parapoxvirus

Summary

Summary: A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, which infect ungulates and may infect humans. ORF VIRUS is the type species.

Top Publications

  1. Nollens H, Gulland F, Jacobson E, Hernandez J, Klein P, Walsh M, et al. Parapoxviruses of seals and sea lions make up a distinct subclade within the genus Parapoxvirus. Virology. 2006;349:316-24 pubmed
    ..strains were closely related to the parapoxviruses, confirming their classification as members of the genus Parapoxvirus. A phylogenetic analysis showed that pinniped parapoxviruses form a monophyletic group within the genus ..
  2. Becher P, Konig M, Muller G, Siebert U, Thiel H. Characterization of sealpox virus, a separate member of the parapoxviruses. Arch Virol. 2002;147:1133-40 pubmed
    ..Using electron microscopy typical parapoxvirus particles were observed...
  3. Tryland M, Klein J, Nordøy E, Blix A. Isolation and partial characterization of a parapoxvirus isolated from a skin lesion of a Weddell seal. Virus Res. 2005;108:83-7 pubmed
    ..Electron microscopy on a biopsy from the lesion revealed typical parapoxvirus particles...
  4. Nitsche A, Büttner M, Wilhelm S, Pauli G, Meyer H. Real-time PCR detection of parapoxvirus DNA. Clin Chem. 2006;52:316-9 pubmed
    ..To date, however, no real-time PCR assay for the detection of parapoxviruses has been reported...
  5. Nollens H, Jacobson E, Gulland F, Beusse D, Bossart G, Hernandez J, et al. Pathology and preliminary characterization of a parapoxvirus isolated from a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). J Wildl Dis. 2006;42:23-32 pubmed
    ..Large, coalescing eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions were observed in the ballooned cells. A parapoxvirus (sea lion poxvirus 1, SLPV-1) was isolated on early passage California sea lion kidney cells inoculated with a ..
  6. Fischer T, Planz O, Stitz L, Rziha H. Novel recombinant parapoxvirus vectors induce protective humoral and cellular immunity against lethal herpesvirus challenge infection in mice. J Virol. 2003;77:9312-23 pubmed
    Orf virus (ORFV; Parapoxvirus ovis) was used to develop a novel vector system for the generation of effective and safe live vaccines...
  7. Inoshima Y, Morooka A, Sentsui H. Detection and diagnosis of parapoxvirus by the polymerase chain reaction. J Virol Methods. 2000;84:201-8 pubmed
    The genus Parapoxvirus includes four members, bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), orf virus (ORFV) and parapoxvirus of red deer in New Zealand (PVNZ)...
  8. Paillot R. A systematic review of the immune-modulators Parapoxvirus ovis and Propionibacterium acnes for the prevention of respiratory disease and other infections in the horse. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2013;153:1-9 pubmed publisher
    Inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) and Propionibacterium acnes (P...
  9. Siegemund S, Hartl A, von Buttlar H, Dautel F, Raue R, Freudenberg M, et al. Conventional bone marrow-derived dendritic cells contribute to toll-like receptor-independent production of alpha/beta interferon in response to inactivated parapoxvirus ovis. J Virol. 2009;83:9411-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Parapoxvirus ovis (PPVO) is a member of the Poxviridae family and belongs to the genus Parapoxvirus...

More Information

Publications97

  1. Tompkins D, Sainsbury A, Nettleton P, Buxton D, Gurnell J. Parapoxvirus causes a deleterious disease in red squirrels associated with UK population declines. Proc Biol Sci. 2002;269:529-33 pubmed
    ..Evidence suggests that an emerging infectious disease, caused by a parapoxvirus, may be a significant component of the impact that the introduced grey squirrel has had on UK red squirrel ..
  2. Scagliarini A, Vaccari F, Turrini F, Bianchi A, Cordioli P, Lavazza A. Parapoxvirus infections of red deer, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:684-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Results demonstrated that the red deer isolates are closely related to the parapox of red deer in New Zealand virus...
