
  9. George S, Xiang J, Stapleton J. Clinical isolates of GB virus type C vary in their ability to persist and replicate in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Virology. 2003;316:191-201 pubmed
    b>GB virus C/hepatitis G virus (GBV-C) replication in vitro is inefficient and inconsistent. In this study, clinical isolates of GBV-C were evaluated using peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) based culture methods...

More Information

Publications100

  1. Sheng W, Hung C, Wu R, Wang J, Chen P, Chang S, et al. Clinical impact of GB virus C viremia on patients with HIV type 1 infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:584-90 pubmed
    The influence of GB virus C (GBV-C) viremia on clinical outcomes of patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection remains controversial in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  2. Feng Y, Zhao W, Feng Y, Dai J, Li Z, Zhang X, et al. A novel genotype of GB virus C: its identification and predominance among injecting drug users in Yunnan, China. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21151 pubmed publisher
    b>GB virus C (GBV-C) is prevalent globally and particularly among individuals at risk of parental exposures...
  3. Zhang W, Chaloner K, Tillmann H, Williams C, Stapleton J. Effect of early and late GB virus C viraemia on survival of HIV-infected individuals: a meta-analysis. HIV Med. 2006;7:173-80 pubmed
    To conduct a meta-analysis to synthesize the evidence regarding the effect of co-infection with GB virus C (GBV-C) on survival of HIV-infected individuals, and to estimate the effect...
  4. Kaye S, Howard M, Alabi A, Hansmann A, Whittle H, Schim van der Loeff M. No observed effect of GB virus C coinfection on disease progression in a cohort of African woman infected with HIV-1 or HIV-2. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40:876-8 pubmed
    ..No association between GBV-C and HIV plasma virus loads or CD4 cell count was observed...
  5. Berzsenyi M, Bowden D, Roberts S, Revill P. GB virus C genotype 2 predominance in a hepatitis C virus/HIV infected population associated with reduced liver disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;24:1407-10 pubmed publisher
    b>GB virus C (GBV-C) infection in hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV co-infection is associated with a significant reduction in the severity of HCV-related liver disease. The role of GBV-C genotype in this association is unknown...
  6. Klusonova H, Pliskova L, Palicka V, Fixa P. [Prevalence of viral hepatitis G infection in hemodialysis patients and coinfection with viral hepatitis B and C]. Vnitr Lek. 2001;47:678-81 pubmed
    ..5%). Raised transaminase activity was found only in three patients with HGV RNA positivity (13.6%). From the presented results ensues that haemodialyzed patients are a high risk group for HGV infection...
  7. George S, Varmaz D, Tavis J, Chowdhury A. The GB virus C (GBV-C) NS3 serine protease inhibits HIV-1 replication in a CD4+ T lymphocyte cell line without decreasing HIV receptor expression. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30653 pubmed publisher
    Persistent infection with GBV-C (GB Virus C), a non-pathogenic virus related to hepatitis C virus (HCV), prolongs survival in HIV infection. Two GBV-C proteins, NS5A and E2, have been shown previously to inhibit HIV replication in vitro...
  8. George S, Varmaz D, Stapleton J. GB virus C replicates in primary T and B lymphocytes. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:451-4 pubmed
    b>GB virus C (GBV-C) infection is common in humans and may persist for decades, although most infected persons clear the virus and subsequently develop antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein...
  9. Stapleton J, Chaloner K, Zhang J, Klinzman D, Souza I, Xiang J, et al. GBV-C viremia is associated with reduced CD4 expansion in HIV-infected people receiving HAART and interleukin-2 therapy. AIDS. 2009;23:605-10 pubmed publisher
    ..b>GB virus C (GBV-C) is an apparently nonpathogenic flavivirus that replicates in CD4 T cells and inhibits HIV replication in ..
  10. Muerhoff A, Leary T, Sathar M, Dawson G, Desai S. African origin of GB virus C determined by phylogenetic analysis of a complete genotype 5 genome from South Africa. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:1729-35 pubmed
    b>GB virus C (GBV-C), a positive-strand RNA virus, currently infects approximately one-sixth of the world's population. This virus exists as a collection of genotypes whose global distribution correlates with geographical origin...
