variola virus

Summary

Summary: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.

Top Publications

  1. Snyder J, Belyakov I, Dzutsev A, Lemonnier F, Berzofsky J. Protection against lethal vaccinia virus challenge in HLA-A2 transgenic mice by immunization with a single CD8+ T-cell peptide epitope of vaccinia and variola viruses. J Virol. 2004;78:7052-60 pubmed
    ..in controlling poxvirus infection, but no protective cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes are defined for variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, or for vaccinia virus...
  2. Gubser C, Smith G. The sequence of camelpox virus shows it is most closely related to variola virus, the cause of smallpox. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:855-72 pubmed
    Camelpox virus (CMPV) and variola virus (VAR) are orthopoxviruses (OPVs) that share several biological features and cause high mortality and morbidity in their single host species...
  3. Smith S, Olson V, Karem K, Jordan R, Hruby D, Damon I. In vitro efficacy of ST246 against smallpox and monkeypox. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:1007-12 pubmed publisher
    ..for smallpox, the proportion of the world's population susceptible to infection with orthopoxviruses, such as variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox) and monkeypox virus, has grown substantially...
  4. Yadav V, Pyaram K, Mullick J, Sahu A. Identification of hot spots in the variola virus complement inhibitor (SPICE) for human complement regulation. J Virol. 2008;82:3283-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, encodes a soluble complement regulator named SPICE...
  5. Breman J, Henderson D. Diagnosis and management of smallpox. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1300-8 pubmed
  6. Frey S, Newman F, Cruz J, Shelton W, Tennant J, Polach T, et al. Dose-related effects of smallpox vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1275-80 pubmed
  7. Minkah N, Hwang Y, Perry K, Van Duyne G, Hendrickson R, Lefkowitz E, et al. Variola virus topoisomerase: DNA cleavage specificity and distribution of sites in Poxvirus genomes. Virology. 2007;365:60-9 pubmed
    ..In X-ray structures of the variola virus topoisomerase bound to DNA, protein-DNA contacts were found to extend beyond the core pentanucleotide, ..
  8. Weaver J, Isaacs S. Monkeypox virus and insights into its immunomodulatory proteins. Immunol Rev. 2008;225:96-113 pubmed publisher
    ..Although monkeypox virus is less fatal and not as transmissible as variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, there is concern that monkeypox virus could become a more efficient human ..
  9. Meng X, Leman M, Xiang Y. Variola virus IL-18 binding protein interacts with three human IL-18 residues that are part of a binding site for human IL-18 receptor alpha subunit. Virology. 2007;358:211-20 pubmed
    ..human IL-18 and found that only the substitution of Leu5 reduced the binding affinity of IL-18 with IL-18BP of variola virus (varvIL-18BP) by more than 4-fold...

More Information

Publications94

  1. Scaramozzino N, Ferrier Rembert A, Favier A, Rothlisberger C, Richard S, Crance J, et al. Real-time PCR to identify variola virus or other human pathogenic orthopox viruses. Clin Chem. 2007;53:606-13 pubmed
    b>Variola virus (family Poxviridae, genus Orthopoxvirus) and the closely related cowpox, vaccinia, and monkeypox viruses can infect humans...
  2. Henderson D, Inglesby T, Bartlett J, Ascher M, Eitzen E, Jahrling P, et al. Smallpox as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. Working Group on Civilian Biodefense. JAMA. 1999;281:2127-37 pubmed
    ..To develop consensus-based recommendations for measures to be taken by medical and public health professionals following the use of smallpox as a biological weapon against a civilian population...
  3. McFadden G. Smallpox: an ancient disease enters the modern era of virogenomics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14994-5 pubmed
  4. Eichner M, Dietz K. Transmission potential of smallpox: estimates based on detailed data from an outbreak. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;158:110-7 pubmed
    Recent discussions on the use of variola virus by bioterrorists have rekindled interest in the parameters that govern the transmissibility of smallpox...
