cowpox virus

Summary

Summary: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.

Top Publications

  1. Goff A, Twenhafel N, Garrison A, Mucker E, Lawler J, Paragas J. In vivo imaging of cidofovir treatment of cowpox virus infection. Virus Res. 2007;128:88-98 pubmed
    ..We engineered a cowpox virus (CPV) expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP)...
  2. Nitsche A, Kurth A, Pauli G. Viremia in human Cowpox virus infection. J Clin Virol. 2007;40:160-2 pubmed
    ..While infection-related viremia was described for Variola virus and seems to be rare for Monkeypox virus, it is still debated for Vaccinia virus. So far, viremia in Cowpox virus-infected humans has not been reported.
  3. Vorou R, Papavassiliou V, Pierroutsakos I. Cowpox virus infection: an emerging health threat. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2008;21:153-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The causative agent, cowpox virus, is distributed in Europe, west former USSR, and adjacent areas of Northern and Central Asia, with an ..
  4. Smith C, Hu F, Smith T, Richards C, Smolak P, Goodwin R, et al. Cowpox virus genome encodes a second soluble homologue of cellular TNF receptors, distinct from CrmB, that binds TNF but not LT alpha. Virology. 1996;223:132-47 pubmed
    ..The presumed function of CrmC is viral inhibition of host-elicited TNF. ..
  5. Bennett M, Crouch A, Begon M, Duffy B, Feore S, Gaskell R, et al. Cowpox in British voles and mice. J Comp Pathol. 1997;116:35-44 pubmed
    Serosurveys indicate that bank voles, field voles and woodmice are probably reservoir hosts of cowpox virus in western Europe, although virus has not yet been isolated from these species...
  6. Alzhanova D, Fruh K. Modulation of the host immune response by cowpox virus. Microbes Infect. 2010;12:900-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Cowpox virus, a zoonotic poxvirus endemic to Eurasia, infects a large number of host species which makes its eradication impossible...
  7. Vogel S, Sárdy M, Glos K, Korting H, Ruzicka T, Wollenberg A. The Munich outbreak of cutaneous cowpox infection: transmission by infected pet rats. Acta Derm Venereol. 2012;92:126-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Cowpox virus infection of humans is an uncommon, potentially fatal, skin disease. It is largely confined to Europe, but is not found in Eire, or in the USA, Australasia, or the Middle or Far East...
  8. Smee D, Bailey K, Wong M, Sidwell R. Intranasal treatment of cowpox virus respiratory infections in mice with cidofovir. Antiviral Res. 2000;47:171-7 pubmed
    ..In this report, intranasal cidofovir was investigated as a treatment of pulmonary cowpox virus infections in BALB/c mice...
  9. Spesock A, Barefoot B, Ray C, Kenan D, Gunn M, Ramsburg E, et al. Cowpox virus induces interleukin-10 both in vitro and in vivo. Virology. 2011;417:87-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Cowpox virus infection induces interleukin-10 (IL-10) production from mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) or cells of the mouse macrophage line (RAW264...

More Information

Publications78

  1. Kurth A, Wibbelt G, Gerber H, Petschaelis A, Pauli G, Nitsche A. Rat-to-elephant-to-human transmission of cowpox virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:670-1 pubmed publisher
  2. Mohamed M, Rahman M, Rice A, Moyer R, Werden S, McFadden G. Cowpox virus expresses a novel ankyrin repeat NF-kappaB inhibitor that controls inflammatory cell influx into virus-infected tissues and is critical for virus pathogenesis. J Virol. 2009;83:9223-36 pubmed publisher
    Many pathogenic orthopoxviruses like variola virus, monkeypox virus, and cowpox virus (CPXV), but not vaccinia virus, encode a unique family of ankyrin (ANK) repeat-containing proteins that interact directly with NF-kappaB1/p105 and ..
  3. Byun M, Wang X, Pak M, Hansen T, Yokoyama W. Cowpox virus exploits the endoplasmic reticulum retention pathway to inhibit MHC class I transport to the cell surface. Cell Host Microbe. 2007;2:306-15 pubmed
    ..b>Cowpox virus, a clinically relevant orthopoxvirus, downregulates MHC class I expression on infected cells...