  11. Fabrizi F, De Vecchi A, Lunghi G, Finazzi S, Bisegna S, Ponticelli C. Epidemiology of GB virus c/hepatitis g virus infection in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int. 2002;22:405-10 pubmed
    ..The epidemiology of GBV-C/HGV infection in patients on peritoneal dialysis is scarce and mostly based on RT-PCR technology...
  12. Alves Sousa V, Komninakis S, Baggio Zappia G, Barbosa A, Mantovani N, Diaz R, et al. Short communication: Evaluation of GB virus C/hepatitis G viral load among HIV type 1-coinfected patients in São Paulo, Brazil. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012;28:1301-4 pubmed
    Recent studies suggest that GB virus C/hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV) infection in HIV-positive individuals is associated with a slower progression to AIDS, leading to a lower HIV viral load and higher counts of CD4(+) T cells, although ..
  13. Gomara M, Fernandez L, Perez T, Ercilla G, Haro I. Assessment of synthetic chimeric multiple antigenic peptides for diagnosis of GB virus C infection. Anal Biochem. 2010;396:51-8 pubmed publisher
    The use of synthetic peptides of both structural and nonstructural proteins of GB virus C (GBV-C) has been studied for the development of new systems to diagnose infection caused by this virus...
  14. Schwarze Zander C, Neibecker M, Othman S, Tural C, Clotet B, Blackard J, et al. GB virus C coinfection in advanced HIV type-1 disease is associated with low CCR5 and CXCR4 surface expression on CD4(+) T-cells. Antivir Ther. 2010;15:745-52 pubmed publisher
    Coinfection with the flavivirus GB virus C (GBV-C) is frequent in patients suffering from HIV type-1 (HIV-1) infection because of shared routes of transmission...
  15. van der Bij A, Kloosterboer N, Prins M, Boeser Nunnink B, Geskus R, Lange J, et al. GB virus C coinfection and HIV-1 disease progression: The Amsterdam Cohort Study. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:678-85 pubmed
    The effect that GB virus C (GBV-C) coinfection has on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease progression is controversial and therefore was studied in 326 homosexual men from the prospective Amsterdam Cohort Studies who had ..
  16. Abraham P. GB virus C/hepatitis G virus--its role in human disease redefined?. Indian J Med Res. 2007;125:717-9 pubmed
  17. Neibecker M, Schwarze Zander C, Rockstroh J, Spengler U, Blackard J. Evidence for extensive genotypic diversity and recombination of GB virus C (GBV-C) in Germany. J Med Virol. 2011;83:685-94 pubmed publisher
    Multiple genotypes of GB virus C (GBV-C)-a non-pathogenic flavivirus-have been identified to date, although they are not uniformly distributed worldwide...
  18. Hanci S, Cevahir N, Kaleli I, Hanci V. [Investigation of hepatitis G virus prevalence in hemodialysis patients and blood donors in Denizli, Turkey]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2008;42:617-25 pubmed
  19. Ramos Filho R, Carneiro M, Teles S, Dias M, Cardoso D, Lampe E, et al. GB virus C/hepatitis G virus infection in dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients in Central Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2004;99:639-43 pubmed
    In order to investigate the prevalence of GB virus C (GBV-C)/hepatitis G virus (HGV) infection in dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients in Central Brazil and also to analyze the virus genotypes distribution, a total of 123 ..
  20. Muerhoff A, Dawson G, Desai S. A previously unrecognized sixth genotype of GB virus C revealed by analysis of 5'-untranslated region sequences. J Med Virol. 2006;78:105-11 pubmed
    b>GB virus C (GBV-C) is a positive-strand RNA virus that infects a large proportion of the world's human population...
  21. McLinden J, Kaufman T, Xiang J, Chang Q, Klinzman D, Engel A, et al. Characterization of an immunodominant antigenic site on GB virus C glycoprotein E2 that is involved in cell binding. J Virol. 2006;80:12131-40 pubmed
  22. Xiang J, George S, Wunschmann S, Chang Q, Klinzman D, Stapleton J. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by GB virus C infection through increases in RANTES, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and SDF-1. Lancet. 2004;363:2040-6 pubmed
    Background People coinfected with HIV and GB virus C (GBV-C) have lower mortality than HIV-positive individuals without GBV-C infection. HIV uses either of the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 for entry into CD4-positive cells...