  5. Zelicoff A. An epidemiological analysis of the 1971 smallpox outbreak in Aralsk, Kazakhstan. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2003;29:97-108 pubmed
  6. Mohamed M, Rahman M, Lanchbury J, Shattuck D, Neff C, Dufford M, et al. Proteomic screening of variola virus reveals a unique NF-kappaB inhibitor that is highly conserved among pathogenic orthopoxviruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9045-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present the first systematic protein interaction screening of the unique variola virus proteome by using yeast 2-hybrid screening against a variety of human cDNA libraries...
  7. Eichner M. Case isolation and contact tracing can prevent the spread of smallpox. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;158:118-28 pubmed
    Fears that terrorist groups may have gained access to variola virus have led to widespread discussions on how to prevent the reintroduction of smallpox by vaccination and on the availability of sufficiently large amounts of vaccine...
  8. Shchelkunov S. How long ago did smallpox virus emerge?. Arch Virol. 2009;154:1865-71 pubmed publisher
    ..I discuss the approaches used for dating of VARV evolution and adduce the arguments favoring its historically recent origin...
  9. Li Y, Carroll D, Gardner S, Walsh M, Vitalis E, Damon I. On the origin of smallpox: correlating variola phylogenics with historical smallpox records. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:15787-92 pubmed
    Human disease likely attributable to variola virus (VARV), the etiologic agent of smallpox, has been reported in human populations for >2,000 years. VARV is unique among orthopoxviruses in that it is an exclusively human pathogen...
  10. Kulesh D, Baker R, Loveless B, Norwood D, Zwiers S, Mucker E, et al. Smallpox and pan-orthopox virus detection by real-time 3'-minor groove binder TaqMan assays on the roche LightCycler and the Cepheid smart Cycler platforms. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:601-9 pubmed
    ..The hemagglutinin (HA) J7R, B9R, and B10R genes were used as targets for the variola virus-specific assays, and the HA and DNA polymerase-E9L genes were used as targets for the pan-orthopox virus ..
  11. Dabrowski P, Radonic A, Kurth A, Nitsche A. Genome-wide comparison of cowpox viruses reveals a new clade related to Variola virus. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e79953 pubmed publisher
    ..Particularly one CPXV clade is more closely related to Camelpox virus, Taterapox virus and Variola virus than to any other known OPV...
  12. Chen Z, Earl P, Americo J, Damon I, Smith S, Yu F, et al. Characterization of chimpanzee/human monoclonal antibodies to vaccinia virus A33 glycoprotein and its variola virus homolog in vitro and in a vaccinia virus mouse protection model. J Virol. 2007;81:8989-95 pubmed
    ..One or more of the MAbs were shown to reduce the spread of vaccinia virus as well as variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox) in vitro and to more effectively protect mice when administered before or 2 ..
  13. Rosengard A, Liu Y, Nie Z, Jimenez R. Variola virus immune evasion design: expression of a highly efficient inhibitor of human complement. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:8808-13 pubmed
    b>Variola virus, the most virulent member of the genus Orthopoxvirus, specifically infects humans and has no other animal reservoir. Variola causes the contagious disease smallpox, which has a 30-40% mortality rate...
  14. Esteban D, Nuara A, Buller R. Interleukin-18 and glycosaminoglycan binding by a protein encoded by Variola virus. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:1291-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to demonstrate IL-18 binding activity of the Variola virus protein D7L. D7L effectively inhibited the biological activity of IL-18 in a bioassay...
  15. Kim M, Yang H, Kim S, Reche P, Tirabassi R, Hussey R, et al. Biochemical and functional analysis of smallpox growth factor (SPGF) and anti-SPGF monoclonal antibodies. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:25838-48 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that blockade of pathogenic factor actions, in general, may be advantageous to the infected host...
  16. Frey S, Couch R, Tacket C, Treanor J, Wolff M, Newman F, et al. Clinical responses to undiluted and diluted smallpox vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1265-74 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the potential to increase the supply of smallpox vaccine (vaccinia virus), we compared the response to vaccination with 10(8.1), 10(7.2), and 10(7.0) plaque-forming units (pfu) of vaccinia virus per milliliter...
  17. Shchelkunov S, Totmenin A, Babkin I, Safronov P, Ryazankina O, Petrov N, et al. Human monkeypox and smallpox viruses: genomic comparison. FEBS Lett. 2001;509:66-70 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that MPV is not the direct ancestor of VAR and is unlikely to naturally acquire all properties of VAR...
