orf virus

Summary

Summary: The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.

Top Publications

  1. Guo J, Zhang Z, Edwards J, Ermel R, Taylor C, de la Concha Bermejillo A. Characterization of a North American orf virus isolated from a goat with persistent, proliferative dermatitis. Virus Res. 2003;93:169-79 pubmed
    The characterization of an orf virus (OV) isolated from skin lesions of a goat kid with severe, persistent, proliferative dermatitis, and designated orf virus-San Angelo 2000 (OV-SA00) strain, is described...
  2. Vijaysri S, Talasela L, Mercer A, McInnes C, Jacobs B, Langland J. The Orf virus E3L homologue is able to complement deletion of the vaccinia virus E3L gene in vitro but not in vivo. Virology. 2003;314:305-14 pubmed
    b>Orf virus (OV), the prototypic parapoxvirus, is resistant to the effects of interferon (IFN) and this function of OV has been mapped to the OV20.0L gene...
  3. Pieren M, Prota A, Ruch C, Kostrewa D, Wagner A, Biedermann K, et al. Crystal structure of the Orf virus NZ2 variant of vascular endothelial growth factor-E. Implications for receptor specificity. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:19578-87 pubmed
    ..In addition, changing arginine 46 to isoleucine in L1 significantly increased the affinity of VEGF-E for both VEGF receptors. ..
  4. Zhao K, Song D, He W, Lu H, Zhang B, Li C, et al. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of an Orf virus isolated from an outbreak in sheep in the Jilin province of China. Vet Microbiol. 2010;142:408-15 pubmed publisher
    ..degeneration, and eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, suggesting that the disease could have been caused by an Orf virus (ORFV) infection...
  5. Mazur C, Machado R. Detection of contagious pustular dermatitis virus of goats in a severe outbreak. Vet Rec. 1989;125:419-20 pubmed
  6. Chan K, Lin J, Lee S, Liao C, Tsai M, Hsu W, et al. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of orf virus from goats in Taiwan. Virus Genes. 2007;35:705-12 pubmed
    ..was diagnosed by physical and histopathologic examinations, and the etiology of the disease was identified as orf virus by electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence of major envelope protein (B2L) gene...
  7. Weber O, Mercer A, Friebe A, Knolle P, Volk H. Therapeutic immunomodulation using a virus--the potential of inactivated orf virus. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;32:451-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The orf virus (ORFV), a member of the Parapoxvirus genus of the poxvirus family, is known as a common pathogen in sheep and ..
  8. Dal Pozzo F, Andrei G, Lebeau I, Beadle J, Hostetler K, De Clercq E, et al. In vitro evaluation of the anti-orf virus activity of alkoxyalkyl esters of CDV, cCDV and (S)-HPMPA. Antiviral Res. 2007;75:52-7 pubmed
    ..adenine counterpart (S)-9-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine [(S)-HPMPA] are highly active against orf virus infections. This parapoxvirus commonly causes infection in sheep, goats, but also humans...
  9. Scagliarini A, Dal Pozzo F, Gallina L, Guercio A, De Clercq E, Snoeck R, et al. Ovine skin organotypic cultures applied to the ex vivo study of orf virus infection. Vet Res Commun. 2005;29 Suppl 2:245-7 pubmed

More Information

Publications89

  1. Gallina L, Scagliarini A, Ciulli S, Prosperi S. Cloning and expression of the Orf virus F1L gene: possible use as a subunit vaccine. Vet Res Commun. 2004;28 Suppl 1:291-3 pubmed
  2. Wise L, McCaughan C, Tan C, Mercer A, Fleming S. Orf virus interleukin-10 inhibits cytokine synthesis in activated human THP-1 monocytes, but only partially impairs their proliferation. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1677-82 pubmed publisher
    The sheep parapoxvirus orf virus (ORFV) induces acute, pustular skin lesions in humans...
  3. Rziha H, Bauer B, Adam K, Röttgen M, Cottone R, Henkel M, et al. Relatedness and heterogeneity at the near-terminal end of the genome of a parapoxvirus bovis 1 strain (B177) compared with parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus). J Gen Virol. 2003;84:1111-6 pubmed
    ..right end of the genome of parapoxvirus bovis 1, Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) strain B177 and Orf virus (ORFV). Comparison of the respective DNA sequences of ORFV strain D1701 (9.9 kbp) and BPSV B177 (7...
