capripoxvirus

Summary

Summary: A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising poxviruses infecting sheep, goats, and cattle. Transmission is usually mechanical by arthropods, but also includes contact, airborne routes, and non-living reservoirs (fomites).

Top Publications

  1. Carn V. Control of capripoxvirus infections. Vaccine. 1993;11:1275-9 pubmed
    ..With the capripoxviruses showing great promise as vector vaccines, widespread use of a recombinant vaccine seems increasingly likely...
  2. Bhanuprakash V, Moorthy A, Krishnappa G, Srinivasa Gowda R, Indrani B. An epidemiological study of sheep pox infection in Karnataka State, India. Rev Sci Tech. 2005;24:909-20 pubmed
    ..Environmental factors influenced disease occurrence. Vaccine production met only one tenth of the requirement, and its peak utilisation was in the dry season. ..
  3. Babiuk S, Bowden T, Boyle D, Wallace D, Kitching R. Capripoxviruses: an emerging worldwide threat to sheep, goats and cattle. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2008;55:263-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Capripoxviruses have the potential to become emerging disease threats because of global climate change and changes in patterns of trade in animals and animal products. They also could be used as economic bioterrorism agents...
  4. Oguzoglu T, Alkan F, Ozkul A, Vural S, Güngör A, Burgu I. A sheeppox virus outbreak in Central Turkey in 2003: isolation and identification of capripoxvirus ovis. Vet Res Commun. 2006;30:965-71 pubmed
    ..Additionally, the aetiological agent was isolated from a sheep and identified using EM and PCR...
  5. Cao J, Gershon P, Black D. Sequence analysis of HindIII Q2 fragment of capripoxvirus reveals a putative gene encoding a G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor homologue. Virology. 1995;209:207-12 pubmed
    The DNA sequence of the HindIII Q2 fragment near the left terminus of the capripoxvirus (KS-1 strain) genome was determined. The sequence contains two complete open reading frames (ORFs) and a part of a third...
  6. Verma S, Verma L, Gupta V, Katoch V, Dogra V, Pal B, et al. Emerging Capripoxvirus disease outbreaks in Himachal Pradesh, a northern state of India. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2011;58:79-85 pubmed publisher
    ..affect small ruminants and are caused by sheep pox virus and goat pox virus respectively that belong to genus Capripoxvirus of Poxviridae family...
  7. Lamien C, Lelenta M, Goger W, Silber R, Tuppurainen E, Matijevic M, et al. Real time PCR method for simultaneous detection, quantitation and differentiation of capripoxviruses. J Virol Methods. 2011;171:134-40 pubmed publisher
    The genus Capripoxvirus (CaPV) comprises three members namely, sheep poxvirus (SPPV), goat poxvirus (GTPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) affecting sheep, goats and cattle, respectively...
  8. Bhanuprakash V, Venkatesan G, Balamurugan V, Hosamani M, Yogisharadhya R, Chauhan R, et al. Pox outbreaks in sheep and goats at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India: evidence of sheeppox virus infection in goats. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2010;57:375-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequence analysis of the P32 envelope protein gene revealed that the causative agent of both outbreaks was confirmed as sheeppox virus (SPPV) implying SPPV infection not only in sheep but also goats in India...
  9. Stram Y, Kuznetzova L, Friedgut O, Gelman B, Yadin H, Rubinstein Guini M. The use of lumpy skin disease virus genome termini for detection and phylogenetic analysis. J Virol Methods. 2008;151:225-9 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications83

  1. Zheng M, Liu Q, Jin N, Guo J, Huang X, Li H, et al. A duplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of Capripoxvirus and Orf virus. Mol Cell Probes. 2007;21:276-81 pubmed
    ..polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed and optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of Capripoxvirus (CPV) (including goat pox virus and sheep pox virus) and orf virus (ORFV)...
  2. Orlova E, Shcherbakova A, Diev V, Zakharov V. [Differentiation of capripoxvirus species and strains by polymerase chain reaction]. Mol Biol (Mosk). 2006;40:158-64 pubmed
    A fast and simple method for capripoxvirus species identification has been developed...
  3. Bhanuprakash V, Indrani B, Hosamani M, Singh R. The current status of sheep pox disease. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006;29:27-60 pubmed
    ..This synthesis is to present an up-to-date review of the disease and its control to provide the reader with an overview of the problem...
  4. Bowden T, Babiuk S, Parkyn G, Copps J, Boyle D. Capripoxvirus tissue tropism and shedding: A quantitative study in experimentally infected sheep and goats. Virology. 2008;371:380-93 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that capripoxvirus infections in sheep and goats provide additional and convenient models which are suitable not only for ..