  18. Wahl Jensen V, Cann J, Rubins K, Huggins J, Fisher R, Johnson A, et al. Progression of pathogenic events in cynomolgus macaques infected with variola virus. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24832 pubmed publisher
    Smallpox, caused by variola virus (VARV), is a devastating human disease that affected millions worldwide until the virus was eradicated in the 1970 s...
  19. Georges A, Georges Courbot M. [Biohazards due to Orthopoxvirus: should we re-vaccinate against smallpox?]. Med Trop (Mars). 1999;59:483-7 pubmed
    ..Further research is needed to develop new vaccines (e.g., attenuated isolates of vaccinia) and effective treatment. This is the only valid reasons for postponing planned destruction of remaining Smallpox virus stocks...
  20. Smith C, Smith T, Smolak P, Friend D, Hagen H, Gerhart M, et al. Poxvirus genomes encode a secreted, soluble protein that preferentially inhibits beta chemokine activity yet lacks sequence homology to known chemokine receptors. Virology. 1997;236:316-27 pubmed
    ..The proposed function of vCCI is inhibition of the proinflammatory (antiviral) activities of beta chemokines...
  21. Mann B, Huang J, Li P, Chang H, Slee R, O Sullivan A, et al. Vaccinia virus blocks Stat1-dependent and Stat1-independent gene expression induced by type I and type II interferons. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2008;28:367-80 pubmed publisher
    ..By using recombinant proteins for in vitro assays, we observe that variola virus H1 is more active than VACV H1, although it has similar selectivity for Stat targets...
  22. Tulman E, Delhon G, Afonso C, Lu Z, Zsak L, Sandybaev N, et al. Genome of horsepox virus. J Virol. 2006;80:9244-58 pubmed
    ..D3L/I3R and C1L ankyrin repeat proteins, B19R kelch-like protein, D7L BTB/POZ domain protein, and B22R variola virus B22R-like protein...
  23. Jahrling P, Hensley L, Martinez M, Leduc J, Rubins K, Relman D, et al. Exploring the potential of variola virus infection of cynomolgus macaques as a model for human smallpox. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:15196-200 pubmed
    ..quot; A more precise understanding of disease pathogenesis should provide targets for therapeutic intervention, to be used alone or in combination with inhibitors of variola virus replication.
  24. Hsieh S, Chen S, Sheu G, Hung M, Chou W, Chang S, et al. Clinical and immunological responses to undiluted and diluted smallpox vaccine with vaccinia virus of Lister strain. Vaccine. 2006;24:510-5 pubmed
    ..5) pfu/mL after dilution, respectively. The reactogenicity of vaccinia virus may not be a dose-dependent response...
  25. Alejo A, Ruiz Argüello M, Ho Y, Smith V, Saraiva M, Alcami A. A chemokine-binding domain in the tumor necrosis factor receptor from variola (smallpox) virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:5995-6000 pubmed
    b>Variola virus (VaV) is the causative agent of smallpox, one of the most devastating diseases encountered by man, that was eradicated in 1980. The deliberate release of VaV would have catastrophic consequences on global public health...
  26. Dunlop L, Oehlberg K, Reid J, Avci D, Rosengard A. Variola virus immune evasion proteins. Microbes Infect. 2003;5:1049-56 pubmed
    b>Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, encodes approximately 200 proteins. Over 80 of these proteins are located in the terminal regions of the genome, where proteins associated with host immune evasion are encoded...
  27. Weinstein R. Should remaining stockpiles of smallpox virus (variola) be destroyed?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:681-3 pubmed publisher
    ..These factors strongly suggest that relegating smallpox to the autoclave of extinction would be ill advised...
  28. Fernández de Marco M, Alejo A, Hudson P, Damon I, Alcami A. The highly virulent variola and monkeypox viruses express secreted inhibitors of type I interferon. FASEB J. 2010;24:1479-88 pubmed publisher
    b>Variola virus (VARV) caused smallpox, one of the most devastating human diseases and the first to be eradicated, but its deliberate release represents a dangerous threat...