  4. Musser J, Taylor C, Guo J, Tizard I, Walker J. Development of a contagious ecthyma vaccine for goats. Am J Vet Res. 2008;69:1366-70 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify a strain of contagious ecthyma virus from goats that possesses the appropriate characteristics for an effective vaccine for goats...
  5. Haig D, Mercer A. Ovine diseases. Orf. Vet Res. 1998;29:311-26 pubmed
    b>Orf virus is an epitheliotropic DNA parapoxvirus with a worldwide distribution that induces acute pustular lesions in the skin of sheep, goats and man...
  6. Friebe A, Siegling A, Friederichs S, Volk H, Weber O. Immunomodulatory effects of inactivated parapoxvirus ovis (ORF virus) on human peripheral immune cells: induction of cytokine secretion in monocytes and Th1-like cells. J Virol. 2004;78:9400-11 pubmed
    Inactivated parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus; PPVO) recently displayed strong immunostimulating and modulating capacities in several animal models for acute and chronic virus infections through the induction of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) ..
  7. Ara M, Zaballos P, Sanchez M, Querol I, Zubiri M, Simal E, et al. Giant and recurrent orf virus infection in a renal transplant recipient treated with imiquimod. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58:S39-40 pubmed publisher
  8. Imlach W, McCaughan C, Mercer A, Haig D, Fleming S. Orf virus-encoded interleukin-10 stimulates the proliferation of murine mast cells and inhibits cytokine synthesis in murine peritoneal macrophages. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:1049-58 pubmed
    b>Orf virus (ORFV) is the type species of the parapoxvirus genus and produces cutaneous pustular lesions in sheep, goats and humans...
  9. Mahmoud M, Abdelrahman K, Soliman H. Molecular and virological studies on contagious pustular dermatitis isolates from Egyptian sheep and goats. Res Vet Sci. 2010;89:290-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Orf virus was clinically diagnosed from different field cases of sheep and goat in Hawamdia, Giza, Egypt during the summer 2006...
  10. Lederman E, Austin C, Trevino I, Reynolds M, Swanson H, Cherry B, et al. ORF virus infection in children: clinical characteristics, transmission, diagnostic methods, and future therapeutics. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:740-4 pubmed
    b>Orf virus leads to self-limited, subacute cutaneous infections in children who have occupational or recreational contact with infected small ruminants...
  11. Zhao H, Wilkins K, Damon I, Li Y. Specific qPCR assays for the detection of orf virus, pseudocowpox virus and bovine papular stomatitis virus. J Virol Methods. 2013;194:229-34 pubmed publisher
    The genus Parapoxvirus (PAPV) is comprised traditionally of orf virus (ORFV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) and bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV), which cause infections of ruminants and their handlers in the U.S. and worldwide...
  12. de Oliveira C, Assis F, Neto J, Oliveira C, Lopes C, Bomjardim H, et al. Multifocal cutaneous ORF virus infection in goats in the Amazon region, Brazil. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:336-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Orf virus is the etiological agent of contagious ecthyma, a severe exanthematic disease that affects small ruminants. Orf virus is zoonosis that is associated with occupational contact with infected animals in human disease...
  13. Lojkic I, Cac Z, Beck A, Bedekovic T, Cvetnic Z, Sostaric B. Phylogenetic analysis of Croatian orf viruses isolated from sheep and goats. Virol J. 2010;7:314 pubmed publisher
    The Orf virus (ORFV) is the prototype of the parapoxvirus genus and it primarily causes contagious ecthyma in goats, sheep, and other ruminants worldwide...
  14. Mo M, Fleming S, Mercer A. Orf virus cell cycle regulator, PACR, competes with subunit 11 of the anaphase promoting complex for incorporation into the complex. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:3010-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the presence of PACR interfered with interactions between both APC11 and APC2. Based on these observations we propose that PACR competes with APC11 for the incorporation into APC/C. ..
  15. Guo J, Rasmussen J, Wunschmann A, de la Concha Bermejillo A. Genetic characterization of orf viruses isolated from various ruminant species of a zoo. Vet Microbiol. 2004;99:81-92 pubmed
    ..of proliferative dermatitis was due to infection by a single parapoxvirus, which is genetically closely related to other orf virus (ORFV) strains but distant to bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and pseudocowpox virus (PCPV).