  5. Markoulatos P, Mangana Vougiouka O, Koptopoulos G, Nomikou K, Papadopoulos O. Detection of sheep poxvirus in skin biopsy samples by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. J Virol Methods. 2000;84:161-7 pubmed
    The development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method with amplification of capripoxvirus in a single-step procedure from skin biopsies using three primer pairs, two specific for capripoxvirus and one specific for alpha-..
  6. Romero C, Barrett T, Chamberlain R, Kitching R, Fleming M, Black D. Recombinant capripoxvirus expressing the hemagglutinin protein gene of rinderpest virus: protection of cattle against rinderpest and lumpy skin disease viruses. Virology. 1994;204:425-9 pubmed
    ..promoter p11, was inserted by homologous recombination into the thymidine kinase gene of the KS-1 strain of capripoxvirus. The recombinant virus produced authentic H protein as judged by its electrophoretic mobility, transport to ..
  7. Boshra H, Truong T, Nfon C, Gerdts V, Tikoo S, Babiuk L, et al. Capripoxvirus-vectored vaccines against livestock diseases in Africa. Antiviral Res. 2013;98:217-27 pubmed publisher
    ..with the development of attenuated capripoxviruses as vaccines against LSD, SPP and GTP and of recombinant capripoxvirus-vectored vaccines against RVF and PPR...
  8. Tulman E, Afonso C, Lu Z, Zsak L, Sur J, Sandybaev N, et al. The genomes of sheeppox and goatpox viruses. J Virol. 2002;76:6054-61 pubmed
    Sheeppox virus (SPPV) and goatpox virus (GTPV), members of the Capripoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae, are etiologic agents of important diseases of sheep and goats in northern and central Africa, southwest and central Asia, and the ..
  9. Berhe G, Minet C, Le Goff C, Barrett T, Ngangnou A, Grillet C, et al. Development of a dual recombinant vaccine to protect small ruminants against peste-des-petits-ruminants virus and capripoxvirus infections. J Virol. 2003;77:1571-7 pubmed
    A recombinant capripoxvirus vaccine containing a cDNA of the peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) fusion protein gene was constructed. A quick and efficient method was used to select a highly purified recombinant virus clone...
  10. Babiuk S, Bowden T, Parkyn G, Dalman B, Hoa D, Long N, et al. Yemen and Vietnam capripoxviruses demonstrate a distinct host preference for goats compared with sheep. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:105-14 pubmed publisher
    Sheeppox and goatpox are caused by viruses that are members of the genus Capripoxvirus, and globally result in significant production losses...
  11. Stubbs S, Oura C, Henstock M, Bowden T, King D, Tuppurainen E. Validation of a high-throughput real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of capripoxviral DNA. J Virol Methods. 2012;179:419-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to validate a high-throughput real-time PCR assay for routine diagnostic use in a capripoxvirus reference laboratory...
  12. Balinsky C, Delhon G, Smoliga G, Prarat M, French R, Geary S, et al. Rapid preclinical detection of sheeppox virus by a real-time PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:438-42 pubmed
    Sheeppox virus (SPPV) is a member of the Capripoxvirus (CaPV) genus of the Poxviridae family...
  13. Le Goff C, Lamien C, Fakhfakh E, Chadeyras A, Aba Adulugba E, Libeau G, et al. Capripoxvirus G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor: a host-range gene suitable for virus animal origin discrimination. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1967-77 pubmed publisher
    The genus Capripoxvirus within the family Poxviridae comprises three closely related viruses, namely goat pox, sheep pox and lumpy skin disease viruses...
  14. Beard P, Sugar S, Bazarragchaa E, Gerelmaa U, Tserendorj S, Tuppurainen E, et al. A description of two outbreaks of capripoxvirus disease in Mongolia. Vet Microbiol. 2010;142:427-31 pubmed publisher
    Mongolia had no reported cases of capripoxvirus disease from 1977 until an outbreak of sheeppox in 2006-2007 and then goatpox in 2008...
  15. Romero C, Barrett T, Kitching R, Carn V, Black D. Protection of cattle against rinderpest and lumpy skin disease with a recombinant capripoxvirus expressing the fusion protein gene of rinderpest virus. Vet Rec. 1994;135:152-4 pubmed
    ..protected against challenge with rinderpest and lumpy skin disease viruses by vaccination with a recombinant capripoxvirus containing the fusion protein (F) gene of rinderpest virus...
  16. Soi R, Rurangirwa F, McGuire T, Rwambo P, Demartini J, Crawford T. Protection of sheep against Rift Valley fever virus and sheep poxvirus with a recombinant capripoxvirus vaccine. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:1842-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A capripoxvirus (CPV) recombinant virus (rKS1/RVFV) was developed, which expressed the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) Gn and ..