  23. Eslamifar A, Hamkar R, Ramezani A, Ahmadi F, Gachkar L, Jalilvand S, et al. Hepatitis G virus exposure in dialysis patients. Int Urol Nephrol. 2007;39:1257-63 pubmed
    ..The predominant route of its transmission is parenteral. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of HGV exposure in haemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients in Iran...
  24. Schleicher S, Flehmig B. Genotyping of GB virus C by restriction pattern analysis of the 5' untranslated region. J Med Virol. 2003;71:226-32 pubmed
    b>GB virus C (GBV-C) is a virus that has been proposed as a member of the Flaviviridae family, distantly related to hepatitis C virus (HCV)...
  25. Rodriguez B, Woolley I, Lederman M, Zdunek D, Hess G, Valdez H. Effect of GB virus C coinfection on response to antiretroviral treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. J Infect Dis. 2003;187:504-7 pubmed
    To study how GB virus C (GBV-C) coinfection affects the response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), 146 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients were tested for GBV-C RNA and antibodies against GBV-C E2 protein, ..
  26. Seifried C, Weber M, Bialleck H, Seifried E, Schrezenmeier H, Roth W. High prevalence of GBV-C/HGV among relatives of GBV-C/HGV-positive blood donors in blood recipients and in patients with aplastic anemia. Transfusion. 2004;44:268-74 pubmed
    The prevalence of GB virus C (GBV-C)/HGV is high in individuals with parenteral risk factors...
  27. Berzsenyi M, Bowden D, Roberts S. GB virus C: insights into co-infection. J Clin Virol. 2005;33:257-66 pubmed
    b>GB virus C (GBV-C) is a single stranded positive sense RNA virus, which is a member of the Flaviviridae. It has a close sequence homology and genomic organisation to hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, unlike HCV it is not hepatotrophic...
  28. Xiang J, McLinden J, Kaufman T, Mohr E, Bhattarai N, Chang Q, et al. Characterization of a peptide domain within the GB virus C envelope glycoprotein (E2) that inhibits HIV replication. Virology. 2012;430:53-62 pubmed publisher
    b>GB virus C (GBV-C) infection is associated with prolonged survival in HIV-infected cohorts, and GBV-C E2 protein inhibits HIV entry when added to CD4+ T cells...
  29. Bhattarai N, McLinden J, Xiang J, Kaufman T, Stapleton J. GB virus C envelope protein E2 inhibits TCR-induced IL-2 production and alters IL-2-signaling pathways. J Immunol. 2012;189:2211-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the effects of GBV-C on IL-2 and IL-2-signaling pathways may contribute to the reduction in chronic immune activation observed in GBV-C/HIV-coinfected individuals. ..
  30. Stapleton J, Williams C, Xiang J. GB virus type C: a beneficial infection?. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:3915-9 pubmed
  31. Jung S, Knauer O, Donhauser N, Eichenmüller M, Helm M, Fleckenstein B, et al. Inhibition of HIV strains by GB virus C in cell culture can be mediated by CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte derived soluble factors. AIDS. 2005;19:1267-72 pubmed
    A number of studies concerning the pathogenesis of GB virus C (GBV-C) in HIV-infected people suggest a beneficial effect and improved survival for dually infected individuals...
  32. Jung S, Eichenmüller M, Donhauser N, Neipel F, Engel A, Hess G, et al. HIV entry inhibition by the envelope 2 glycoprotein of GB virus C. AIDS. 2007;21:645-7 pubmed
    Epidemiological studies have revealed an association between GB virus C (GBV-C) long-term viraemia and ameliorated HIV disease progression...
  33. Barusruk S, Urwijitaroon Y. High prevalence of HGV coinfection with HBV or HCV among northeastern Thai blood donors. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2006;37:289-93 pubmed
    ..001). HGV co-infection is highly prevalent among northeastern Thai blood donors who are infected with HBV or HCV. The results also reveal that blood donors seronegative for HCV and HBV are a low risk group for HGV infection...