  4. Meyer H, Totmenin A, Gavrilova E, Shchelkunov S. Variola and camelpox virus-specific sequences are part of a single large open reading frame identified in two German cowpox virus strains. Virus Res. 2005;108:39-43 pubmed
    A large open reading frame (ORF) has been identified in two German cowpox virus strains. The ORFs (5676 and 5679 nt, respectively) differ in 10 nucleotides, resulting in an amino acid homology of 99.8%...
  5. Smith A, St Claire M, Yellayi S, Bollinger L, Jahrling P, Paragas J, et al. Intrabronchial inoculation of cynomolgus macaques with cowpox virus. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:159-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We present an accessible intrabronchial cowpox virus (CPXV) model that can be evaluated under biosafety level-2 laboratory conditions...
  6. Duraffour S, Vigne S, Vermeire K, Garcel A, Vanstreels E, Daelemans D, et al. Specific targeting of the F13L protein by ST-246 affects orthopoxvirus production differently. Antivir Ther. 2008;13:977-90 pubmed
  7. Wolfs T, Wagenaar J, Niesters H, Osterhaus A. Rat-to-human transmission of Cowpox infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:1495-6 pubmed
    We isolated Cowpox virus (CPXV) from the ulcerative eyelid lesions of a 14-year-old girl, who had cared for a clinically ill wild rat that later died...
  8. Dasgupta A, Hammarlund E, Slifka M, Fruh K. Cowpox virus evades CTL recognition and inhibits the intracellular transport of MHC class I molecules. J Immunol. 2007;178:1654-61 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, however, CD8(+) T cells of mice infected with cowpox virus (CPV) or VV recognized APC infected with VV but not APC infected with CPV...
  9. Kurth A, Straube M, Kuczka A, Dunsche A, Meyer H, Nitsche A. Cowpox virus outbreak in banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) and jaguarundis (Herpailurus yagouaroundi) with a time-delayed infection to humans. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6883 pubmed publisher
    Often described as an extremely rare zoonosis, cowpox virus (CPXV) infections are on the increase in Germany...
  10. Hsiao J, Chung C, Drillien R, Chang W. The cowpox virus host range gene, CP77, affects phosphorylation of eIF2 alpha and vaccinia viral translation in apoptotic HeLa cells. Virology. 2004;329:199-212 pubmed publisher
    Host restriction of vaccinia virus has been previously described in CHO and RK13 cells in which a cowpox virus CP77 gene rescues vaccinia virus growth at the viral protein translation level...
  11. Campe H, Zimmermann P, Glos K, Bayer M, Bergemann H, Dreweck C, et al. Cowpox virus transmission from pet rats to humans, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:777-80 pubmed publisher
    We describe a cluster of cowpox virus (CPXV) infections in humans that occurred near Munich, Germany, around the beginning of 2009...
  12. Carslake D, Bennett M, Hazel S, Telfer S, Begon M. Inference of cowpox virus transmission rates between wild rodent host classes using space-time interaction. Proc Biol Sci. 2006;273:775-82 pubmed
    ..form of K-function analysis to test for space-time interaction among bank voles and wood mice infectious with cowpox virus. There was no evidence for transmission between the two host species, supporting previous evidence that they ..
  13. Pahlitzsch R, Hammarin A, Widell A. A case of facial cellulitis and necrotizing lymphadenitis due to cowpox virus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:737-42 pubmed
    We describe a patient with facial cellulitis/erysipelas due to cowpox virus inoculation in the respiratory epithelium of the nose...
  14. Smee D, Gowen B, Wandersee M, Wong M, Skirpstunas R, Baldwin T, et al. Differential pathogenesis of cowpox virus intranasal infections in mice induced by low and high inoculum volumes and effects of cidofovir treatment. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2008;31:352-9 pubmed publisher
    The causes of death from intranasal cowpox virus infections in mice remain unclear. Hypotheses include severe pneumonitis, hepatitis and/or hyperproduction of cytokines and chemokines...