  17. Yan X, Chu Y, Wu G, Zhao Z, Li J, Zhu H, et al. An outbreak of sheep pox associated with goat poxvirus in Gansu province of China. Vet Microbiol. 2012;156:425-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results characterized the isolated viruses as GTPV. It is the first report of an outbreak of sheep pox associated with GTPV in China...
  18. Zhou T, Jia H, Chen G, He X, Fang Y, Wang X, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of Chinese sheeppox and goatpox virus isolates. Virol J. 2012;9:25 pubmed publisher
    Sheeppox virus (SPPV) and goatpox virus (GTPV), members of the Capripoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family are causative agents of sheep pox and goat pox respectively, which are important contagious diseases and endemic in central and ..
  19. Aspden K, Passmore J, Tiedt F, Williamson A. Evaluation of lumpy skin disease virus, a capripoxvirus, as a replication-deficient vaccine vector. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:1985-96 pubmed
    Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), a capripoxvirus with a host range limited to ruminants, was evaluated as a replication-deficient vaccine vector for use in non-ruminant hosts...
  20. Heine H, Stevens M, Foord A, Boyle D. A capripoxvirus detection PCR and antibody ELISA based on the major antigen P32, the homolog of the vaccinia virus H3L gene. J Immunol Methods. 1999;227:187-96 pubmed
    Sheeppoxvirus (SPV), goatpoxvirus (GPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) of cattle belong to the Capripoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family and can cause significant economic losses in countries where they are endemic...
  21. Ireland D, Binepal Y. Improved detection of capripoxvirus in biopsy samples by PCR. J Virol Methods. 1998;74:1-7 pubmed
    A simple test based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect capripoxvirus DNA in tissue culture supernatants and biopsy samples. The identity of the PCR products was confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis...
  22. Lamien C, Le Goff C, Silber R, Wallace D, Gulyaz V, Tuppurainen E, et al. Use of the Capripoxvirus homologue of Vaccinia virus 30 kDa RNA polymerase subunit (RPO30) gene as a novel diagnostic and genotyping target: development of a classical PCR method to differentiate Goat poxvirus from Sheep poxvirus. Vet Microbiol. 2011;149:30-9 pubmed publisher
  23. Venkatesan G, Balamurugan V, Singh R, Bhanuprakash V. Goat pox virus isolated from an outbreak at Akola, Maharashtra (India) phylogenetically related to Chinese strain. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2010;42:1053-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, sequence analysis of P32 envelope protein gene revealed that this isolate phylogenetically related closely to Chinese strain...
  24. Hosamani M, Mondal B, Tembhurne P, Bandyopadhyay S, Singh R, Rasool T. Differentiation of sheep pox and goat poxviruses by sequence analysis and PCR-RFLP of P32 gene. Virus Genes. 2004;29:73-80 pubmed
    ..P32, one of the major immunogenic genes of Capripoxvirus, was isolated and Sequenced from two Indian isolates of goat poxvirus (GPV) and a vaccine strain of sheep ..
  25. Das A, Babiuk S, McIntosh M. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of capripoxviruses. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:1613-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The LAMP assay described in this report is simple to use, inexpensive, highly sensitive, and particularly well suited for the diagnosis of capripox in less well equipped laboratories and in rural settings where resources are limited...
  26. Babiuk S, Wallace D, Smith S, Bowden T, Dalman B, Parkyn G, et al. Detection of antibodies against capripoxviruses using an inactivated sheeppox virus ELISA. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2009;56:132-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Sera obtained from sheep and goats that were experimentally infected with different capripoxvirus isolates were used to develop and evaluate the sensitivity of the ELISA...
  27. Peck G, Bowden T, Shiell B, Michalski W. Increased bacterial cell density and recombinant protein yield using a commercial microbial cultivation system. Prep Biochem Biotechnol. 2014;44:217-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Achievable bacterial cell densities and recombinant capripoxvirus protein expression levels, solubility, and antigenicity using the EnBase system were assessed...
  28. Bhanuprakash V, Hosamani M, Balamurugan V, Gandhale P, Naresh R, Swarup D, et al. In vitro antiviral activity of plant extracts on goatpox virus replication. Indian J Exp Biol. 2008;46:120-7 pubmed
    ..Results indicated that the extract of Acacia arabica and Eugenia jambolana leaves inhibited GTPV replication in vitro. ..