  16. Friebe A, Friederichs S, Scholz K, Janssen U, Scholz C, Schlapp T, et al. Characterization of immunostimulatory components of orf virus (parapoxvirus ovis). J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1571-84 pubmed publisher
    Inactivated orf virus (ORFV, parapoxvirus ovis) induces antiviral activity in animal models of acute and chronic viral infections and exerts strong effects on human immune cells...
  17. Delhon G, Tulman E, Afonso C, Lu Z, de la Concha Bermejillo A, Lehmkuhl H, et al. Genomes of the parapoxviruses ORF virus and bovine papular stomatitis virus. J Virol. 2004;78:168-77 pubmed
    Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and orf virus (ORFV), members of the genus Parapoxvirus of the Poxviridae, are etiologic agents of worldwide diseases affecting cattle and small ruminants, respectively...
  18. Uzel M, Sasmaz S, Bakaris S, Cetinus E, Bilgic E, Karaoguz A, et al. A viral infection of the hand commonly seen after the feast of sacrifice: human orf (orf of the hand). Epidemiol Infect. 2005;133:653-7 pubmed
    ..We observed musculoskeletal complications and misdiagnoses. It is important to consider human orf in the differential diagnosis of hand lesions to prevent overtreatment and complications...
  19. Fleming S, McCaughan C, Andrews A, Nash A, Mercer A. A homolog of interleukin-10 is encoded by the poxvirus orf virus. J Virol. 1997;71:4857-61 pubmed
    A gene encoding a polypeptide with homology to interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been discovered in the genome of orf virus (OV) strain NZ2, a parapoxvirus that infects sheep, goats, and humans...
  20. Abrahao J, Campos R, Trindade G, Guedes M, Lobato Z, Mazur C, et al. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of Orf virus from sheep in Brazil: a case report. Virol J. 2009;6:47 pubmed publisher
    b>Orf virus (ORFV), the prototype of the genus Parapoxvirus (PPV), is the etiological agent of contagious ecthyma, a severe exanthematic dermatitis that afflicts domestic and wild small ruminants...
  21. Westphal D, Ledgerwood E, Hibma M, Fleming S, Whelan E, Mercer A. A novel Bcl-2-like inhibitor of apoptosis is encoded by the parapoxvirus ORF virus. J Virol. 2007;81:7178-88 pubmed
    Apoptotic cell death forms part of the host defense against virus infection. We tested orf virus, a member of the poxvirus family, for the ability to inhibit apoptosis and found that orf virus-infected cells were fully resistant to UV-..
  22. Chan A, Baird M, Mercer A, Fleming S. Maturation and function of human dendritic cells are inhibited by orf virus-encoded interleukin-10. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:3177-81 pubmed
    b>Orf virus (ORFV) is a parapoxvirus that infects sheep, goats and man. In humans, the virus induces acute, pustular skin lesions that can develop into a progressive disease...
  23. Henkel M, Planz O, Fischer T, Stitz L, Rziha H. Prevention of virus persistence and protection against immunopathology after Borna disease virus infection of the brain by a novel Orf virus recombinant. J Virol. 2005;79:314-25 pubmed
    The Parapoxvirus Orf virus represents a promising candidate for novel vector vaccines due to its immune modulating properties even in nonpermissive hosts such as mouse or rat...
  24. Lateef Z, Fleming S, Halliday G, Faulkner L, Mercer A, Baird M. Orf virus-encoded interleukin-10 inhibits maturation, antigen presentation and migration of murine dendritic cells. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:1101-9 pubmed
    b>Orf virus (ORFV) belongs to the genus Parapoxvirus and induces cutaneous pustular lesions in sheep, goats and humans...
  25. Cargnelutti J, Masuda E, Martins M, Diel D, Rock D, Weiblen R, et al. Virological and clinico-pathological features of orf virus infection in experimentally infected rabbits and mice. Microb Pathog. 2011;50:56-62 pubmed publisher
    Many aspects of the biology of orf virus (ORFV) infection remain poorly understood and attempts to establish animal models have yielded conflicting and non-reproducible results...