  29. Stone R. Public health. Is live smallpox lurking in the Arctic?. Science. 2002;295:2002 pubmed
  30. Afonso C, Tulman E, Lu Z, Zsak L, Sandybaev N, Kerembekova U, et al. The genome of camelpox virus. Virology. 2002;295:1-9 pubmed
    ..Among OPVs, CMLV is the most closely related to variola virus (VARV), sharing all genes involved in basic replicative functions and the majority of genes involved in other ..
  31. Schoepp R, Morin M, Martinez M, Kulesh D, Hensley L, Geisbert T, et al. Detection and identification of Variola virus in fixed human tissue after prolonged archival storage. Lab Invest. 2004;84:41-8 pubmed
    ..World Health Organization-sanctioned repositories of infectious Variola virus are known to occur in both Russia and the United States, but many believe other undeclared and unregulated ..
  32. Esposito J, Sammons S, Frace A, Osborne J, Olsen Rasmussen M, Zhang M, et al. Genome sequence diversity and clues to the evolution of variola (smallpox) virus. Science. 2006;313:807-12 pubmed
    Comparative genomics of 45 epidemiologically varied variola virus isolates from the past 30 years of the smallpox era indicate low sequence diversity, suggesting that there is probably little difference in the isolates' functional gene ..
  33. Meltzer M, Damon I, LeDuc J, Millar J. Modeling potential responses to smallpox as a bioterrorist weapon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:959-69 pubmed
    ..Historical data indicate that a median of 2,155 smallpox vaccine doses per case were given to stop outbreaks, implying that a stockpile of 40 million doses should be adequate...
  34. Talbot T, Stapleton J, Brady R, Winokur P, Bernstein D, Germanson T, et al. Vaccination success rate and reaction profile with diluted and undiluted smallpox vaccine: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;292:1205-12 pubmed
  35. Sette A, Grey H, Oseroff C, Peters B, Moutaftsi M, Crotty S, et al. Definition of epitopes and antigens recognized by vaccinia specific immune responses: their conservation in variola virus sequences, and use as a model system to study complex pathogens. Vaccine. 2009;27 Suppl 6:G21-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we find that the vast majority of VACV epitopes are conserved in variola virus (VARV), thus suggesting that the epitopes defined herein also have relevance for the efficacy of VACV as a ..
  36. Aldaz Carroll L, Xiao Y, Whitbeck J, de Leon M, Lou H, Kim M, et al. Major neutralizing sites on vaccinia virus glycoprotein B5 are exposed differently on variola virus ortholog B6. J Virol. 2007;81:8131-9 pubmed
    Immunization against smallpox (variola virus) with Dryvax, a live vaccinia virus (VV), was effective, but now safety is a major concern...
  37. Inoue N. [Neurological effects of chemical and biological weapons]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2003;43:880-2 pubmed
    ..The potential weaponization of variola virus continues to pose a military threat because the aerosol infectivity of the virus and the development of ..
  38. Popov S. Commentary on Dr. Alan P. Zelicoff's analysis (No. 6). Crit Rev Microbiol. 2003;29:175-6; discussion 183-90 pubmed
  39. Pajer P, Dresler J, Kabíckova H, Písa L, Aganov P, Fucik K, et al. Characterization of Two Historic Smallpox Specimens from a Czech Museum. Viruses. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    Although smallpox has been known for centuries, the oldest available variola virus strains were isolated in the early 1940s. At that time, large regions of the world were already smallpox-free...
  40. Moss B. Smallpox vaccines: targets of protective immunity. Immunol Rev. 2011;239:8-26 pubmed publisher
    ..through the prophylactic administration of live vaccinia virus, a comparatively benign relative of variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox...
  41. Willer D, McFadden G, Evans D. The complete genome sequence of shope (rabbit) fibroma virus. Virology. 1999;264:319-43 pubmed
    ..SFV also encodes a type II DNA photolyase (S127L). Melanoplus sanguinipes entomopoxvirus encodes a similar protein, but SFV is the first mammalian virus potentially capable of photoreactivating ultraviolet DNA damage...
