lumpy skin disease virus

Summary

Summary: A species of CAPRIPOXVIRUS causing a cattle disease occurring in Africa.

Top Publications

  1. Kitching R. Vaccines for lumpy skin disease, sheep pox and goat pox. Dev Biol (Basel). 2003;114:161-7 pubmed
    ..Because of this antigenic homology among all strains, there is the potential to use a single vaccine strain to protect cattle, sheep and goats...
  2. Tuppurainen E, Venter E, Coetzer J. The detection of lumpy skin disease virus in samples of experimentally infected cattle using different diagnostic techniques. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2005;72:153-64 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, this study showed the PCR to be superior in detecting LSD virus from blood and skin samples. However, virus isolation is still required when the infectivity of the LSD virus is to be determined...
  3. Osuagwuh U, Bagla V, Venter E, Annandale C, Irons P. Absence of lumpy skin disease virus in semen of vaccinated bulls following vaccination and subsequent experimental infection. Vaccine. 2007;25:2238-43 pubmed
    ..This study confirmed the ability of LSD vaccination to prevent the excretion of LSDV in semen of vaccinated bulls...
  4. Wallace D, Weyer J, Nel L, Viljoen G. Improved method for the generation and selection of homogeneous lumpy skin disease virus (SA-Neethling) recombinants. J Virol Methods. 2007;146:52-60 pubmed
    b>Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is being developed as a vector for recombinant vaccines against diseases of veterinary importance...
  5. Babiuk S, Bowden T, Parkyn G, Dalman B, Manning L, Neufeld J, et al. Quantification of lumpy skin disease virus following experimental infection in cattle. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2008;55:299-307 pubmed publisher
    ..lumpy skin disease pathogenesis, we inoculated eight 4- to 6-month-old Holstein calves intravenously with lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) and collected samples over a period of 42 days for analysis by virus isolation, real-time PCR and ..
  6. Stram Y, Kuznetzova L, Friedgut O, Gelman B, Yadin H, Rubinstein Guini M. The use of lumpy skin disease virus genome termini for detection and phylogenetic analysis. J Virol Methods. 2008;151:225-9 pubmed publisher
  7. Kara P, Afonso C, Wallace D, Kutish G, Abolnik C, Lu Z, et al. Comparative sequence analysis of the South African vaccine strain and two virulent field isolates of Lumpy skin disease virus. Arch Virol. 2003;148:1335-56 pubmed
    The genomic sequences of 3 strains of Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) (Neethling type) were compared to determine molecular differences, viz...
  8. Chihota C, Rennie L, Kitching R, Mellor P. Attempted mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus by biting insects. Med Vet Entomol. 2003;17:294-300 pubmed
    ..feed on either lumpy skin disease (LSD) infected animals or through a membrane on a bloodmeal containing lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV)...
  9. Pretorius A, Van Kleef M, Collins N, Tshikudo N, Louw E, Faber F, et al. A heterologous prime/boost immunisation strategy protects against virulent E. ruminantium Welgevonden needle challenge but not against tick challenge. Vaccine. 2008;26:4363-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, 90% of the sheep immunised twice with rDNA and boosted with r1H12 lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) survived...

More Information

Publications65

  1. Chihota C, Rennie L, Kitching R, Mellor P. Mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Epidemiol Infect. 2001;126:317-21 pubmed
    Aedes aegypti female mosquitoes are capable of the mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) from infected to susceptible cattle...
  2. Tulman E, Afonso C, Lu Z, Zsak L, Kutish G, Rock D. Genome of lumpy skin disease virus. J Virol. 2001;75:7122-30 pubmed
    b>Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), a member of the capripoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae, is the etiologic agent of an important disease of cattle in Africa. Here we report the genomic sequence of LSDV...
  3. Tuppurainen E, Lubinga J, Stoltsz W, Troskie M, Carpenter S, Coetzer J, et al. Mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus male ticks. Epidemiol Infect. 2013;141:425-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate if lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) can be transmitted mechanically by African brown ear ticks (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neum.)...
  4. Aspden K, van Dijk A, Bingham J, Cox D, Passmore J, Williamson A. Immunogenicity of a recombinant lumpy skin disease virus (neethling vaccine strain) expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein in cattle. Vaccine. 2002;20:2693-701 pubmed
    ..The present study describes the construction of a live recombinant lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) vaccine, expressing the glycoprotein of rabies virus (RG) and assessment of its ability to ..