  34. Williams C, Klinzman D, Yamashita T, Xiang J, Polgreen P, Rinaldo C, et al. Persistent GB virus C infection and survival in HIV-infected men. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:981-90 pubmed
    b>GB virus C (GBV-C), which is not known to be pathogenic in humans, replicates in lymphocytes, inhibits the replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro, and has been associated with a decreased risk of death among HIV-..
  35. Larios C, Casas J, Mestres C, Haro I, Alsina M. Perturbations induced by synthetic peptides from hepatitis G virus structural proteins in lipid model membranes: a fluorescent approach. Luminescence. 2005;20:279-81 pubmed
    ..Besides, release of vesicular contents to the medium was monitored by the ANTS/DPX assay. The membrane destabilization properties of these peptides was found very related with the length of the sequence...
  36. Bhattarai N, Stapleton J. GB virus C: the good boy virus?. Trends Microbiol. 2012;20:124-30 pubmed publisher
    b>GB virus C (GBV-C) is a lymphotropic human virus discovered in 1995 that is related to hepatitis C virus (HCV)...
  37. Larios C, Casas J, Alsina M, Mestres C, Gomara M, Haro I. Characterization of a putative fusogenic sequence in the E2 hepatitis G virus protein. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2005;442:149-59 pubmed
    ..This fusogenic activity could be related to the induced peptide conformation upon interaction with the target membrane...
  38. Supapol W, Remis R, Raboud J, Millson M, Tappero J, Kaul R, et al. Reduced mother-to-child transmission of HIV associated with infant but not maternal GB virus C infection. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:1369-77 pubmed publisher
    Prolonged coinfection with GB virus C (GBV-C) has been associated with improved survival in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults...
  39. Kupfer B, Ruf T, Matz B, Nattermann J, Spengler U, Rockstroh J, et al. Comparison of GB virus C, HIV, and HCV infection markers in hemophiliacs exposed to non-inactivated or inactivated factor concentrates. J Clin Virol. 2005;34:42-7 pubmed
    ..Until the mandatory introduction of viral inactivation techniques of blood plasma products in the early 1980s many recipients of these products were infected with various viral pathogens...
  40. Polgreen P, Xiang J, Chang Q, Stapleton J. GB virus type C/hepatitis G virus: a non-pathogenic flavivirus associated with prolonged survival in HIV-infected individuals. Microbes Infect. 2003;5:1255-61 pubmed
    b>GB virus C (GBV-C) is a common virus that does not appear to cause disease. GBV-C persists in up to 50% of exposed individuals, and virus replication appears to be in lymphocytes including CD4+ T cells...
  41. Xiang J, Martinez Smith C, Gale M, Chang Q, LaBrecque D, Schmidt W, et al. GB virus type C NS5A sequence polymorphisms: association with interferon susceptibility and inhibition of PKR-mediated eIF2alpha phosphorylation. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2005;25:261-70 pubmed
  42. Xiang J, McLinden J, Chang Q, Jordan E, Stapleton J. Characterization of a peptide domain within the GB virus C NS5A phosphoprotein that inhibits HIV replication. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2580 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that GBV-C peptides or a peptide mimetic may offer a novel, cellular-based approach to antiretroviral therapy...
  43. Romano C, Zanotto P, Holmes E. Bayesian coalescent analysis reveals a high rate of molecular evolution in GB virus C. J Mol Evol. 2008;66:292-7 pubmed publisher
    b>GB virus C/hepatitis G (GBV-C) is an RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae...
  44. Björkman P, Flamholc L, Naucler A, Molnegren V, Wallmark E, Widell A. GB virus C during the natural course of HIV-1 infection: viremia at diagnosis does not predict mortality. AIDS. 2004;18:877-86 pubmed
  45. Maidana Giret M, Silva T, Sauer M, Tomiyama H, Levi J, Bassichetto K, et al. GB virus type C infection modulates T-cell activation independently of HIV-1 viral load. AIDS. 2009;23:2277-87 pubmed publisher
    ..As recent evidence has implicated cellular activation in HIV-1 pathogenesis, we investigated the effect of GBV-C viremia on T-cell activation in early HIV-1 infection...