  3. Inoshima Y, Murakami K, Wu D, Sentsui H. Characterization of parapoxviruses circulating among wild Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus). Microbiol Immunol. 2002;46:583-7 pubmed
    We antigenically and molecularly compared 5 parapoxvirus isolates and 7 viral DNA samples from clinical lesions of Japanese serows with 3 viruses from sheep and goats...
  4. Roess A, Galan A, Kitces E, Li Y, Zhao H, Paddock C, et al. Novel deer-associated parapoxvirus infection in deer hunters. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:2621-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Parapoxvirus infection in humans begins with an incubation period of 3 to 7 days, followed by the development of one or more ..
  5. Muller G, Gröters S, Siebert U, Rosenberger T, Driver J, Konig M, et al. Parapoxvirus infection in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from the German North Sea. Vet Pathol. 2003;40:445-54 pubmed
    ..Negative staining of mucosal tissue homogenates demonstrated parapoxvirus-like particles...
  6. Inoshima Y, Murakami K, Yokoyama T, Sentsui H. Genetic heterogeneity among parapoxviruses isolated from sheep, cattle and Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus). J Gen Virol. 2001;82:1215-20 pubmed
    ..Each of the Japanese isolates was classified into one of these groups. These findings also indicated that parapoxvirus infections among wild Japanese serows seem to be caused by at least two different parapoxviruses, bovine ..
  7. Sturgill T, Giguere S, Franklin R, Cohen N, Hagen J, Kalyuzhny A. Effects of inactivated parapoxvirus ovis on the cumulative incidence of pneumonia and cytokine secretion in foals on a farm with endemic infections caused by Rhodococcus equi. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011;140:237-43 pubmed publisher
    The objectives of the present study were to determine if administration of inactivated parapoxvirus ovis (IPPVO) can decrease the cumulative incidence of pneumonia and increase the number of IFN-?- and IL-4-secreting cells among foals...
  8. Rziha H, Bauer B, Adam K, Röttgen M, Cottone R, Henkel M, et al. Relatedness and heterogeneity at the near-terminal end of the genome of a parapoxvirus bovis 1 strain (B177) compared with parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus). J Gen Virol. 2003;84:1111-6 pubmed
    ..time an extended investigation of individual genes located at the near-terminal right end of the genome of parapoxvirus bovis 1, Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) strain B177 and Orf virus (ORFV)...
  9. Robinson A, Mercer A. Parapoxvirus of red deer: evidence for its inclusion as a new member in the genus parapoxvirus. Virology. 1995;208:812-5 pubmed
    There are three accepted members of the parapoxvirus genus, orf virus (OV), papular stomatitis virus (PSV), and pseudocowpox virus (PCV). OV is maintained in sheep and goats and PSV and PCV in cattle...
  10. Tikkanen M, McInnes C, Mercer A, Büttner M, Tuimala J, Hirvelä Koski V, et al. Recent isolates of parapoxvirus of Finnish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) are closely related to bovine pseudocowpox virus. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:1413-8 pubmed
    ..classification of parapoxviruses (PPVs) and provides for the first time an extended phylogenetic analysis of PPVs isolated from Finland, established members of the genus Parapoxvirus and selected members of the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae.
  11. Schütze N, Raue R, Büttner M, Kohler G, McInnes C, Alber G. Specific antibodies induced by inactivated parapoxvirus ovis potently enhance oxidative burst in canine blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes. Vet Microbiol. 2010;140:81-91 pubmed publisher
    We have recently shown that inactivated parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) effectively stimulates canine blood phagocytes. However, a potential link between innate and adaptive immunity induced by iPPVO remained open...