  5. Magori Cohen R, Louzoun Y, Herziger Y, Oron E, Arazi A, Tuppurainen E, et al. Mathematical modelling and evaluation of the different routes of transmission of lumpy skin disease virus. Vet Res. 2012;43:1 pubmed publisher
    ..It is therefore concluded that transmission mostly occurs by indirect contact, probably by flying, blood-sucking insects. This has important implications for control of LSD...
  6. Brenner J, Bellaiche M, Gross E, Elad D, Oved Z, Haimovitz M, et al. Appearance of skin lesions in cattle populations vaccinated against lumpy skin disease: statutory challenge. Vaccine. 2009;27:1500-3 pubmed publisher
    ..6 and 33.7%, respectively). This data suggests that the potency of the vaccine need to be re-assessed for beef cattle...
  7. Aspden K, Passmore J, Tiedt F, Williamson A. Evaluation of lumpy skin disease virus, a capripoxvirus, as a replication-deficient vaccine vector. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:1985-96 pubmed
    b>Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), a capripoxvirus with a host range limited to ruminants, was evaluated as a replication-deficient vaccine vector for use in non-ruminant hosts...
  8. Tuppurainen E, Oura C. Review: lumpy skin disease: an emerging threat to Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2012;59:40-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We also review the latest findings on the epidemiology of LSD, its mechanisms of transmission, the potential role of wildlife in its maintenance and spread and the diagnostic tests and control methods currently available...
  9. Fick W, Viljoen G. Identification and characterisation of an early/late bi-directional promoter of the capripoxvirus, lumpy skin disease virus. Arch Virol. 1999;144:1229-39 pubmed
    Identification and characterisation of an early/late bi-directional promoter element of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is described...
  10. Lubinga J, Tuppurainen E, Stoltsz W, Ebersohn K, Coetzer J, Venter E. Detection of lumpy skin disease virus in saliva of ticks fed on lumpy skin disease virus-infected cattle. Exp Appl Acarol. 2013;61:129-38 pubmed publisher
    Lumpy skin disease is an economically important disease of cattle that is caused by the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), which belongs to the genus Capripoxvirus...
  11. Yeruham I, Nir O, Braverman Y, Davidson M, Grinstein H, Haymovitch M, et al. Spread of lumpy skin disease in Israeli dairy herds. Vet Rec. 1995;137:91-3 pubmed
    ..All the cattle and the small flocks of sheep and goats in the village were slaughtered...
  12. Carn V, Kitching R. An investigation of possible routes of transmission of lumpy skin disease virus (Neethling). Epidemiol Infect. 1995;114:219-26 pubmed
    British cattle were infected with the South African (Neethling) strain of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) and their clinical signs monitored over a 3-week period...
  13. Tuppurainen E, Lubinga J, Stoltsz W, Troskie M, Carpenter S, Coetzer J, et al. Evidence of vertical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus in Rhipicephalus decoloratus ticks. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013;4:329-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to assess whether Rhipicephalus decoloratus ticks were able to transmit lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) transovarially. Uninfected, laboratory-bred R...
  14. House J, Wilson T, el Nakashly S, Karim I, Ismail I, el Danaf N, et al. The isolation of lumpy skin disease virus and bovine herpesvirus-4 from cattle in Egypt. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1990;2:111-5 pubmed
    ..Only LSDV was isolated from the second outbreak (Ismalia). The capripoxviruses were identified as LSDV by neutralization with specific antiserum and by their ability to produce generalized LSD in experimentally inoculated cattle...
  15. Reperant L, Brown I, Haenen O, de Jong M, Osterhaus A, Papa A, et al. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals. J Comp Pathol. 2016;155:S41-53 pubmed publisher
    ..mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste ..
  16. Toplak I, Petrovic T, Vidanovic D, Lazic S, Sekler M, Manić M, et al. Complete Genome Sequence of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Isolate SERBIA/Bujanovac/2016, Detected during an Outbreak in the Balkan Area. Genome Announc. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    The lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) isolate SERBIA/Bujanovac/2016 consists of 150,661 nucleotides and has a 99.95% nucleotide identity with the Neethling Warmbaths LW strain isolated in South Africa in 1999...
  17. Lubinga J, Tuppurainen E, Coetzer J, Stoltsz W, Venter E. Evidence of lumpy skin disease virus over-wintering by transstadial persistence in Amblyomma hebraeum and transovarial persistence in Rhipicephalus decoloratus ticks. Exp Appl Acarol. 2014;62:77-90 pubmed publisher
    Lumpy skin disease is a debilitating cattle disease caused by the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), belonging to the genus Capripoxvirus. Epidemics of the disease usually occur in summer, when insect activity is high...