  15. Kramski M, Mätz Rensing K, Stahl Hennig C, Kaup F, Nitsche A, Pauli G, et al. A novel highly reproducible and lethal nonhuman primate model for orthopox virus infection. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10412 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the calpox virus/marmoset model is a suitable nonhuman primate model for the validation of vaccines and antiviral drugs. Furthermore, this model can help study mechanisms of OPV pathogenesis...
  16. Schaudien D, Meyer H, Grunwald D, Janssen H, Wohlsein P. Concurrent infection of a cat with cowpox virus and feline parvovirus. J Comp Pathol. 2007;137:151-4 pubmed
    ..polymerase chain reaction testing and virus isolation confirmed infection with a strain of cowpox virus similar to that isolated from a cat in Germany 5 years previously...
  17. Turner P, Moyer R. The cowpox virus fusion regulator proteins SPI-3 and hemagglutinin interact in infected and uninfected cells. Virology. 2006;347:88-99 pubmed
    The serpin SPI-3 and the hemagglutinin (HA) encoded by cowpox virus (CPV) block cell-cell fusion, and colocalize at the cell surface. wtCPV does not fuse cells, but inactivation of either gene leads to fusion...
  18. Silva P, Soares J, Brasil B, Nogueira S, Andrade A, de Magalhães J, et al. Differential role played by the MEK/ERK/EGR-1 pathway in orthopoxviruses vaccinia and cowpox biology. Biochem J. 2006;398:83-95 pubmed
    ..egr-1) is one of the host cell factors intensely modulated by the orthopoxviruses VV (vaccinia virus) and CPV (cowpox virus)...
  19. Pelkonen P, Tarvainen K, Hynninen A, Kallio E, Henttonen K, Palva A, et al. Cowpox with severe generalized eruption, Finland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:1458-61 pubmed
    ..The hemagglutinin gene of the isolate clustered with a Russian cowpox virus strain, and more distantly, with other cowpox and vaccinia virus strains...
  20. Huemer H, Lassnig C, Nowotny N. Cowpox virus isolate virulent in humans shows attenuated phenotype in mice. Res Vet Sci. 2012;92:333-7 pubmed publisher
    We have cultured Cowpox virus (CPXV) from skin lesion material of a human patient from Austria...
  21. McCollum A, Austin C, Nawrocki J, Howland J, Pryde J, Vaid A, et al. Investigation of the first laboratory-acquired human cowpox virus infection in the United States. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:63-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Cowpox virus is an Orthopoxvirus that can cause infections in humans and a variety of animals. Infections occur in Eurasia; infections in humans and animals have not been reported in the United States...
  22. Hansen H, Okeke M, Nilssen O, Traavik T. Recombinant viruses obtained from co-infection in vitro with a live vaccinia-vectored influenza vaccine and a naturally occurring cowpox virus display different plaque phenotypes and loss of the transgene. Vaccine. 2004;23:499-506 pubmed
    ..performed in vitro double infections with a vaccinia virus strain Ankara (MVA) vectored influenza vaccine and a cowpox virus isolate from Norway, isolated hybrids, and further analyzed three hybrid viruses with different plaque ..
  23. Chantrey J, Meyer H, Baxby D, Begon M, Bown K, Hazel S, et al. Cowpox: reservoir hosts and geographic range. Epidemiol Infect. 1999;122:455-60 pubmed
    It is generally accepted that the reservoir hosts of cowpox virus are wild rodents, although direct evidence for this is lacking for much of the virus's geographic range...
  24. McCoy W, Wang X, Yokoyama W, Hansen T, Fremont D. Cowpox virus employs a two-pronged strategy to outflank MHCI antigen presentation. Mol Immunol. 2013;55:156-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, other orthopoxviruses such as cowpox virus can infect a variety of mammalian species, although its dominant reservoir appears to be rodents...
  25. Schmiedeknecht G, Eickmann M, Kohler K, Herden C, Kolesnikova L, Forster C, et al. Fatal cowpox virus infection in captive banded mongooses (Mungos mungo). Vet Pathol. 2010;47:547-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Cowpox virus infections have been described in various domestic and exotic animal species...