  12. Schütze N, Raue R, Büttner M, Alber G. Inactivated parapoxvirus ovis activates canine blood phagocytes and T lymphocytes. Vet Microbiol. 2009;137:260-7 pubmed publisher
    Inactivated parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) shows strong immunomodulatory activities in several species and is used in veterinary medicine as an immunostimulatory biological for the prevention and/or treatment of infectious diseases...
  13. Horohov D, Breathnach C, Sturgill T, Rashid C, Stiltner J, Strong D, et al. In vitro and in vivo modulation of the equine immune response by parapoxvirus ovis. Equine Vet J. 2008;40:468-72 pubmed publisher
    ..While immune modulators are used routinely in equine medicine, their mechanism of action is not always known...
  14. Sentsui H, Inoshima Y, Minami A, Yamamoto Y, Murakami K, Shimizu S. Survey on antibody against parapoxvirus among cattle in Japan. Microbiol Immunol. 2000;44:73-6 pubmed
    A seroepidemiological survey was performed on antibody against parapoxvirus among cattle in Japan using the agar gel immunodiffusion test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
  15. MacNeil A, Lederman E, Reynolds M, Ragade N, Talken R, Friedman D, et al. Diagnosis of bovine-associated parapoxvirus infections in humans: molecular and epidemiological evidence. Zoonoses Public Health. 2010;57:e161-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss three recent occurrences of parapoxvirus infection, involving contact with domestic bovine and use a combination of molecular and epidemiological data ..
  16. Pohlscheidt M, Langer U, Minuth T, Bödeker B, Apeler H, Hörlein H, et al. Development and optimisation of a procedure for the production of Parapoxvirus ovis by large-scale microcarrier cell culture in a non-animal, non-human and non-plant-derived medium. Vaccine. 2008;26:1552-65 pubmed publisher
    For the production of a chemically inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (PPVO), an adherent bovine kidney cell line was cultivated on Cytodex-3 microcarriers in suspension culture...
  17. Ueda N, Inder M, Wise L, Fleming S, Mercer A. Parapoxvirus of red deer in New Zealand encodes a variant of viral vascular endothelial growth factor. Virus Res. 2007;124:50-8 pubmed
    b>Parapoxvirus of red deer in New Zealand (PVNZ), a species of the Parapoxvirus genus, causes scabby lesions on the skin and the velvet of red deer...
  18. Deane D, Ueda N, Wise L, Wood A, Percival A, Jepson C, et al. Conservation and variation of the parapoxvirus GM-CSF-inhibitory factor (GIF) proteins. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:970-7 pubmed publisher
  19. Nollens H, Gulland F, Hernandez J, Condit R, Klein P, Walsh M, et al. Seroepidemiology of parapoxvirus infections in captive and free-ranging California sea lions Zalophus californianus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;69:153-61 pubmed
    Cutaneous nodular lesions caused by parapoxvirus infections are commonly observed in stranded pinnipeds following their arrival at rehabilitation facilities...
  20. Nettleton P, Munro R, Pow I, Gilray J, Gray E, Reid H. Isolation of a parapoxvirus from a grey seal (Halichoerus grypus). Vet Rec. 1995;137:562-4 pubmed
    ..Macroscopically and histologically the lesions resembled previous descriptions of parapoxvirus infections of seals and virus particles were observed in preparations of a scab and a skin lesion...
  21. Mercer A, Fleming S, Robinson A, Nettleton P, Reid H. Molecular genetic analyses of parapoxviruses pathogenic for humans. Arch Virol Suppl. 1997;13:25-34 pubmed
    The current members of the genus parapoxvirus are orf virus (ORFV), bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV), pseudocowpoxvirus (PCPV) and parapoxvirus of red deer in New Zealand (PVNZ)...