  18. Gari G, Abie G, Gizaw D, Wubete A, Kidane M, Asgedom H, et al. Evaluation of the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of three capripoxvirus vaccine strains against lumpy skin disease virus. Vaccine. 2015;33:3256-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The three vaccines evaluated in the study included two locally produced (Ethiopian) vaccines (lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) Neethling and Kenyan sheep and goat pox (KSGP) O-180 strain vaccines) and a Gorgan goat pox (GTP) ..
  19. Sevik M, Dogan M. Epidemiological and Molecular Studies on Lumpy Skin Disease Outbreaks in Turkey during 2014-2015. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2017;64:1268-1279 pubmed publisher
    This study was carried out to explore epidemiological and molecular features of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) in the Aegean, Central Anatolian and Mediterranean regions of Turkey, to evaluate the risk factors associated with LSDV ..
  20. Boshra H, Truong T, Nfon C, Bowden T, Gerdts V, Tikoo S, et al. A lumpy skin disease virus deficient of an IL-10 gene homologue provides protective immunity against virulent capripoxvirus challenge in sheep and goats. Antiviral Res. 2015;123:39-49 pubmed publisher
    ..One of these is a partially attenuated strain of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), KS-1, which provides cross-protection against both sheep pox and goat pox...
  21. Agianniotaki E, Mathijs E, Vandenbussche F, Tasioudi K, Haegeman A, Iliadou P, et al. Complete Genome Sequence of the Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Isolated from the First Reported Case in Greece in 2015. Genome Announc. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    b>Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) causes an economically important disease in cattle. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the first LSDV isolate identified in mainland Europe...
  22. Mafirakureva P, Saidi B, Mbanga J. Incidence and molecular characterisation of lumpy skin disease virus in Zimbabwe using the P32 gene. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2017;49:47-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides the first report on the incidence and molecular characterisation of LSDV in Zimbabwe. ..
  23. Agianniotaki E, Chaintoutis S, Haegeman A, Tasioudi K, De Leeuw I, Katsoulos P, et al. Development and validation of a TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR method for the differentiation of wild type lumpy skin disease virus from vaccine virus strains. J Virol Methods. 2017;249:48-57 pubmed publisher
    ..was developed and validated, for the concurrent detection and differentiation of wild type and vaccine Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) strains. The method was evaluated in three laboratories...
  24. Wallace D, Viljoen G. Immune responses to recombinants of the South African vaccine strain of lumpy skin disease virus generated by using thymidine kinase gene insertion. Vaccine. 2005;23:3061-7 pubmed
    The South African vaccine strain of lumpy skin disease virus (type SA-Neethling) is currently being developed as a vector for recombinant vaccines of economically important livestock diseases throughout Africa...
  25. Offerman K, Deffur A, Carulei O, Wilkinson R, Douglass N, Williamson A. Six host-range restricted poxviruses from three genera induce distinct gene expression profiles in an in vivo mouse model. BMC Genomics. 2015;16:510 pubmed publisher
    ..infection (10(5) pfu/mouse) with six host-restricted poxvirus species from three genera, namely Lumpy Skin Disease virus (LSDV), Canarypox virus (CNPV), Fowlpox virus (FWPV), modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and two novel South ..
  26. Ben Gera J, Klement E, Khinich E, Stram Y, Shpigel N. Comparison of the efficacy of Neethling lumpy skin disease virus and x10RM65 sheep-pox live attenuated vaccines for the prevention of lumpy skin disease - The results of a randomized controlled field study. Vaccine. 2015;33:4837-42 pubmed publisher
    ..No transmission of the Neethling strain to non-Neethling vaccinated cows was observed in this study. ..
  27. Mathijs E, Vandenbussche F, Haegeman A, King A, Nthangeni B, Potgieter C, et al. Complete Genome Sequences of the Neethling-Like Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Strains Obtained Directly from Three Commercial Live Attenuated Vaccines. Genome Announc. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    b>Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) causes an economically important disease in cattle...
  28. Greth A, Gourreau J, Vassart M, Nguyen Ba Vy -, Wyers M, Lefevre P. Capripoxvirus disease in an Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) from Saudi Arabia. J Wildl Dis. 1992;28:295-300 pubmed
    ..A serologic survey of the herd of 90 oryx showed a low prevalence (2%) of this infection. This report describes the first case of lumpy skin disease in an Arabian oryx...
  29. Wallace D, Viljoen G. Importance of thymidine kinase activity for normal growth of lumpy skin disease virus (SA-Neethling). Arch Virol. 2002;147:659-63 pubmed
    ..an intact thymidine kinase (TK) gene for the vaccine strain of a southern African capripoxvirus, namely, lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) (type SA-Neethling), a TK disruption recombinant was generated expressing the Escherichia coli ..