  26. Kruse N, Weber O. Selective induction of apoptosis in antigen-presenting cells in mice by Parapoxvirus ovis. J Virol. 2001;75:4699-704 pubmed
    ..Here we report a mechanism by which Parapoxvirus ovis (PPVO) interferes with antigen presentation. PPVO (orf virus) causes orf, an acute skin disease of sheep and goats worldwide...
  27. Spehner D, De Carlo S, Drillien R, Weiland F, Mildner K, Hanau D, et al. Appearance of the bona fide spiral tubule of ORF virus is dependent on an intact 10-kilodalton viral protein. J Virol. 2004;78:8085-93 pubmed
    ..However, this technique may introduce artifacts. We have examined Orf virus (ORFV; the prototype species of the Parapoxvirus genus) by cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) and cryo-negative ..
  28. Billinis C, Mavrogianni V, Spyrou V, Fthenakis G. Phylogenetic analysis of strains of Orf virus isolated from two outbreaks of the disease in sheep in Greece. Virol J. 2012;9:24 pubmed publisher
    Although orf is endemic around the world, there are few descriptions of Orf virus strains and comparisons of these strains...
  29. Mondal B, Bera A, Hosamani M, Tembhurne P, Bandyopadhyay S. Detection of Orf virus from an outbreak in goats and its genetic relation with other parapoxviruses. Vet Res Commun. 2006;30:531-9 pubmed
  30. Bora D, Barman N, Das S, Bhanuprakash V, Yogisharadhya R, Venkatesan G, et al. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of orf viruses isolated from outbreaks in goats of Assam, a northeastern state of India. Virus Genes. 2012;45:98-104 pubmed publisher
    Two outbreaks of orf virus (ORFV) (a parapoxvirus) infection in goats, which occurred in Golaghat and Kamrup districts of Assam, a northeastern part of India, were investigated...
  31. Mercer A, Ueda N, Friederichs S, Hofmann K, Fraser K, Bateman T, et al. Comparative analysis of genome sequences of three isolates of Orf virus reveals unexpected sequence variation. Virus Res. 2006;116:146-58 pubmed
    b>Orf virus (ORFV) is the type species of the Parapoxvirus genus. Here, we present the genomic sequence of the most well studied ORFV isolate, strain NZ2...
  32. Diel D, Luo S, Delhon G, Peng Y, Flores E, Rock D. A nuclear inhibitor of NF-kappaB encoded by a poxvirus. J Virol. 2011;85:264-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, the novel orf virus (ORFV)-encoded protein ORFV002 was shown to inhibit nuclear events regulating NF-?B transcriptional activity...
  33. Vikøren T, Lillehaug A, Akerstedt J, Bretten T, Haugum M, Tryland M. A severe outbreak of contagious ecthyma (orf) in a free-ranging musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) population in Norway. Vet Microbiol. 2008;127:10-20 pubmed
    ..The outbreak was caused by a virus similar to other circulating orf virus variants in Norway...
  34. Sullivan J, Mercer A, Fleming S, Robinson A. Identification and characterization of an orf virus homologue of the vaccinia virus gene encoding the major envelope antigen p37K. Virology. 1994;202:968-73 pubmed
    DNA sequence analysis of a 1.55-kb region located 10 kb from the left end of the orf virus NZ-2 strain (OV NZ2) genome revealed an open reading frame, B2L, encoding a protein with a predicted molecular weight of 41.67 kDa...
  35. Li H, Ning Z, Hao W, Zhang S, Liao X, Li M, et al. Identification and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the ORFV059 protein encoded by Orf virus. Virus Genes. 2012;44:429-40 pubmed publisher
    Recent outbreaks of orf in China have been attributed to a novel strain of Orf virus (ORFV) designated ORFV-Jilin...
  36. Chan K, Hsu W, Wang C, Yang C, Lin F, Chulakasian S, et al. Differential diagnosis of orf viruses by a single-step PCR. J Virol Methods. 2009;160:85-9 pubmed publisher
    ..sequence of the A32L gene (named after vaccinia virus, corresponding with open reading frame 108 of the orf virus and encoding an ATPase) of the orf virus was studied using samples of orf virus from infected goats, which were ..
  37. Hosamani M, Scagliarini A, Bhanuprakash V, McInnes C, Singh R. Orf: an update on current research and future perspectives. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2009;7:879-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The causative agent, orf virus, has been extensively investigated over recent years, owing to its zoonotic importance and ability to cross-..