  42. Realegeno S, Puschnik A, Kumar A, Goldsmith C, Burgado J, Sambhara S, et al. Monkeypox Virus Host Factor Screen Using Haploid Cells Identifies Essential Role of GARP Complex in Extracellular Virus Formation. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..human pathogen that is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus, which includes Vaccinia virus and Variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox). Human monkeypox is considered an emerging zoonotic infectious disease...
  43. Tikunova N, Bovshik E, Iun T, Zhirakovskaia E, Morozova V, Batanova T, et al. [Human recombinant antibodies to variola virus]. Vopr Virusol. 2005;50:20-5 pubmed
    Eight specific antibodies to live variola virus (VV), Ind-3a strain, and 7 antibodies to VV, Butler strain, were selected from the synthetic combinatorial phage display library on single-chain (scFv) human antibodies...
  44. Senkevich T, Bugert J, Sisler J, Koonin E, Darai G, Moss B. Genome sequence of a human tumorigenic poxvirus: prediction of specific host response-evasion genes. Science. 1996;273:813-6 pubmed
  45. Caldicott D, Edwards N. The tools of the trade: weapons of mass destruction. Emerg Med (Fremantle). 2002;14:240-8 pubmed
  46. Clements T. Smallpox vaccination and the nurse. Kans Nurse. 2003;78:5-7 pubmed
  47. Tucker J, Zilinskas R. The 1971 smallpox outbreak in the Soviet city of Aralsk: implications for Variola virus as a bioterrorist threat. Introduction. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2003;29:81-95 pubmed
  48. Fitzgibbon J, Sagripanti J. Simultaneous identification of orthopoxviruses and alphaviruses by oligonucleotide macroarray with special emphasis on detection of variola and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses. J Virol Methods. 2006;131:160-7 pubmed
    ..alphaviruses, including Venezuelan equine encephalitis, or DNA from each of four orthopoxviruses, including variola virus (VAR) were deposited onto nylon membranes...
  49. Bol P. [Smallpox]. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd. 2003;110:85-6 pubmed
  50. Jahrling P. Commentary on Dr. Alan zelicoff's Analysis of the Aralsk outbreak (No. 4). Crit Rev Microbiol. 2003;29:171-2; discussion 183-90 pubmed
  51. Kaminsky L, Sei J, Parekh N, Davies M, Reider I, Krouse T, et al. Redundant Function of Plasmacytoid and Conventional Dendritic Cells Is Required To Survive a Natural Virus Infection. J Virol. 2015;89:9974-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Prior to the eradication of variola virus, the orthopoxvirus that causes smallpox, one-third of infected people succumbed to the disease...
  52. Bissa M, Quaglino E, Zanotto C, Illiano E, Rolih V, Pacchioni S, et al. Protection of mice against the highly pathogenic VVIHD-J by DNA and fowlpox recombinant vaccines, administered by electroporation and intranasal routes, correlates with serum neutralizing activity. Antiviral Res. 2016;134:182-191 pubmed publisher
    ..As the variola virus no longer exists as a natural infection agent, mass vaccination was discontinued after 1980...
  53. Balaji D. Osteomyelitis variolosa: a case report. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 2011;19:120-2 pubmed
    ..Her third and fourth metacarpals on the left hand were shortened. Both ankles were stiff with valgus deformity; both taluses were destroyed. ..
  54. Smith G, McFadden G. Smallpox: anything to declare?. Nat Rev Immunol. 2002;2:521-7 pubmed publisher
    Smallpox was eradicated in 1977, but it remains a concern owing to the potential use of the causative agent variola virus in bioterrorism...
  55. Pulford D, Meyer H, Brightwell G, Damon I, Kline R, Ulaeto D. Amplification refractory mutation system PCR assays for the detection of variola and Orthopoxvirus. J Virol Methods. 2004;117:81-90 pubmed
    PCR assays that can identify the presence of variola virus (VARV) sequences in an unknown DNA sample were developed using principles established for the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)...