  46. Nunnari G, Nigro L, Palermo F, Attanasio M, Berger A, Doerr H, et al. Slower progression of HIV-1 infection in persons with GB virus C co-infection correlates with an intact T-helper 1 cytokine profile. Ann Intern Med. 2003;139:26-30 pubmed
    Progression to AIDS is slower in persons infected with both HIV-1 and GB virus C (GBV-C), also known as hepatitis G virus.
  47. Tillmann H, Manns M. GB virus-C infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Antiviral Res. 2001;52:83-90 pubmed
    ..The recently discovered flavivirus GB virus C (alias Hepatitis G Virus) was initially believed to be another hepatitis virus...
  48. Watanabe M, Milanezi C, Silva W, de Lucena Angulo I, Santis G, Kashima S, et al. Molecular investigation of GB virus C RNA in hemodialysis and thalassemics patients from Brazil. Ren Fail. 2003;25:67-75 pubmed
    The GB virus C (GBV-C)/hepatitis G virus (HGV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family. Based on the clinical and epidemiological profiles, this virus could be acquired mainly by parenteral transmission through contaminated blood...
  49. Souza I, Zhang W, Diaz R, Chaloner K, Klinzman D, Stapleton J. Effect of GB virus C on response to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected Brazilians. HIV Med. 2006;7:25-31 pubmed
    b>GB virus C (GBV-C) infection is associated with delayed mortality in HIV-infected people in most, but not all, studies. Previous investigations of the effect of GBV-C viraemia on response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) were inconclusive...
  50. Mohr E, Stapleton J. GB virus type C interactions with HIV: the role of envelope glycoproteins. J Viral Hepat. 2009;16:757-68 pubmed publisher
    b>GB virus C/hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV) is the most closely related human virus to hepatitis C virus (HCV)...
  51. Nishiya A, Ribeiro Dos Santos G, Bassit L, Focaccia R, Chamone D, Sabino E. Genotype distribution of the GB virus C in citizens of São Paulo City, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2003;45:213-6 pubmed
  52. Stapleton J. GB virus type C/Hepatitis G virus. Semin Liver Dis. 2003;23:137-48 pubmed
    ..In vitro coinfection of human lymphocytes with GBV-C and HIV lead to decreased HIV replication. Further understanding of the mechanism(s) responsible for this interaction with HIV may provide novel approaches for treating HIV and AIDS...
  53. Sathar M, York D, Gouws E, Coutsoudis A, Coovadia H. GB virus type C coinfection in HIV-infected African mothers and their infants, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:405-9 pubmed
    ..The immunological indices measured tend to suggest an association with protection and or delayed progression of HIV disease in GBV-C-infected mothers...
  54. Loureiro C, Alonso R, Pacheco B, Uzcátegui M, Villegas L, León G, et al. High prevalence of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus genotype 3 among autochthonous Venezuelan populations. J Med Virol. 2002;68:357-62 pubmed
    b>GB virus C or hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV) is highly prevalent among population groups at risk of parenterally transmitted viral agents, but it has also a worldwide distribution in other non-risk population groups...
  55. Xiang J, Sathar M, McLinden J, Klinzman D, Chang Q, Stapleton J. South African GB virus C isolates: interactions between genotypes 1 and 5 isolates and HIV. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:2147-51 pubmed
    b>GB virus C (GBV-C) is a common, apparently nonpathogenic human flavivirus that has been associated in some studies with prolonged survival in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons...
  56. Shankar E, Solomon S, Vignesh R, Murugavel K, Sundaram M, Solomon S, et al. GB virus infection: a silent anti-HIV panacea within?. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102:1176-80 pubmed publisher
    ..With sufficient knowledge of resistance patterns studied in tropical south India, researchers are now keen to study the competitive interactions between GBV-induced chemokines and HIV ligands to bind CCR5...
  57. De Renzo A, Persico E, De Marino F, Di Giacomo Russo G, Notaro R, Di Grazia C, et al. High prevalence of hepatitis G virus infection in Hodgkin's disease and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders: absence of correlation with hepatitis C virus infection. Haematologica. 2002;87:714-8; discussion 718 pubmed
    ..Hepatitis G virus (HGV) shares genetic and biological features with HCV, thus it might also be involved in lymphomagenesis...