  22. Dal Pozzo F, Martinelle L, Gallina L, Mast J, Sarradin P, Thiry E, et al. Original findings associated with two cases of bovine papular stomatitis. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:4397-400 pubmed publisher
  23. de Sant Ana F, Leal F, Rabelo R, Vulcani V, Moreira C, Cargnelutti J, et al. Coinfection by Vaccinia virus and an Orf virus-like parapoxvirus in an outbreak of vesicular disease in dairy cows in midwestern Brazil. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2013;25:267-72 pubmed publisher
    ..affecting dairy cows in midwestern Brazil in which a coinfection with 2 poxviruses-Vaccinia virus (VACV) and a parapoxvirus-was demonstrated...
  24. Tryland M, Josefsen T, Oksanen A, Aschfalk A. Parapoxvirus infection in Norwegian semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Vet Rec. 2001;149:394-5 pubmed
  25. Lauterbach H, Bathke B, Gilles S, Traidl Hoffmann C, Luber C, Fejer G, et al. Mouse CD8alpha+ DCs and human BDCA3+ DCs are major producers of IFN-lambda in response to poly IC. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2703-17 pubmed publisher
    ..poly IC, whereas both CD8?(+) cDCs and plasmacytoid DCs produced large amounts of IFN-? in response to HSV-1 or parapoxvirus. The nature of the stimulus and the cytokine milieu determined whether CD8?(+) cDCs produced IFN-? or IL-12p70...
  26. Segovia D, Haouz A, Porley D, Olivero N, Martinez M, Mariadassou M, et al. OH1 from Orf Virus: A New Tyrosine Phosphatase that Displays Distinct Structural Features and Triple Substrate Specificity. J Mol Biol. 2017;429:2816-2824 pubmed publisher
    ..residue Cys15 in the N-terminal helix alpha-1 of both monomers, and Cys15 is a conserved residue within the Parapoxvirus genus...
  27. Sentsui H, Murakami K, Inoshima Y, Shibahara T, Yokomizo Y. Isolation of parapoxvirus from a cow treated with interferon-gamma. Vet Microbiol. 1999;70:143-52 pubmed
    ..The virus was identified as a member of genus Parapoxvirus in the family Poxviridae on the basis of electron microscopic observations and serological tests...
  28. Fleming S, McCaughan C, Lateef Z, Dunn A, Wise L, Real N, et al. Deletion of the Chemokine Binding Protein Gene from the Parapoxvirus Orf Virus Reduces Virulence and Pathogenesis in Sheep. Front Microbiol. 2017;8:46 pubmed publisher
    Orf virus (ORFV) is the type species of the Parapoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae and infects sheep and goats, often around the mouth, resulting in acute pustular skin lesions...
  29. Tryland M, Klein J, Berger T, Josefsen T, das Neves C, Oksanen A, et al. Experimental parapoxvirus infection (contagious ecthyma) in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Vet Microbiol. 2013;162:499-506 pubmed publisher
    ..contagious pustular dermatitis, orf) occurs world-wide in sheep and goats and is caused by orf virus (genus Parapoxvirus, family Poxviridae)...
  30. Alves P, Figueiredo P, de Oliveira C, Barbosa J, Lima D, Bomjardim H, et al. Occurrence of Pseudocowpox virus associated to Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1, Brazilian Amazon. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2016;49:70-75 pubmed publisher
    ..and molecular diagnosis, and laboratory tests have confirmed the presence of Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), a Parapoxvirus genus member, and have also found Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (BVDV-1), probably causing persistent infection...
  31. Oem J, Lee E, Lee K, Kim S, Lee M, Hyun B. Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) infections in Korean native cattle. J Vet Med Sci. 2013;75:675-8 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the parapoxvirus strains were closely related to not only isolates from Japan, but also isolates from Germany, Sudan and the ..
  32. Bennett J, Lateef Z, Fleming S, Mercer A, Wise L. Orf virus IL-10 reduces monocyte, dendritic cell and mast cell recruitment to inflamed skin. Virus Res. 2016;213:230-237 pubmed publisher
    Orf virus (ORFV) is a zoonotic parapoxvirus that causes pustular dermatitis of sheep, and occasionally humans...