  56. Gilchuk I, Gilchuk P, Sapparapu G, Lampley R, Singh V, Kose N, et al. Cross-Neutralizing and Protective Human Antibody Specificities to Poxvirus Infections. Cell. 2016;167:684-694.e9 pubmed publisher
    ..MPXV) and cowpox (CPXV) are emerging agents that cause severe human infections on an intermittent basis, and variola virus (VARV) has potential for use as an agent of bioterror...
  57. Sarynov E, Kulmakhanov B. Report on measures taken to contain and eradicate the smallpox outbreak locale in the city of Aralsk, Part II. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2003;29:145-8; discussion 153-8 pubmed
  58. Golden J, Hooper J. Heterogeneity in the A33 protein impacts the cross-protective efficacy of a candidate smallpox DNA vaccine. Virology. 2008;377:19-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our results caution that adequate cross-protection by any pan-orthopoxvirus subunit vaccine will require not only careful evaluation of cross-protective immunity, but also of targeting of multiple orthopoxvirus immunogens. ..
  59. Reynolds S, Earl P, Minai M, Moore I, Moss B. A homolog of the variola virus B22 membrane protein contributes to ectromelia virus pathogenicity in the mouse footpad model. Virology. 2017;501:107-114 pubmed publisher
    Most poxviruses encode a homolog of a ~200,000-kDa membrane protein originally identified in variola virus. We investigated the importance of the ectromelia virus (ECTV) homolog C15 in a natural infection model...
  60. Kumar J, Yadav V, Phulera S, Kamble A, Gautam A, Panwar H, et al. Species Specificity of Vaccinia Virus Complement Control Protein for the Bovine Classical Pathway Is Governed Primarily by Direct Interaction of Its Acidic Residues with Factor I. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    Poxviruses display species tropism-variola virus is a human-specific virus, while vaccinia virus causes repeated outbreaks in dairy cattle...
  61. Watanabe T, Morikawa S, Suzuki K, Miyamura T, Tamaki K, Ueda Y. Two major antigenic polypeptides of molluscum contagiosum virus. J Infect Dis. 1998;177:284-92 pubmed
    ..were found between the C-terminus of the 70-kDa MCV protein and the 14-kDa fusion protein of vaccinia and variola virus, and between the 34-kDa MCV protein and the 37...
  62. Frey S, Winokur P, Salata R, El Kamary S, Turley C, Walter E, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of IMVAMUNE® smallpox vaccine using different strategies for a post event scenario. Vaccine. 2013;31:3025-33 pubmed publisher
    ..A second dose of IMVAMUNE at Day 28 compared to Day 7 provided greater antibody responses and the maximal number of responders. By Day 14 after the second dose, IFN-γ ELISPOT responses were similar for Group: 0+28 and Group: 0+7. ..
  63. Reeves P, Smith S, Olson V, Thorne S, Bornmann W, Damon I, et al. Variola and monkeypox viruses utilize conserved mechanisms of virion motility and release that depend on abl and SRC family tyrosine kinases. J Virol. 2011;85:21-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that the Poxviridae family members monkeypox virus (MPX) and variola virus (VarV) use conserved mechanisms for actin motility and extracellular enveloped virion (EEV) release...
  64. McConnell J. Gearing up for smallpox. Lancet Infect Dis. 2002;2:390 pubmed
  65. Mercer A, Fraser K, Esposito J. Gene homology between orf virus and smallpox variola virus. Virus Genes. 1996;13:175-8 pubmed
    ..Examination of sequences reported for variola virus (VAR) strains Bangladesh, India, Congo- 1970, Somalia- 1977 and Garcia- 1966 revealed each encoded a correlate ..
  66. Esposito J, Knight J. Nucleotide sequence of the thymidine kinase gene region of monkeypox and variola viruses. Virology. 1984;135:561-7 pubmed
    Among the orthopoxviruses variola virus induces in cells a characteristic thymidine kinase (TK) activity that can be feedback inhibited in reactions with thymidine triphosphate...
  67. Enserink M. Smallpox. WHA gives yellow light for variola studies. Science. 2005;308:1235 pubmed
  68. Puissant B, Combadiere B. Keeping the memory of smallpox virus. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006;63:2249-59 pubmed
    ..In addition, the potent immunostimulatory action of poxvirus vectors has led to development and evaluation of new-generation vaccine candidates, which will be discussed in this review. ..