  38. Ning Z, Zheng Z, Hao W, Duan C, Li W, Wang Y, et al. The N terminus of orf virus-encoded protein 002 inhibits acetylation of NF-?B p65 by preventing Ser(276) phosphorylation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58854 pubmed publisher
    b>Orf virus-encoded protein 002 (ORFV002) inhibits NF-?B signaling pathway by decreasing the acetylation of NF-?B-p65 through interference of NF-?B p65's association with NF-?B p300...
  39. Mercer A, Wise L, Scagliarini A, McInnes C, Buttner M, Rziha H, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factors encoded by Orf virus show surprising sequence variation but have a conserved, functionally relevant structure. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:2845-55 pubmed
    The first report of a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-like gene in Orf virus included the surprising observation that the genes from two isolates (NZ2 and NZ7) shared only 41.1% amino acid sequence identity...
  40. McInnes C, Wood A, Mercer A. Orf virus encodes a homolog of the vaccinia virus interferon-resistance gene E3L. Virus Genes. 1998;17:107-15 pubmed
    A homolog of the vaccinia virus (VAC) interferon resistance gene E3L has been discovered in orf virus strain NZ-2, a parapoxvirus that infects sheep, goats and humans...
  41. Scagliarini A, Gallina L, Dal Pozzo F, Battilani M, Ciulli S, Prosperi S. Heparin binding activity of orf virus F1L protein. Virus Res. 2004;105:107-12 pubmed
    The orf virus is the type species of the Parapoxvirus genus and is the causative agent of contagious echtyma, a debilitating skin disease of sheep and goats, which can also affect man...
  42. Amann R, Rohde J, Wulle U, Conlee D, Raue R, Martinon O, et al. A new rabies vaccine based on a recombinant ORF virus (parapoxvirus) expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein. J Virol. 2013;87:1618-30 pubmed publisher
    The present study describes the generation of a new Orf virus (ORFV) recombinant, D1701-V-RabG, expressing the rabies virus (RABV) glycoprotein that is correctly presented on the surface of infected cells without the need of replication ..
  43. Ning Z, Peng Y, Hao W, Duan C, Rock D, Luo S. Generation of recombinant Orf virus using an enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene as a selectable marker. BMC Vet Res. 2011;7:80 pubmed publisher
    ..Routine selection of the recombinant parapoxvirus is time-consuming and labor intensive. Therefore, developing a novel method for selection is critical...
  44. Sonvico F, Colombo G, Gallina L, Bortolotti F, Rossi A, McInnes C, et al. Therapeutic paint of cidofovir/sucralfate gel combination topically administered by spraying for treatment of orf virus infections. AAPS J. 2009;11:242-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The therapeutic paint was tested in vivo on lambs infected with orf virus by treating the animals with different cidofovir/sucralfate formulations (0...
  45. van Rooij E, Rijsewijk F, Moonen Leusen H, Bianchi A, Rziha H. Comparison of different prime-boost regimes with DNA and recombinant Orf virus based vaccines expressing glycoprotein D of pseudorabies virus in pigs. Vaccine. 2010;28:1808-13 pubmed publisher
    Both DNA and Orf virus (ORFV; Parapox virus) based vaccines have shown promise as alternatives for conventional vaccines in pigs against pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection causing Aujeszky's disease...
  46. Zheng M, Liu Q, Jin N, Guo J, Huang X, Li H, et al. A duplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of Capripoxvirus and Orf virus. Mol Cell Probes. 2007;21:276-81 pubmed
    ..detection and differentiation of Capripoxvirus (CPV) (including goat pox virus and sheep pox virus) and orf virus (ORFV). Two sets of specific oligonucleotide primers were designed and used for CPV and ORFV, respectively...
  47. McElroy M, Bassett H. The development of oral lesions in lambs naturally infected with orf virus. Vet J. 2007;174:663-4 pubmed
    Stomatitis in sheep caused by orf virus can be confused with lesions of more economically significant diseases, including foot-and-mouth disease, but there is no published account of the sequential development of oral orf lesions in the ..
  48. Haig D, McInnes C. Immunity and counter-immunity during infection with the parapoxvirus orf virus. Virus Res. 2002;88:3-16 pubmed
    b>Orf virus is a DNA parapoxvirus that causes orf, an acute debilitating skin disease of sheep, goats and humans...