  26. Hansen S, Rushton J, Dekonenko A, Chand H, Olson G, Hutt J, et al. Cowpox virus inhibits human dendritic cell immune function by nonlethal, nonproductive infection. Virology. 2011;412:411-25 pubmed publisher
    Orthopoxviruses encode multiple proteins that modulate host immune responses. We determined whether cowpox virus (CPXV), a representative orthopoxvirus, modulated innate and acquired immune functions of human primary myeloid DCs and ..
  27. Panus J, Smith C, Ray C, Smith T, Patel D, Pickup D. Cowpox virus encodes a fifth member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family: a soluble, secreted CD30 homologue. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:8348-53 pubmed
    b>Cowpox virus (Brighton Red strain) possesses one of the largest genomes in the Orthopoxvirus genus...
  28. Wisser J, Pilaski J, Strauss G, Meyer H, Burck G, Truyen U, et al. Cowpox virus infection causing stillbirth in an Asian elephant (Elphas maximus). Vet Rec. 2001;149:244-6 pubmed
  29. Johnson R, Yellayi S, Cann J, Johnson A, Smith A, Paragas J, et al. Cowpox virus infection of cynomolgus macaques as a model of hemorrhagic smallpox. Virology. 2011;418:102-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe intravenous (IV) inoculation of cowpox virus Brighton Red strain in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) which resulted in disease similar in ..
  30. Schupp P, Pfeffer M, Meyer H, Burck G, Kolmel K, Neumann C. Cowpox virus in a 12-year-old boy: rapid identification by an orthopoxvirus-specific polymerase chain reaction. Br J Dermatol. 2001;145:146-50 pubmed
    Although smallpox was eradicated 20 years ago, other members of the genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV), such as cowpox virus (CPXV) or monkeypox virus, are still a threat to humans...
  31. Thornburg N, Ray C, Collier M, Liao H, Pickup D, Johnston R. Vaccination with Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicons encoding cowpox virus structural proteins protects mice from intranasal cowpox virus challenge. Virology. 2007;362:441-52 pubmed
    ..The cowpox virus genes encoding structural proteins corresponding to vaccinia virus proteins A33, B5, and A27 were each ..
  32. MacNeill A, Moldawer L, Moyer R. The role of the cowpox virus crmA gene during intratracheal and intradermal infection of C57BL/6 mice. Virology. 2009;384:151-60 pubmed publisher
    Intratracheal (i.t.) infection of mice with cowpox virus (CPXV), is lethal at a lower dose than intranasal (i.n.) inoculation. CPXV deleted for cytokine response modifier A (CPXVDeltacrmA) was attenuated compared to CPXV after i.t...
  33. Carroll D, Emerson G, Li Y, Sammons S, Olson V, Frace M, et al. Chasing Jenner's vaccine: revisiting cowpox virus classification. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23086 pubmed publisher
    b>Cowpox virus (CPXV) is described as the source of the first vaccine used to prevent the onset and spread of an infectious disease...
  34. Soares J, Leite F, Andrade L, Torres A, de Sousa L, Barcelos L, et al. Activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway early during vaccinia and cowpox virus infections is required for both host survival and viral replication. J Virol. 2009;83:6883-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that consistent with the vaccinia virus (VACV) and cowpox virus (CPXV) requirement for cytoskeleton alterations early during the infection cycle, PBK/Akt was phosphorylated at ..
  35. Begon M, Telfer S, Burthe S, Lambin X, Smith M, Paterson S. Effects of abundance on infection in natural populations: field voles and cowpox virus. Epidemics. 2009;1:35-46 pubmed publisher
    Detailed results on the dynamics of cowpox virus infection in four natural populations of the field vole, Microtus agrestis, are presented. Populations were sampled every 4 weeks (8 weeks in mid-winter) for 6 years...
  36. Ray C, Black R, Kronheim S, Greenstreet T, Sleath P, Salvesen G, et al. Viral inhibition of inflammation: cowpox virus encodes an inhibitor of the interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme. Cell. 1992;69:597-604 pubmed
    b>Cowpox virus effectively inhibits inflammatory responses against viral infection in the chick embryo...
  37. Quenelle D, Collins D, Kern E. Efficacy of multiple- or single-dose cidofovir against vaccinia and cowpox virus infections in mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:3275-80 pubmed
    ..of this study were to expand on the results of others that cidofovir (CDV) is effective in mice inoculated with cowpox virus (CV) or vaccinia virus (VV) and to document the efficacy of single and interval dosing beginning prior to or ..