  58. Moenkemeyer M, Schmidt R, Wedemeyer H, Tillmann H, Heiken H. GBV-C coinfection is negatively correlated to Fas expression and Fas-mediated apoptosis in HIV-1 infected patients. J Med Virol. 2008;80:1933-40 pubmed publisher
    Persistent coinfection with the apathogenic GB virus C (GBV-C) is associated with slower disease progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection...
  59. Alcalde R, Nishiya A, Casseb J, Inocêncio L, Fonseca L, Duarte A. Prevalence and distribution of the GBV-C/HGV among HIV-1-infected patients under anti-retroviral therapy. Virus Res. 2010;151:148-52 pubmed publisher
    Infection with GB virus C (GBV-C) or hepatitis G virus (HGV) is highly prevalent among HIV/AIDS patients. GBV-C/HGV viremia has not been associated with liver disease and seems to slow HIV disease progression...
  60. Zhu W, Yin L, Li P, Huang J, Zhuang H. Pathogenicity of GB virus C on virus hepatitis and hemodialysis patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2003;9:1739-42 pubmed
    To determine the pathogenicity of GB virus C (GBV-C) on liver and the effects of its co-infection on the clinical features and prognosis of patients with hepatitis B and C.
  61. Krajden M, Yu A, Braybrook H, Lai A, Mak A, Chow R, et al. GBV-C/hepatitis G virus infection and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a case control study. Int J Cancer. 2010;126:2885-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the largest case-control study to date associating GBV-C viremia and NHL risk. As GBV-C is known to be transmitted through blood products this may have important implications for blood safety...
  62. Baggio Zappia G, Hernandes Granato C. HIV-GB virus C co-infection: an overview. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009;47:12-9 pubmed publisher
    b>GB virus C (GBV-C) and hepatitis G virus (HGV) are two isolates of the same virus, independently identified in humans in the 1990s by two research laboratories, and were initially considered a potential cause of liver disease...
  63. Epstein J, Quan P, Briese T, Street C, Jabado O, Conlan S, et al. Identification of GBV-D, a novel GB-like flavivirus from old world frugivorous bats (Pteropus giganteus) in Bangladesh. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000972 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this first GBV-like flavivirus reported in bats constitutes a distinct species within the Flaviviridae family and is ancestral to the GBV-A and -C virus clades...
  64. Quiros Roldan E, Maroto M, Torti C, Moretti F, Casari S, Pan A, et al. No evidence of benefical effect of GB virus type C infection on the course of HIV infection. AIDS. 2002;16:1430-1 pubmed
  65. Branco C, Esteves A, Piedade J, Parreira R. A new genotype 2 subcluster identified among GBV-C strains circulating in the Lisbon metropolitan area of Portugal. J Med Virol. 2010;82:452-9 pubmed publisher
    ..J. Med. Virol. 82:452-459, 2010. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc...
  66. Ramezani A, Gachkar L, Eslamifar A, Khoshbaten M, Jalilvand S, Adibi L, et al. Detection of hepatitis G virus envelope protein E2 antibody in blood donors. Int J Infect Dis. 2008;12:57-61 pubmed
    ..5% in Japan to 24.2% in Poland. Therefore there is a geographic difference in distribution of hepatitis G virus (HGV) in the world. We aimed to determine the frequency of HGV exposure in Iranian blood donors...
  67. Berzsenyi M, Woollard D, McLean C, Preiss S, Perreau V, Beard M, et al. Down-regulation of intra-hepatic T-cell signaling associated with GB virus C in a HCV/HIV co-infected group with reduced liver disease. J Hepatol. 2011;55:536-544 pubmed publisher
    Studies have shown that GB virus C (GBV-C) infection leads to reduced liver disease in hepatitis C virus (HCV)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection...
  68. Bhanich Supapol W, Remis R, Raboud J, Millson M, Tappero J, Kaul R, et al. Prevalence and correlates of GB virus C infection in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women in Bangkok, Thailand. J Med Virol. 2011;83:33-44 pubmed publisher
    b>GB virus C (GBV-C) is an apathogenic virus that has been shown to inhibit HIV replication. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of GBV-C infection and clearance in three cohorts of pregnant women in Thailand...