  69. Holzgreve H. [Threat or creation of panic? Disease agents as terror weapons]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2004;146:4-6 pubmed
  70. Storesund A. [Smallpox in Telemark in the last part of the 19th century]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2000;120:3694-8 pubmed
    ..It seems that the efforts of the district medical officers and local health administrators after 1860 were of decisive importance for the decline in smallpox cases in the period in question...
  71. Foster D. Smallpox as a biological weapon: implications for the critical care clinician. Dimens Crit Care Nurs. 2003;22:2-7; quiz 8-9 pubmed
    ..The critical care nurse is integral in all aspects regarding smallpox and bioterrorism...
  72. Chaudhri G, Panchanathan V, Bluethmann H, Karupiah G. Obligatory requirement for antibody in recovery from a primary poxvirus infection. J Virol. 2006;80:6339-44 pubmed
    To understand the correlates of protective immunity against primary variola virus infection in humans, we have used the well-characterized mousepox model...
  73. Del Valle S, Hethcote H, Hyman J, Castillo Chavez C. Effects of behavioral changes in a smallpox attack model. Math Biosci. 2005;195:228-51 pubmed
    ..We conclude that for simulations of a smallpox outbreak to be useful, they must consider the impact of behavioral changes. This is especially true if the model predictions are being used to guide public health policy...
  74. Hackett C, Rotrosen D, Plaut M. Addressing challenges for allergists in vaccination to protect against smallpox. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2005;94:1-3 pubmed
  75. Phan J, Tropea J, Waugh D. Structure-assisted discovery of Variola major H1 phosphatase inhibitors. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2007;63:698-704 pubmed
    ..In silico screening methods have led to the identification of several small molecules that inhibit Variola H1 phosphatase with IC(50) values in the low micromolar range. These molecules provide novel leads for future drug development...
  76. Christ W, Stein H. [Biological weapons. II. Smallpox, botulinum toxin, hemorrhagic fever viruses]. Med Monatsschr Pharm. 2003;26:13-22 pubmed
  77. Huang J, Huang Q, Zhou X, Shen M, Yen A, Yu S, et al. The poxvirus p28 virulence factor is an E3 ubiquitin ligase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:54110-6 pubmed
    A majority of the orthopoxviruses, including the variola virus that causes the dreaded smallpox disease, encode a highly conserved 28-kDa protein with a classic RING finger sequence motif (C(3)HC(4)) at their carboxyl-terminal domains...
  78. Couch R, Winokur P, Edwards K, Black S, Atmar R, Stapleton J, et al. Reducing the dose of smallpox vaccine reduces vaccine-associated morbidity without reducing vaccination success rates or immune responses. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:826-32 pubmed
    ..later identified approximately 85 million additional doses in storage...
  79. Kato S, Hara J, Ogawa M, Miyamoto H, KAMAHORA J. INCLUSION MARKERS OF COWPOX VIRUS AND ALASTRIM VIRUS. Biken J. 1963;6:233-5 pubmed
  80. Riley J. Smallpox and American Indians revisited. J Hist Med Allied Sci. 2010;65:445-77 pubmed publisher
    ..This essay reviews old and new hypotheses about why so many in the New World died from smallpox using recent smallpox research and older sources...
  81. Babkina I, Safronov P, Babkin I, Uvarova E, Totmenin A, Golikova L, et al. [Construction of DNA-fragments' libraries with complete genomes of different variola strains]. Vopr Virusol. 2005;50:18-23 pubmed
    Libraries of hybrid plasmids carrying DNA fragments of complete genomes of 8 variola virus strain from the Russian Collection belonging to 2 epidemical types and isolated in various geographic regions of the world were obtained...
  82. Komarova E, Aldissi M, BOGOMOLOVA A. Direct electrochemical sensor for fast reagent-free DNA detection. Biosens Bioelectron. 2005;21:182-9 pubmed
    ..The developed sensing electrode is reusable, highly stable and suitable for storage in solution or in dry state...
  83. Enserink M, Stone R. Public health. Dead virus walking. Science. 2002;295:2001-5 pubmed
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