  33. Harvey R, McCaughan C, Wise L, Mercer A, Fleming S. Orf virus inhibits interferon stimulated gene expression and modulates the JAK/STAT signalling pathway. Virus Res. 2015;208:180-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The Parapoxvirus, Orf virus (ORFV) induces acute pustular skin lesions of sheep and goats and is transmissible to man...
  34. Yaegashi G, Sasaki I, Chiba S, Murakami K. Molecular analysis of parapoxvirus detected in eight calves in Japan. J Vet Med Sci. 2013;75:1399-403 pubmed
    Molecular analysis of parapoxvirus envelope genes was performed. Parapoxvirus DNA was detected in eight calves from eight farms in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, between April and September 2010...
  35. Chen D, Fabrizio J, Wilkins S, Dave K, Gorman J, Gleadle J, et al. Ankyrin Repeat Proteins of Orf Virus Influence the Cellular Hypoxia Response Pathway. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed
    ..Using bioinformatic analysis, we identified the five ANK proteins of the parapoxvirus orf virus (ORFV) as potential substrates of FIH...
  36. Tseng Y, Liao G, Sen G, Lin F, Hsu W. Regulation of PACT-Mediated Protein Kinase Activation by the OV20.0 Protein of Orf Virus. J Virol. 2015;89:11619-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Orf virus (ORFV), a parapoxvirus from the Poxviridae family, causes contagious pustular dermatitis in small ruminants...
  37. Alexander T. Development of methodology based on commercialized SERS-active substrates for rapid discrimination of Poxviridae virions. Anal Chem. 2008;80:2817-25 pubmed publisher
    ..method, has been used to develop personal computer-borne algorithms useful for classification of unknown Parapoxvirus (e.g., bovine papular stomatitis virus and pseudocowpox virus) samples based solely on SERS spectral signatures...
  38. Khalafalla A, El Sabagh I, Al Busada K, Al Mubarak A, Ali Y. Phylogenetic analysis of eight sudanese camel contagious ecthyma viruses based on B2L gene sequence. Virol J. 2015;12:124 pubmed publisher
    Camel contagious ecthyma (CCE) is an important viral disease of camelids caused by a poxvirus of the genus parapoxvirus (PPV) of the family Poxviridae. The disease has been reported in west and east of the Sudan causing economical losses...
  39. Blomqvist G, Ullman K, Segall T, Hauzenberger E, Renström L, Persson Waller K, et al. An unusual presentation of pseudocowpox associated with an outbreak of pustular ulcerative vulvovaginitis in a Swedish dairy herd. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2018;30:256-259 pubmed publisher
    ..Transmission electron microscopy revealed parapoxvirus particles in both tissue and vesicular materials...
  40. Choi A, O Leary M, Chaurasiya S, Lu J, Kim S, Fong Y, et al. Novel chimeric parapoxvirus CF189 as an oncolytic immunotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer. Surgery. 2018;163:336-342 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe a novel, genetically engineered parapoxvirus that efficiently kills triple-negative breast cancer...
  41. Czerny C, Waldmann R, Scheubeck T. Identification of three distinct antigenic sites in parapoxviruses. Arch Virol. 1997;142:807-21 pubmed
    ..Cross-reactivity studies of several parapoxviruses (PPV) differentiated stomatitis papulosa virus strains from orf virus and milker's node virus (MNV) by a missing antigenic site. ..
  42. Nowotny N. [Serologic studies of domestic cats for potential human pathogenic virus infections from wild rodents]. Zentralbl Hyg Umweltmed. 1996;198:452-61 pubmed
    ..and encephalomyocarditis viruses--which, in different ways, may lead to serious human illness: Ortho- and parapoxvirus infections may cause localized pox lesions following direct skin contact...
  43. Abrahao J, Lima L, Assis F, Alves P, Silva Fernandes A, Cota M, et al. Nested-multiplex PCR detection of Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus directly from exanthematic clinical samples. Virol J. 2009;6:140 pubmed publisher
    Orthopoxvirus (OPV) and Parapoxvirus (PPV) have been associated with worldwide exanthematic outbreaks. Some species of these genera are able to infect humans and domestic animals, causing serious economic losses and public health impact...