  69. Muerhoff A, Tillmann H, Manns M, Dawson G, Desai S. GB virus C genotype determination in GB virus-C/HIV co-infected individuals. J Med Virol. 2003;70:141-9 pubmed
    ..that patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exhibit a beneficial effect of co-infection with GB virus C (GBV-C)...
  70. Björkman P, Flamholc L, Molnegren V, Marshall A, Güner N, Widell A. Enhanced and resumed GB virus C replication in HIV-1-infected individuals receiving HAART. AIDS. 2007;21:1641-3 pubmed
    In patients co-infected with HIV-1 and GB virus C (GBV-C), the disappearance of GBV-C RNA has been associated with accelerated disease progression...
  71. Schwarze Zander C, Blackard J, Rockstroh J. Role of GB virus C in modulating HIV disease. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2012;10:563-72 pubmed publisher
    b>GB virus C (GBV-C) is a member of the Flaviviridae family and the most closely related human virus to HCV. However, GBV-C does not replicate in hepatocytes, but rather in lymphocytes...
  72. Baggio Zappia G, Barbosa A, Brunialti M, Salomao R, Granato C. Influence of GB virus C on IFN-? and IL-2 production and CD38 expression in T lymphocytes from chronically HIV-infected and HIV-HCV-co-infected patients. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2011;106:662-9 pubmed
    ..Although our results do not exclude a protective effect of GBV-C in early HIV disease, they demonstrate that this effect may not be present in chronically infected patients, who represent the majority of patients in outpatient clinics...
  73. Ruiz V, Giordano M, Rivero C, Minassian M, Cuestas M, Trinks J, et al. GB virus C quasispecies detected in plasma and lymphocyte subsets in a natural human infection. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:1687-92 pubmed publisher
    Genomic heterogeneity and quasispecies composition of GB virus C (GBV-C) within plasma and lymphocyte subsets in a naturally infected blood donor were investigated...
  74. Bhanich Supapol W, Remis R, Raboud J, Millson M, Tappero J, Kaul R, et al. Mother-to-child transmission of GB virus C in a cohort of women coinfected with GB virus C and HIV in Bangkok, Thailand. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:227-35 pubmed publisher
    b>GB virus C (GBV-C) is an apathogenic virus that inhibits human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication in vitro. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of GBV-C has been observed in multiple small studies...
  75. Berzsenyi M, Bowden D, Bailey M, White C, Coghlan P, Dudley F, et al. Male to male sex is associated with a high prevalence of exposure to GB virus C. J Clin Virol. 2005;33:243-6 pubmed
    Co-infection with GB virus C (GBV-C) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) appears to reduce mortality for HIV/AIDS. Epidemiological and demographic factors for GBV-C were examined prospectively in 167 subjects at risk for co-infection...
  76. Blankson J, Klinzman D, Astemborski J, Thomas D, Kirk G, Stapleton J. Low frequency of GB virus C viremia in a cohort of HIV-1-infected elite suppressors. AIDS. 2008;22:2398-400 pubmed publisher
    The persistence of GB virus C viremia in patients with chronic HIV-1 infection has been associated with increased survival. Elite suppressors are untreated HIV-1-infected patients who maintain viral loads of below 50 copies/ml...
  77. Ryt Hansen R, Katzenstein T, Gerstoft J, Eugen Olsen J. No influence of GB virus C on disease progression in a Danish cohort of HIV-infected men. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006;22:496-8 pubmed
    ..In some cohorts of HIVpositive patients, GB virus C (GBVC) has been associated with prolonged survival and time to AIDS...
  78. Vahidnia F, Petersen M, Stapleton J, Rutherford G, Busch M, Custer B. Acquisition of GB virus type C and lower mortality in patients with advanced HIV disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:1012-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Open questions are the presence and the direction of any causal relationship between GBV-C infection and HIV disease markers in the context of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  79. Hekmat S, Mohraz M, Vahabpour R, Jam S, Bahramali G, Banifazl M, et al. Frequency and genotype of GB virus C among Iranian patients infected with HIV. J Med Virol. 2008;80:1941-6 pubmed publisher
    b>GB virus C (GBV-C) infection is frequent in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to similar transmission routes of these viruses...