  49. Hosamani M, Bhanuprakash V, Scagliarini A, Singh R. Comparative sequence analysis of major envelope protein gene (B2L) of Indian orf viruses isolated from sheep and goats. Vet Microbiol. 2006;116:317-24 pubmed
    b>Orf virus (ORFV), the type species of Parapoxvirus, is responsible for contagious ecthyma in sheep and goats...
  50. Gallina L, Dal Pozzo F, Mc Innes C, Cardeti G, Guercio A, Battilani M, et al. A real time PCR assay for the detection and quantification of orf virus. J Virol Methods. 2006;134:140-5 pubmed
    A real time quantitative PCR assay based on TaqMan technology was developed for orf virus (ORFV) DNA quantification in clinical samples, infected cells and organotypic cultures...
  51. Rziha H, Henkel M, Cottone R, Meyer M, Dehio C, Buttner M. Parapoxviruses: potential alternative vectors for directing the immune response in permissive and non-permissive hosts. J Biotechnol. 1999;73:235-42 pubmed
    Parapoxvirus (PPV) represents a genus of the poxviridae, and particularly PPV ovis (Orf virus, OV) seems to offer several potential advantages for the use of vector vaccine...
  52. Weber O, Siegling A, Friebe A, Limmer A, Schlapp T, Knolle P, et al. Inactivated parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus) has antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus and herpes simplex virus. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:1843-52 pubmed
    ..This study shows that inactivated parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus), strain D1701 (PPVO), induces an autoregulatory cytokine response that involves the upregulation of IL-12, IL-..
  53. Diel D, Delhon G, Luo S, Flores E, Rock D. A novel inhibitor of the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway encoded by the parapoxvirus orf virus. J Virol. 2010;84:3962-73 pubmed publisher
    The parapoxvirus orf virus (ORFV) is a pathogen of sheep and goats that has been used as a preventive and therapeutic immunomodulatory agent in several animal species...
  54. Tan J, Ueda N, Mercer A, Fleming S. Investigation of orf virus structure and morphogenesis using recombinants expressing FLAG-tagged envelope structural proteins: evidence for wrapped virus particles and egress from infected cells. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:614-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Orf virus (ORFV) is the type species of the genus Parapoxvirus, but little is known about the structure or morphogenesis of the virus. In contrast, the structure and morphogenesis of vaccinia virus (VACV) has been extensively studied...
  55. Cebe Suarez S, Grünewald F, Jaussi R, Li X, Claesson Welsh L, Spillmann D, et al. Orf virus VEGF-E NZ2 promotes paracellular NRP-1/VEGFR-2 coreceptor assembly via the peptide RPPR. FASEB J. 2008;22:3078-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, a series of mammalian VEGF-A splice variants and orf virus VEGF-Es, as well as chimeric and mutant VEGF variants, were characterized to determine the motifs required for ..
  56. Cottone R, Buttner M, Bauer B, Henkel M, Hettich E, Rziha H. Analysis of genomic rearrangement and subsequent gene deletion of the attenuated Orf virus strain D1701. Virus Res. 1998;56:53-67 pubmed
    The orf virus (OV) strain D1701 belongs to the genetically heterogenous parapoxvirus (PPV) genus of the family Poxviridae. The attenuated OV D1701 has been licensed as a live vaccine against contagious ecthyma in sheep...
  57. Fleming S, Anderson I, Thomson J, Deane D, McInnes C, McCaughan C, et al. Infection with recombinant orf viruses demonstrates that the viral interleukin-10 is a virulence factor. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1922-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Orf virus is the prototype parapoxvirus that causes the contagious skin disease orf. It encodes an orthologue of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-10...
  58. Mazur C, Ferreira I, Rangel Filho F, Galler R. Molecular characterization of Brazilian isolates of orf virus. Vet Microbiol. 2000;73:253-9 pubmed
    ..Clinical samples (dried scabs) were collected and orf virus was isolated and characterized by electron microscopy in previous work...
  59. McInnes C, Wood A, Nettleton P, Gilray J. Genomic comparison of an avirulent strain of Orf virus with that of a virulent wild type isolate reveals that the Orf virus G2L gene is non-essential for replication. Virus Genes. 2001;22:141-50 pubmed
    The genomic structure of two strains of orf virus (OV), a field isolate (MRI-Scab) which has never been passaged in cell culture, and a multiple-passage cell culture-adapted strain (Orf-11) were compared...