  38. Smee D, Sidwell R. Anti-cowpox virus activities of certain adenosine analogs, arabinofuranosyl nucleosides, and 2'-fluoro-arabinofuranosyl nucleosides. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2004;23:375-83 pubmed
    Nucleoside analogs were investigated for their potential to inhibit cowpox virus (a surrogate for variola and monkeypox viruses) in cell culture and in lethal respiratory infections in mice...
  39. Kochneva G, Kolosova I, Maksyutova T, Ryabchikova E, Shchelkunov S. Effects of deletions of kelch-like genes on cowpox virus biological properties. Arch Virol. 2005;150:1857-70 pubmed
    b>Cowpox virus (CPXV) strain GRI-90 contains six genes encoding kelch-like proteins. All six proteins contain both, the N-terminal BTB domain and the C-terminal kelch domain...
  40. Naidoo J, Baxby D, Bennett M, Gaskell R, Gaskell C. Characterization of orthopoxviruses isolated from feline infections in Britain. Arch Virol. 1992;125:261-72 pubmed
    ..properties and genomes of orthopoxviruses isolated from cats in Britain were compared with strains of cowpox virus isolated from cows and their handlers...
  41. Turner P, Baquero M, Yuan S, Thoennes S, Moyer R. The cowpox virus serpin SPI-3 complexes with and inhibits urokinase-type and tissue-type plasminogen activators and plasmin. Virology. 2000;272:267-80 pubmed
    ..The inhibition constants of SPI-3 for plasmin, uPA, and tPA were determined to be 0.64, 0.51, and 1.9 nM, respectively, very similar to the corresponding K(i) values of SERP1...
  42. Cardeti G, Brozzi A, Eleni C, Polici N, D Alterio G, Carletti F, et al. Cowpox virus in llama, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1513-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Cowpox virus (CPXV) was isolated from skin lesions of a llama on a farm in Italy. Transmission electron microscopy showed brick-shaped particles consistent with orthopoxviruses...
  43. Smee D, Bailey K, Sidwell R. Treatment of lethal cowpox virus respiratory infections in mice with 2-amino-7-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]purine and its orally active diacetate ester prodrug. Antiviral Res. 2002;54:113-20 pubmed
    ..These compounds were evaluated further, using infections with the related cowpox virus. Against a wild-type (WT) cowpox virus strain in mouse C127I cell culture, 50% effective concentrations (EC(50),..
  44. McKelvey T, Andrews S, Miller S, Ray C, Pickup D. Identification of the orthopoxvirus p4c gene, which encodes a structural protein that directs intracellular mature virus particles into A-type inclusions. J Virol. 2002;76:11216-25 pubmed
    ..The gene is disrupted in the genome of cowpox virus Brighton Red (BR), demonstrating that although the P4c protein may be advantageous for virus replication in ..
  45. Byun M, Verweij M, Pickup D, Wiertz E, Hansen T, Yokoyama W. Two mechanistically distinct immune evasion proteins of cowpox virus combine to avoid antiviral CD8 T cells. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;6:422-32 pubmed publisher
    ..of MHC class I on the cell surface is an immune evasion mechanism shared by many DNA viruses, including cowpox virus. Previously, a cowpox virus protein, CPXV203, was shown to downregulate MHC class I...
  46. Becker C, Kurth A, Hessler F, Kramp H, Gokel M, Hoffmann R, et al. Cowpox virus infection in pet rat owners: not always immediately recognized. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2009;106:329-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Two further cases arose in the Krefeld area in November 2008, and there have since been multiple further reports from various regions in Germany and the neighboring countries...
  47. Burthe S, Telfer S, Lambin X, Bennett M, Carslake D, Smith A, et al. Cowpox virus infection in natural field vole Microtus agrestis populations: delayed density dependence and individual risk. J Anim Ecol. 2006;75:1416-25 pubmed
    ..Here we present the first detailed analysis of such variation. 2. Cowpox virus is an endemic sublethal pathogen circulating in populations of wild rodents...