  44. Inoshima Y, Ishiguro N. Molecular and biological characterization of vascular endothelial growth factor of parapoxviruses isolated from wild Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus). Vet Microbiol. 2010;140:63-71 pubmed publisher
    Contagious dermatitis in domestic and wild ruminants caused by parapoxvirus (PPV) occurs worldwide...
  45. Chan K, Yang C, Lin J, Wang H, Lin F, Kuo S, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of parapoxviruses and the C-terminal heterogeneity of viral ATPase proteins. Gene. 2009;432:44-53 pubmed publisher
    Two outbreaks of orf virus (a parapoxvirus) infection in goats found in Nantou and Taiping of central Taiwan were investigated...
  46. Suzuki Y, Komatsu T, Yamamoto Y, Atoii Y. Pathology of interdigital glands in a wild Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus) infected with parapoxvirus. J Vet Med Sci. 1997;59:1063-5 pubmed
    The interdigital glands of a Japanese serow infected with parapoxvirus had severe papular and nodular lesions that completely occupied the sac and duct of the gland. The lesions were characterized by acanthosis with hyperkeratosis...
  47. Czerny C, Waldmann R, Buttner M. [Recent developments in the diagnosis of parapoxviruses]. Tierarztl Prax. 1994;22:230-3 pubmed
    ..For a rapid diagnosis of parapoxviruses transmission-electron microscopy, immunofluorescence- or immunoperoxidase-staining, antigen capture ELISA, and polymerase-chain-reaction were used. ..
  48. Rziha H, Henkel M, Cottone R, Meyer M, Dehio C, Buttner M. Parapoxviruses: potential alternative vectors for directing the immune response in permissive and non-permissive hosts. J Biotechnol. 1999;73:235-42 pubmed
    b>Parapoxvirus (PPV) represents a genus of the poxviridae, and particularly PPV ovis (Orf virus, OV) seems to offer several potential advantages for the use of vector vaccine...
  49. Hausmann J, Pagenstecher A, Baur K, Richter K, Rziha H, Staeheli P. CD8 T cells require gamma interferon to clear borna disease virus from the brain and prevent immune system-mediated neuronal damage. J Virol. 2005;79:13509-18 pubmed
    ..They further indicate that IFN-gamma may function as a neuroprotective factor that can limit the loss of neurons in the course of antiviral immune responses in the brain...
  50. Nitsche A, Gelderblom H, Eisendle K, Romani N, Pauli G. Pitfalls in diagnosing human poxvirus infections. J Clin Virol. 2007;38:165-8 pubmed
  51. Maman M, Medhioub Y. [A case of Orf disease complicated by erythema multiforme]. Arch Pediatr. 2017;24:1241-1243 pubmed publisher
    ..It is caused by a very resistant Parapoxvirus in the environment. The diagnosis is clinical and anamnestic...
  52. Hue E, Richard E, Fortier C, Fortier G, Paillot R, Raue R, et al. Equine PBMC Cytokines Profile after In Vitro ?- and ?-EHV Infection: Efficacy of a Parapoxvirus Ovis Based-Immunomodulator Treatment. Vaccines (Basel). 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    ..cells (PBMC) after in vitro EHV-1, EHV-4, and EHV-2 infection and to determine the efficacy of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) against these 3 viruses...
  53. Handler N, Handler M, Rubins A, Rubins S, Septe M, Janniger C, et al. Milker's nodule:an occupational infection and threat to the immunocompromised. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    Milker's nodule virus, also called paravaccinia virus is a DNA virus of the parapoxvirus genus transmitted from infected cows to humans. It results from contact with cattle, cattle byproducts, or fomites...