  60. Torfason E, Gunadóttir S. Polymerase chain reaction for laboratory diagnosis of orf virus infections. J Clin Virol. 2002;24:79-84 pubmed
    The orf virus of sheep and goats is one of several zoonotic parapoxviruses...
  61. Voigt H, Merant C, Wienhold D, Braun A, Hutet E, Le Potier M, et al. Efficient priming against classical swine fever with a safe glycoprotein E2 expressing Orf virus recombinant (ORFV VrV-E2). Vaccine. 2007;25:5915-26 pubmed
    ..Using the new recombinant parapoxvirus (PPV) Orf virus (ORFV) as a vaccine expressing the CSFV E2 glycoprotein we demonstrate that a single intra-muscular application ..
  62. Li W, Ning Z, Hao W, Song D, Gao F, Zhao K, et al. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of orf virus from the sheep herd outbreak in northeast China. BMC Vet Res. 2012;8:229 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the relationship between the severity of disease and the molecular profile of ORFV strains has not been fully elucidated...
  63. Lin F, Chan K, Wang C, Wong M, Hsu W. Purification and functional motifs of the recombinant ATPase of orf virus. Protein Expr Purif. 2011;79:210-6 pubmed publisher
    Our previous study showed that the recombinant ATPase encoded by the A32L gene of orf virus displayed ATP hydrolysis activity as predicted from its amino acids sequence...
  64. Housawi F, Roberts G, Gilray J, Pow I, Reid H, Nettleton P, et al. The reactivity of monoclonal antibodies against orf virus with other parapoxviruses and the identification of a 39 kDa immunodominant protein. Arch Virol. 1998;143:2289-303 pubmed
    A panel of 27 mouse monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) was raised against orf virus. Sixteen of these Mabs reacted with a protein with a molecular mass of 65 kDa, 8 reacted with a protein with a molecular mass of 39 kDa and three remain ..
  65. Seet B, McCaughan C, Handel T, Mercer A, Brunetti C, McFadden G, et al. Analysis of an orf virus chemokine-binding protein: Shifting ligand specificities among a family of poxvirus viroceptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15137-42 pubmed
    We identify a secreted chemokine inhibitor encoded by orf virus (ORFV), the prototypic poxvirus of the Parapoxvirus genus, and show that it is related to the poxvirus type II CC-chemokine-binding proteins (CBP-II) produced by members of ..
  66. Scagliarini A, McInnes C, Gallina L, Dal Pozzo F, Scagliarini L, Snoeck R, et al. Antiviral activity of HPMPC (cidofovir) against orf virus infected lambs. Antiviral Res. 2007;73:169-74 pubmed
    ..In this study we present the results of different treatment regimens in lambs experimentally infected with orf virus with different cidofovir formulations prepared in Beeler basis and Unguentum M...
  67. Dory D, Fischer T, Béven V, Cariolet R, Rziha H, Jestin A. Prime-boost immunization using DNA vaccine and recombinant Orf virus protects pigs against Pseudorabies virus (Herpes suid 1). Vaccine. 2006;24:6256-63 pubmed
    ..plasmids that express viral glycoproteins gC and gD (gC- and gD-pSIN) and subsequently booster immunized with Orf virus (ORFV; Parapoxvirus) recombinants expressing gC and gD (D1701-VrVgC and -VrVgD)...
  68. Deane D, Ueda N, Wise L, Wood A, Percival A, Jepson C, et al. Conservation and variation of the parapoxvirus GM-CSF-inhibitory factor (GIF) proteins. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:970-7 pubmed publisher
    The GIF protein of orf virus (ORFV) binds and inhibits the ovine cytokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-2 (IL-2)...
  69. Westphal D, Ledgerwood E, Tyndall J, Hibma M, Ueda N, Fleming S, et al. The orf virus inhibitor of apoptosis functions in a Bcl-2-like manner, binding and neutralizing a set of BH3-only proteins and active Bax. Apoptosis. 2009;14:1317-30 pubmed publisher
    We have previously shown that the Orf virus protein, ORFV125, is a potent inhibitor of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis and displays rudimentary sequence similarities to cellular anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins...