  48. Miller C, Justus D, Jayaraman S, Kotwal G. Severe and prolonged inflammatory response to localized cowpox virus infection in footpads of C5-deficient mice: investigation of the role of host complement in poxvirus pathogenesis. Cell Immunol. 1995;162:326-32 pubmed
    ..We have compared the effects of injection of cowpox virus, primarily a rodent virus, into footpads of congenic mice strains B10.D2/nSnJ (C5-sufficient) and B10...
  49. Quenelle D, Keith K, Kern E. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of isatin-beta-thiosemicarbazone and marboran against vaccinia and cowpox virus infections. Antiviral Res. 2006;71:24-30 pubmed
    ..ip) injection to mice using 30, 10 or 3 mg/kg for 5 days beginning 24, 48 or 72 h after inoculation with VV or cowpox virus (CV). Both compounds were highly effective (p < 0...
  50. Shchelkunov S, Safronov P, Totmenin A, Petrov N, Ryazankina O, Gutorov V, et al. The genomic sequence analysis of the left and right species-specific terminal region of a cowpox virus strain reveals unique sequences and a cluster of intact ORFs for immunomodulatory and host range proteins. Virology. 1998;243:432-60 pubmed
    Sequencing and computer analysis of the left (52,283 bp) and right (49,649 bp) variable DNA regions of the cowpox virus strain GRI-90 (CPV-GRI) has revealed 51 and 37 potential open reading frames (ORFs), respectively...
  51. Roth S, Klopfleisch R, Osterrieder N, Tischer B. Cowpox virus serpin CrmA is necessary but not sufficient for the red pock phenotype on chicken chorioallantoic membranes. Virus Res. 2012;163:254-61 pubmed publisher
    It was previously reported that cowpox virus (CPXV) strain Brighton Red (BR) causes red pocks upon inoculation of chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) of embryonated chicken eggs...
  52. Ferrier Rembert A, Drillien R, Tournier J, Garin D, Crance J. Intranasal cowpox virus infection of the mouse as a model for preclinical evaluation of smallpox vaccines. Vaccine. 2007;25:4809-17 pubmed
    The intranasal infection of mice with cowpox virus (CPXV) has been evaluated as a model for smallpox infection in man...
  53. Roy C, Baker R, Washburn K, Bray M. Aerosolized cidofovir is retained in the respiratory tract and protects mice against intranasal cowpox virus challenge. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:2933-7 pubmed
    ..that a low dose of aerosolized cidofovir (HPMPC [Vistide]) was highly protective against subsequent aerosolized cowpox virus challenge and was more effective than a much larger dose of drug given by injection, suggesting that ..
  54. Leite J, da Fonseca F, de Souza Trindade G, Abrahão J, Arantes R, de Almeida Leite C, et al. A-type inclusion bodies: a factor influencing cowpox virus lesion pathogenesis. Arch Virol. 2011;156:617-28 pubmed publisher
    ..A recombinant ati-deleted cowpox virus was constructed and compared with the wild-type virus in in vitro experiments including electron microscopy and ..
  55. Smee D, Sidwell R, Kefauver D, Bray M, Huggins J. Characterization of wild-type and cidofovir-resistant strains of camelpox, cowpox, monkeypox, and vaccinia viruses. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:1329-35 pubmed
    ..Compared to the WT virus polymers the resistant cowpox virus DNA polymerase was 8.5-fold less sensitive to inhibition by cidofovir diphosphate, the active form of the drug...
  56. Schulze C, Alex M, Schirrmeier H, Hlinak A, Engelhardt A, Koschinski B, et al. Generalized fatal Cowpox virus infection in a cat with transmission to a human contact case. Zoonoses Public Health. 2007;54:31-7 pubmed
    ..Restriction enzyme analysis, PCR and sequencing of the D8L gene identified the OPV isolate as a typical Cowpox virus. It was transmitted by the cat to a human contact person who developed a local nodular dermatitis at the ..
  57. Burthe S, Telfer S, Begon M, Bennett M, Smith A, Lambin X. Cowpox virus infection in natural field vole Microtus agrestis populations: significant negative impacts on survival. J Anim Ecol. 2008;77:110-9 pubmed publisher
    1. Cowpox virus is an endemic virus circulating in populations of wild rodents. It has been implicated as a potential cause of population cycles in field voles Microtus agrestis L...