  54. Zhao H, Wilkins K, Damon I, Li Y. Specific qPCR assays for the detection of orf virus, pseudocowpox virus and bovine papular stomatitis virus. J Virol Methods. 2013;194:229-34 pubmed publisher
    The genus Parapoxvirus (PAPV) is comprised traditionally of orf virus (ORFV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) and bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV), which cause infections of ruminants and their handlers in the U.S. and worldwide...
  55. Kyriakis S, Tzika E, Lyras D, Tsinas A, Saoulidis K, Sarris K. Effect of an inactivated Parapoxvirus based immunomodulator (Baypamun) on post weaning diarrhoea syndrome and wasting pig syndrome of piglets. Res Vet Sci. 1998;64:187-90 pubmed
    ..no treatment and served as controls and the animals of the second group were injected twice with an inactivated Parapoxvirus based immunomodulator (Baypamun, Bayer, Germany)...
  56. Inoshima Y, Morooka A, Murakami K, Sentsui H. Simple preparation of parapoxvirus genome DNA for endonuclease analysis. Microbiol Immunol. 2000;44:69-72 pubmed
    We compared five methods for improved extraction of very-large parapoxvirus DNA from infected cells: (i) alkaline-lysis procedure followed by phenol extraction; (ii) modified Hirt procedure, which was a neutral lysis procedure followed by ..
  57. Hausmann J, Baur K, Engelhardt K, Fischer T, Rziha H, Staeheli P. Vaccine-induced protection against Borna disease in wild-type and perforin-deficient mice. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:399-403 pubmed
    ..disease, a prime-boost immunization protocol was established in which intramuscular injection of a recombinant parapoxvirus expressing BDV nucleoprotein (BDV-N) was followed by intraperitoneal infection with vaccinia virus expressing ..
  58. Bruemmer C, Rushton S, Gurnell J, Lurz P, Nettleton P, Sainsbury A, et al. Epidemiology of squirrelpox virus in grey squirrels in the UK. Epidemiol Infect. 2010;138:941-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings point towards a direct disease transmission route, which includes environmental contamination. Red squirrel conservation management options should therefore seek to minimize squirrel contact points. ..
  59. Lewis Jones S. The zoonotic poxviruses. Dermatol Nurs. 2002;14:79-82, 85-6; quiz 87 pubmed
    ..Animal poxviruses occasionally produce human skin disease often associated with systemic illness. Lesions are painful blisters and crusted eschars and are usually self-limiting and rarely fatal. Treatment is generally supportive. ..
  60. Simpson V, Stuart N, Stack M, Ross H, Head J. Parapox infection in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in Cornwall. Vet Rec. 1994;134:292-6 pubmed
    ..The presence of parapox virus was confirmed by electron microscopy. The clinical and pathological findings, together with details of the morphology of the virus, are compared with those in previous outbreaks in North America...
  61. Ohno Y, Inoshima Y, Maeda K, Ishiguro N. Molecular analysis of parapoxvirus from a spotted seal Phoca largha in Japan. Dis Aquat Organ. 2011;97:11-6 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA from the lesions and used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for detecting orthopoxvirus and parapoxvirus DNA. Parapoxvirus but not orthopoxvirus DNA was detected...
  62. Karakas A, Oguzoglu T, Coskun O, Artuk C, Mert G, Gul H, et al. First molecular characterization of a Turkish orf virus strain from a human based on a partial B2L sequence. Arch Virol. 2013;158:1105-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Scab material from a man was found positive by PCR using pan-parapox-specific primers for parapoxvirus infection. The amplicon was purified and sequenced...
  63. Inder M, Ueda N, Mercer A, Fleming S, Wise L. Bovine papular stomatitis virus encodes a functionally distinct VEGF that binds both VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:781-91 pubmed
    Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV), a member of the genus Parapoxvirus, causes proliferative dermatitis in cattle and humans...