  30. Tasioudi K, Antoniou S, Iliadou P, Sachpatzidis A, Plevraki E, Agianniotaki E, et al. Emergence of Lumpy Skin Disease in Greece, 2015. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2016;63:260-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This article presents the epidemiological situation, the diagnosis, the control measures including emergency vaccination and the preliminary conclusions from the experience gained. ..
  31. Gari G, Grosbois V, Waret Szkuta A, Babiuk S, Jacquiet P, Roger F. Lumpy skin disease in Ethiopia: seroprevalence study across different agro-climate zones. Acta Trop. 2012;123:101-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In the light of these updated estimations, we discuss options to trigger appropriate control measures in the future...
  32. Ngichabe C, Wamwayi H, Barrett T, Ndungu E, Black D, Bostock C. Trial of a capripoxvirus-rinderpest recombinant vaccine in African cattle. Epidemiol Infect. 1997;118:63-70 pubmed
  33. Alemayehu G, Zewde G, Admassu B. Risk assessments of lumpy skin diseases in Borena bull market chain and its implication for livelihoods and international trade. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2013;45:1153-9 pubmed publisher
    ..6 USD. The risk estimates for LSD are greater than negligible; therefore, disease prevention and control strategy along the chain should be carefully considered by the Ethiopian veterinary services...
  34. Hunter P, Wallace D. Lumpy skin disease in southern Africa: a review of the disease and aspects of control. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2001;72:68-71 pubmed
    ..More research is needed on epidemiology and transmission of LSD in South Africa to formulate control measures...
  35. Irons P, Tuppurainen E, Venter E. Excretion of lumpy skin disease virus in bull semen. Theriogenology. 2005;63:1290-7 pubmed
    This work was done to establish the incidence and duration of excretion of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) in semen of experimentally infected susceptible bulls...
  36. Binepal Y, Ongadi F, Chepkwony J. Alternative cell lines for the propagation of lumpy skin disease virus. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2001;68:151-3 pubmed
    In our Institute lumpy skin disease virus is grown on primary lamb testis cells for isolation, identification and vaccine production. However, the availability of lambs in Kenya has been seriously reduced over the past few years...
  37. Awadin W, Hussein H, Elseady Y, Babiuk S, Furuoka H. Detection of lumpy skin disease virus antigen and genomic DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from an Egyptian outbreak in 2006. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2011;58:451-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Both lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) DNA detected by polymerase chain reaction and LSDV antigen detected by immunohistochemistry using ..
  38. Shen Y, Shephard E, Douglass N, Johnston N, Adams C, Williamson C, et al. A novel candidate HIV vaccine vector based on the replication deficient Capripoxvirus, Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). Virol J. 2011;8:265 pubmed publisher
    The Capripoxvirus, Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) has a restricted host-range and is being investigated as a novel HIV-1 vaccine vector. LSDV does not complete its replication cycle in non-ruminant hosts.
  39. Cêtre Sossah C, Dickmu S, Kwiatek O, Albina E. A G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor: A putative insertion site for a multi-pathogen recombinant capripoxvirus vaccine strategy. J Immunol Methods. 2017;448:112-115 pubmed publisher
    ..GPCR insertion site (rKS1-HPPR-GPCR) was generated in the backbone North African isolate KS1 strain of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV)...
  40. Carn V, Kitching R. The clinical response of cattle experimentally infected with lumpy skin disease (Neethling) virus. Arch Virol. 1995;140:503-13 pubmed
    ..i. and viraemia was detected in each of five animals with generalized signs. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions following intradermal inoculation of immune cattle with LSDV were found to be maximal at 24 h after challenge...
  41. Menasherow S, Erster O, Rubinstein Giuni M, Kovtunenko A, Eyngor E, Gelman B, et al. A high-resolution melting (HRM) assay for the differentiation between Israeli field and Neethling vaccine lumpy skin disease viruses. J Virol Methods. 2016;232:12-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This assay is not only in full agreement with the previously published PCR gradient and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) tests but it is faster with, fewer steps, cheaper and dependable. ..
  42. Shalaby M, El Deeb A, El Tholoth M, Hoffmann D, Czerny C, Hufert F, et al. Recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of lumpy skin disease virus. BMC Vet Res. 2016;12:244 pubmed
    b>Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is a Capripoxvirus infecting cattle and Buffalos. Lumpy skin disease (LSD) leads to significant economic losses due to hide damage, reduction of milk production, mastitis, infertility and mortalities (10 %)...