  58. Elsendoorn A, Agius G, Le Moal G, Aajaji F, Favier A, Wierzbicka Hainault E, et al. Severe ear chondritis due to cowpox virus transmitted by a pet rat. J Infect. 2011;63:391-3 pubmed publisher
    We describe a case of cowpox virus infection leading to severe acute inflammation and chondritis of the outer ear, complicated by local necrosis and facial cellulitis. Secondary lesions occurred on a finger and the abdomen...
  59. Bray M, Martinez M, Kefauver D, West M, Roy C. Treatment of aerosolized cowpox virus infection in mice with aerosolized cidofovir. Antiviral Res. 2002;54:129-42 pubmed
    The Brighton strain of cowpox virus causes lethal bronchopneumonia when delivered as a small-particle (1 microm) aerosol to weanling BALB/c mice...
  60. Cavanagh R, Lambin X, Ergon T, Bennett M, Graham I, van Soolingen D, et al. Disease dynamics in cyclic populations of field voles (Microtus agrestis): cowpox virus and vole tuberculosis (Mycobacterium microti). Proc Biol Sci. 2004;271:859-67 pubmed
    ..The prevalences of antibodies to cowpox virus and of clinical signs of Mycobacterium microti infection (vole tuberculosis) showed delayed (not direct) ..
  61. Prichard M, Williams A, Keith K, Harden E, Kern E. Distinct thymidine kinases encoded by cowpox virus and herpes simplex virus contribute significantly to the differential antiviral activity of nucleoside analogs. Antiviral Res. 2006;71:1-6 pubmed
    ..by the types I and II thymidine kinase (TK) homologs expressed by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and cowpox virus (CV)...
  62. Okeke M, Nilssen Ø, Moens U, Tryland M, Traavik T. In vitro host range, multiplication and virion forms of recombinant viruses obtained from co-infection in vitro with a vaccinia-vectored influenza vaccine and a naturally occurring cowpox virus isolate. Virol J. 2009;6:55 pubmed publisher
    ..to express influenza virus haemagglutinin (HA) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes with a naturally occurring cowpox virus (CPXV-NOH1) resulted in recombinant progeny viruses (H Hansen, MI Okeke, Ø Nilssen, T Traavik, Vaccine 23: 499-..
  63. Ninove L, Domart Y, Vervel C, Voinot C, Salez N, Raoult D, et al. Cowpox virus transmission from pet rats to humans, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:781-4 pubmed publisher
    In early 2009, four human cases of cowpox virus cutaneous infection in northern France, resulting from direct contact with infected pet rats (Rattus norvegicus), were studied...
  64. Kik M, Liu P, van Asten J. Cowpoxvirus infection in the Patagonian cavy (Dolichotis patagonum) emerging disease in an educational animal park the first reported case. Vet Q. 2006;28:42-4 pubmed
    ..The mara developed extensive pox lesions, shedding large amounts of viral particles. The ending of vaccination programmes against smallpox in the late 1970's may lead to an increase in susceptibility of humans to zoonotic poxviruses...
  65. Oie K, Pickup D. Cowpox virus and other members of the orthopoxvirus genus interfere with the regulation of NF-kappaB activation. Virology. 2001;288:175-87 pubmed
    ..During the early phase of infection, cowpox virus can inhibit the induction of NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression by interfering with the process of ..
  66. Alzhanova D, Edwards D, Hammarlund E, Scholz I, Horst D, Wagner M, et al. Cowpox virus inhibits the transporter associated with antigen processing to evade T cell recognition. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;6:433-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Cowpox virus encodes an extensive array of putative immunomodulatory proteins, likely contributing to its wide host range, which includes zoonotic infections in humans...
  67. Alcam A, Khanna A, Paul N, Smith G. Vaccinia virus strains Lister, USSR and Evans express soluble and cell-surface tumour necrosis factor receptors. J Gen Virol. 1999;80 ( Pt 4):949-59 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cowpox virus (CPV) encodes three vTNFRs (CrmB, CrmC and CrmD)...
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