  64. Tokunaga Y, Yamazaki Y, Morita T. Localization of heparin- and neuropilin-1-recognition sites of viral VEGFs. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;348:957-62 pubmed
    ..b>Parapoxvirus-encoded VEGFs (PV-VEGFs), which recognize KDR, possess basic amino acid clusters in their C-terminal regions...
  65. Inoshima Y, Nakane T, Sentsui H. Severe dermatitis on cattle teats caused by bovine papular stomatitis virus. Vet Rec. 2009;164:311-2 pubmed
  66. Ryan C, Giguere S, Fultz L, Long M, Crawford P. Effects of two commercially available immunostimulants on leukocyte function of foals following ex vivo exposure to Rhodococcus equi. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;138:198-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment consisted of inactivated Propionibacterium acnes (PA), inactivated parapoxvirus ovis (PPVO), or saline (control) administered on days 0 (7 days of age), 2, and 8...
  67. Buttner M, Rziha H. Parapoxviruses: from the lesion to the viral genome. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2002;49:7-16 pubmed
    Viruses of the genus parapoxvirus from the family poxviridae cause widespread but localized diseases of small and large ruminants...
  68. Adams A, Horohov D. The effect of an immunomodulator (parapoxvirus ovis) on cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in abruptly weaned foals. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2013;153:118-22 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Parapoxvirus ovis (PPVO), an immmunomodulator, has been shown to limit the severity of infectious disease outbreaks among ..
  69. Kyriakis S, Alexopoulos C, Giannakopoulos K, Tsinas A, Saoulidis K, Kritas S, et al. Effect of a paramunity inducer on reproductive performance of gilts. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A. 1996;43:483-7 pubmed
    ..The gilts of the second group were injected twice with a paramunity inducer derived from a sheep parapoxvirus (Baypamun liquid, Bayer, Germany), once 2 days before the transport and a second time 2 h before departure...
  70. Mondal B, Bera A, Hosamani M, Tembhurne P, Bandyopadhyay S. Detection of Orf virus from an outbreak in goats and its genetic relation with other parapoxviruses. Vet Res Commun. 2006;30:531-9 pubmed
  71. Leonard D, Otter A, Everest D, Wood A, McInnes C, Schock A. Unusual bovine papular stomatitis virus infection in a British dairy cow. Vet Rec. 2009;164:65 pubmed
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    The immunostimulating properties of inactivated parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) have long been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro, yet the biological and molecular mechanisms involved remain largely unknown...
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    ..highly contagious disease with worldwide distribution, which is caused by the Orf virus (ORFV) belonging to the Parapoxvirus. To study the alteration of host gene expression in response to ORFV infection at the transcriptional level, ..
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    ..Interestingly, the mRT-PCR detected parapoxvirus (n = 2) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (n = 2) in clinical samples, demonstrating the screening potential of ..
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    ..Eighteen Mabs reacted with all 4 sheep viruses, 19 Mabs reacted with both cattle viruses, 6 recognised seal parapoxvirus and 2 recognised the squirrel parapoxvirus...
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    ..tested eight inactivated poxvirus strains belonging to three different genera (Orthopoxvirus, Avipoxvirus, and Parapoxvirus) for their capacity to activate cells of the porcine innate and specific immune systems in vitro...
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    Orf virus (OV) is an epitheliotropic poxvirus and belongs to the genus Parapoxvirus (PPV). PPV, especially OV, is regarded as a promising candidate for an expression vector...
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    ..and parapoxvirus. The pathological findings included a deep ulcer on the side of the head, ulcers on the gingival and inner ..
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    Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and orf virus (ORFV), members of the genus Parapoxvirus of the Poxviridae, are etiologic agents of worldwide diseases affecting cattle and small ruminants, respectively...
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    ..compounds isatin-beta-thiosemicarbazone, rifampicin, acyclovir, cidofovir and phosphonoacetic acid against a parapoxvirus (SLPV-1) isolated from a Californian sea lions (Zalophus californianus) was evaluated...