  43. Ayelet G, Abate Y, Sisay T, Nigussie H, Gelaye E, Jemberie S, et al. Lumpy skin disease: preliminary vaccine efficacy assessment and overview on outbreak impact in dairy cattle at Debre Zeit, central Ethiopia. Antiviral Res. 2013;98:261-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A trend of seasonality was also observed in its occurrence. The study finding urges the need for investigation of vaccine failure including vaccine matching and alternative vaccine development...
  44. Sharawi S, Abd el Rahim I. The utility of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of lumpy skin disease in cattle and water buffaloes in Egypt. Rev Sci Tech. 2011;30:821-30 pubmed
    ..Mass vaccination should be applied in both cattle and water buffaloes in Egypt using an effective specific vaccine against LSD, such as the attenuated Neethling strain vaccine or a recombinant vaccine...
  45. Awad W, Ibrahim A, Mahran K, Fararh K, Abdel Moniem M. Evaluation of different diagnostic methods for diagnosis of Lumpy skin disease in cows. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2010;42:777-83 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) was isolated from skin biopsies and blood samples collected from clinically infected cows in ..
  46. El Tholoth M, El Kenawy A. G-Protein-Coupled Chemokine Receptor Gene in Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Isolates from Cattle and Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2016;63:e288-e295 pubmed publisher
    b>Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), sheep poxvirus (SPV) and goat poxvirus (GPV) are the most serious poxviruses of ruminants...
  47. Rouby S, Aboulsoud E. Evidence of intrauterine transmission of lumpy skin disease virus. Vet J. 2016;209:193-5 pubmed publisher
    ..All tested sera collected from animals located in the same area were serologically positive, indicating exposure to LSD virus. ..
  48. Kitching R, Bhat P, Black D. The characterization of African strains of capripoxvirus. Epidemiol Infect. 1989;102:335-43 pubmed
    ..Strains of capripoxvirus infecting cattle have remained very stable over a 30-year period and are closely related to strains recovered from sheep in Africa...
  49. Gari G, Bonnet P, Roger F, Waret Szkuta A. Epidemiological aspects and financial impact of lumpy skin disease in Ethiopia. Prev Vet Med. 2011;102:274-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results could provide guidance to producers and the government in their endeavors to control the disease...
  50. Annandale C, Irons P, Bagla V, Osuagwuh U, Venter E. Sites of persistence of lumpy skin disease virus in the genital tract of experimentally infected bulls. Reprod Domest Anim. 2010;45:250-5 pubmed publisher
    The objectives of this work were to determine the site of persistence of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) in bulls shedding the virus in semen for a period longer than 28 days, to determine if the virus is present in all fractions of semen ..
  51. Gari G, Biteau Coroller F, LeGoff C, Caufour P, Roger F. Evaluation of indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for the diagnosis and screening of lumpy skin disease using Bayesian method. Vet Microbiol. 2008;129:269-80 pubmed publisher
  52. Fick W, Viljoen G. Early and late transcriptional phases in the replication of lumpy-skin-disease virus. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 1994;61:255-61 pubmed
    ..The cloned fragments of the genome are expected to help in the identification of important promoter elements...
  53. El Kenawy A, El Tholoth M. Sequence analysis of attachment gene of lumpy skin disease and sheep poxviruses. Virol Sin. 2010;25:409-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Hyperimmune rabbit sera to Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV)/Ismailyia88 strain and sheep pox virus (SPV)/ Kenyan vaccinal strain were prepared...
  54. Bagla V, Osuagwuh U, Annandale C, Irons P, Venter E. Elimination of toxicity and enhanced detection of lumpy skin disease virus on cell culture from experimentally infected bovine semen samples. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2006;73:263-8 pubmed
    b>Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), a poxvirus of the genus Capripoxvirus, is shed in the semen of infected bulls. The screening of semen for infectious virus requires a sensitive diagnostic method...
  55. Lubinga J, Tuppurainen E, Coetzer J, Stoltsz W, Venter E. Transovarial passage and transmission of LSDV by Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus decoloratus. Exp Appl Acarol. 2014;62:67-75 pubmed publisher
    Lumpy skin disease (LSD), an acute, sub-acute or inapparent disease of cattle, is caused by lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), a member of the genus Capripoxvirus in the family Poxviridae...
  56. Molla W, Frankena K, de Jong M. Transmission dynamics of lumpy skin disease in Ethiopia. Epidemiol Infect. 2017;145:2856-2863 pubmed publisher
    ..The calculated R provides a baseline against which various control options can be assessed for efficacy...