  70. Oem J, Roh I, Lee K, Lee K, Kim H, Jean Y, et al. Phylogenetic analysis and characterization of Korean orf virus from dairy goats: case report. Virol J. 2009;6:167 pubmed publisher
    An outbreak of orf virus infection in dairy goats in Korea was investigated. Suspected samples of the skin and lip of affected goats were sent to the laboratory for more exact diagnosis...
  71. Rohde J, Schirrmeier H, Granzow H, Rziha H. A new recombinant Orf virus (ORFV, Parapoxvirus) protects rabbits against lethal infection with rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). Vaccine. 2011;29:9256-64 pubmed publisher
    This report describes the generation of a new recombinant Orf virus (ORFV; Parapoxvirus) expressing the major capsid protein VP1 (VP60) of the calicivirus, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV)...
  72. Bora D, Venkatesan G, Bhanuprakash V, Balamurugan V, Prabhu M, Siva Sankar M, et al. TaqMan real-time PCR assay based on DNA polymerase gene for rapid detection of Orf infection. J Virol Methods. 2011;178:249-52 pubmed publisher
    ..on the amplification of a 103bp fragment from the DNA polymerase (DNA pol) gene (conserved, non-structural) of Orf virus (ORFV) were developed for detection and semi-quantitation of ORFV DNA from infected cell culture and clinical ..
  73. Dal Pozzo F, Andrei G, Holy A, Van Den Oord J, Scagliarini A, De Clercq E, et al. Activities of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates against Orf virus in human and ovine cell monolayers and organotypic ovine raft cultures. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:4843-52 pubmed
    b>Orf virus, a member of the Parapoxvirus genus, causes a contagious pustular dermatitis in sheep, goats, and humans...
  74. Lateef Z, Baird M, Wise L, Young S, Mercer A, Fleming S. The chemokine-binding protein encoded by the poxvirus orf virus inhibits recruitment of dendritic cells to sites of skin inflammation and migration to peripheral lymph nodes. Cell Microbiol. 2010;12:665-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Orf virus (ORFV) is a zoonotic parapoxvirus that induces acute pustular skin lesions in sheep and humans...
  75. Kottaridi C, Nomikou K, Teodori L, Savini G, Lelli R, Markoulatos P, et al. Phylogenetic correlation of Greek and Italian orf virus isolates based on VIR gene. Vet Microbiol. 2006;116:310-6 pubmed
    Thirteen orf virus isolates obtained during the time period between 1995 and 2004 from crusted scab lesions of nine sheep and four goats from different geographical areas of Greece and Italy with suspected contagious ecthyma infection ..
  76. Tsai S, Chan K, Hsu W, Chang T, Wong M, Wang C. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of orf virus. J Virol Methods. 2009;157:200-4 pubmed publisher
    ..assay using six primers targeting a highly conserved region of the B2L gene has been developed to diagnose orf virus. The assay produces a ladder-like pattern of products on an agarose gel that can be specifically digested with ..
  77. Karakas A, Oguzoglu T, Coskun O, Artuk C, Mert G, Gul H, et al. First molecular characterization of a Turkish orf virus strain from a human based on a partial B2L sequence. Arch Virol. 2013;158:1105-8 pubmed publisher
    Cases of orf virus infection in human in Turkey have been reported for many years. Scab material from a man was found positive by PCR using pan-parapox-specific primers for parapoxvirus infection. The amplicon was purified and sequenced...
  78. Inoshima Y, Ito M, Ishiguro N. Spatial and temporal genetic homogeneity of orf viruses infecting Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus). J Vet Med Sci. 2010;72:701-7 pubmed
  79. Hosamani M, Yadav S, Kallesh D, Mondal B, Bhanuprakash V, Singh R. Isolation and characterization of an Indian ORF virus from goats. Zoonoses Public Health. 2007;54:204-8 pubmed
    Isolation and characterization of an orf virus has been described here. The virus was isolated from an outbreak of 'scabby mouth' in goats in Northern India...
  80. Paulsen D, Urban A, Knorr A, Hirth Dietrich C, Siegling A, Volk H, et al. Inactivated ORF virus shows antifibrotic activity and inhibits human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in preclinical models. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74605 pubmed publisher
    Inactivated orf virus (iORFV), strain D1701, is a potent immune modulator in various animal species. We recently demonstrated that iORFV induces strong antiviral activity in animal models of acute and chronic viral infections...