  80. Xiang J, McLinden J, Chang Q, Kaufman T, Stapleton J. An 85-aa segment of the GB virus type C NS5A phosphoprotein inhibits HIV-1 replication in CD4+ Jurkat T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:15570-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, GBV-C NS5A protein alters the cellular milieu necessary for HIV-1 replication and may provide a previously undescribed therapeutic approach for anti-HIV therapy...
  81. Giannoulis E, Economopoulos T, Mandraveli K, Giannoulis K, Nikolaides C, Zervou E, et al. The prevalence of hepatitis C and hepatitis G virus infection in patients with B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas in Greece: a Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group Study. Acta Haematol. 2004;112:189-93 pubmed
    ..The increased prevalence of HGV infection detected in patients with NHL could imply the potential participation of HGV in the pathogenesis of NHL...
  82. Birk M, Lindback S, Lidman C. No influence of GB virus C replication on the prognosis in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients. AIDS. 2002;16:2482-5 pubmed
  83. Rydze R, Xiang J, McLinden J, Stapleton J. GB virus type C infection polarizes T-cell cytokine gene expression toward a Th1 cytokine profile via NS5A protein expression. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:69-72 pubmed publisher
    ..GBV-C-induced modulation in T-cell cytokines may contribute to the beneficial effect of GBV-C in HIV-infected individuals...
  84. Hitzler W, Runkel S. Prevalence, persistence and liver enzyme levels of HGV RNA-positive blood donors determined by large-scale screening and transmission by blood components. Clin Lab. 2004;50:25-31 pubmed
    ..In blood donors no liver affection by means of ALT or AST elevation can be seen. Long persistence of HGV viremia is common and the presence of anti-E2 does not exclude viremia...
  85. Bhattarai N, Rydze R, Chivero E, Stapleton J. GB virus C viremia is associated with higher levels of double-negative T cells and lower T-cell activation in HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:1469-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Double-negative T cells (DNTCs; ie, CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) T cells) play a role in limiting chronic immune activation. GB virus C (GBV-C) infection is associated with reduced T-cell activation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected ..
  86. Anggorowati N, Yano Y, Subronto Y, Utsumi T, Heriyanto D, Mulya D, et al. GB virus C infection in Indonesian HIV-positive patients. Microbiol Immunol. 2013;57:298-308 pubmed publisher
    b>GB virus C (GBV-C), a human virus of the Flaviviridae family that is structurally and epidemiologically closest to hepatitis C virus (HCV), has been reported to confer beneficial outcomes in HIV-positive patients...
  87. Chang Q, McLinden J, Stapleton J, Sathar M, Xiang J. Expression of GB virus C NS5A protein from genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 5 and a 30 aa NS5A fragment inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in a CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell line. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:3341-6 pubmed
    ..Further deletion mapping demonstrated that expression of a 30 aa fragment resulted in decreased CXCR4 surface expression, upregulation of SDF-1 and inhibition of HIV replication...
  88. Li C, Collini P, Danso K, Owusu Ofori S, Dompreh A, Candotti D, et al. GB virus C and HIV-1 RNA load in single virus and co-infected West African individuals. AIDS. 2006;20:379-86 pubmed
    Investigations on the impact of GB virus C (GBV-C) co-infection on HIV disease progression relied essentially on clinical follow-up but not on virologic parameters.
  89. Jones J, Kulkarni P, Butera S, Reeves W. GB virus-C--a virus without a disease: we cannot give it chronic fatigue syndrome. BMC Infect Dis. 2005;5:78 pubmed
    ..The GBV-C genome is detectable in 4% of the population and 12% of the population is seropositive. The present study evaluated the association between infection with GBV and CFS...
  90. Herrera E, Gomara M, Mazzini S, Ragg E, Haro I. Synthetic peptides of hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV) in the selection of putative peptide inhibitors of the HIV-1 fusion peptide. J Phys Chem B. 2009;113:7383-91 pubmed publisher
    The GB virus C or hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV) is a single-stranded positive sense RNA virus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family...
  91. Reshetnyak V, Karlovich T, Ilchenko L. Hepatitis G virus. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:4725-34 pubmed
    ..The similarity in properties of GBV-C and hepatitis C virus (HCV) offers the possibility of using HGV, and its induced experimental infection, as a model to study hepatitis C and to develop a hepatitis C vaccine...