  29. Fakri F, Bamouh Z, Ghzal F, Baha W, Tadlaoui K, Fihri O, et al. Comparative evaluation of three capripoxvirus-vectored peste des petits ruminants vaccines. Virology. 2018;514:211-215 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared immunity conferred by recombinant capripoxvirus vaccines expressing H or F or both HF. Safety and efficacy were evaluated in goats and sheep...
  30. Ngichabe C, Wamwayi H, Ndungu E, Mirangi P, Bostock C, Black D, et al. Long term immunity in African cattle vaccinated with a recombinant capripox-rinderpest virus vaccine. Epidemiol Infect. 2002;128:343-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that capripoxvirus is a suitable vector for the development of safe, effective and stable recombinant vaccines for cattle.
  31. Gulbahar M, Cabalar M, Gul Y, Icen H. Immunohistochemical detection of antigen in lamb tissues naturally infected with sheeppox virus. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2000;47:173-81 pubmed
    ..Additionally, in order to confirm the presence of sheeppox virus in the skin and lung samples, direct electron microscopy was performed and sheeppox virus was only demonstrated in two skin samples. ..
  32. Molla W, de Jong M, Frankena K. Temporal and spatial distribution of lumpy skin disease outbreaks in Ethiopia in the period 2000 to 2015. BMC Vet Res. 2017;13:310 pubmed publisher
    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an infectious viral disease of cattle caused by a virus of the genus Capripoxvirus. LSD was reported for the first time in Ethiopia in 1981 and subsequently became endemic...
  33. Chen W, Qu L, Hu S, Hu Q, Zhang Q, Zhi H, et al. [Recombinant goat pox virus expressing PPRV H protein]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2009;25:496-502 pubmed
    ..This study established a foundation for the industrialization of the PPRV recombinant GPV vaccine...
  34. Chand P, Kitching R, Black D. Western blot analysis of virus-specific antibody responses for capripox and contagious pustular dermatitis viral infections in sheep. Epidemiol Infect. 1994;113:377-85 pubmed
    ..This analysis readily differentiated the infections as either capripox or contagious pustular dermatitis. The antibody responses to the 32 kDa and 26 kDa proteins of capripoxvirus provided a firm basis for differentiation.
  35. Yogisharadhya R, Bhanuprakash V, Hosamani M, Venkatesan G, Balamurugan V, Bora D, et al. Comparative efficacy of live replicating sheeppox vaccine strains in Ovines. Biologicals. 2011;39:417-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, there is potential benefit in replacing the currently used commercial vaccine SPPV-RF with indigenous SPPV-Srin vaccine for use in India. ..
  36. Bhanuprakash V, Indrani B, Hegde R, Kumar M, Moorthy A. A classical live attenuated vaccine for sheep pox. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2004;36:307-20 pubmed
    ..Randomly selected vaccinated sheep mounted good cell-mediated immunity and humoral responses as measured by glucose utilization test and serum neutralization test, respectively, for the study period of 6 months. ..
  37. Hosamani M, Nandi S, Mondal B, Singh R, Rasool T, Bandyopadhyay S. A Vero cell-attenuated Goatpox virus provides protection against virulent virus challenge. Acta Virol. 2004;48:15-21 pubmed
    ..No horizontal transmission of the virus from the immunized to in-contact animals took place. Our results suggest that this attenuated virus could be a safe, immunogenic and potent candidate for developing a vaccine against goatpox. ..
  38. Ayari Fakhfakh E, Ghram A, Albina E, Cêtre Sossah C. Expression of cytokines following vaccination of goats with a recombinant capripoxvirus vaccine expressing Rift Valley fever virus proteins. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2018;197:15-20 pubmed publisher
    ..production of IL4, which, coupled with a decrease in IFN-γ, may be involved in the replication of the capripoxvirus expressing the GN of RVFV...
  39. Tcherepanov V, Ehlers A, Upton C. Genome Annotation Transfer Utility (GATU): rapid annotation of viral genomes using a closely related reference genome. BMC Genomics. 2006;7:150 pubmed
    ..The program is freely available under the General Public License and can be accessed along with documentation and tutorial from http://www.virology.ca/gatu. ..
  40. El Tholoth M, El Kenawy A. G-Protein-Coupled Chemokine Receptor Gene in Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Isolates from Cattle and Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2016;63:e288-e295 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analyses showed that the GPCR genes of cattle and water buffalo LSDVs were closest genetically, indicating a potential transmission of cattle LSDV to water buffalo. ..
  41. Gulbahar M, Davis W, Yuksel H, Cabalar M. Immunohistochemical evaluation of inflammatory infiltrate in the skin and lung of lambs naturally infected with sheeppox virus. Vet Pathol. 2006;43:67-75 pubmed
    ..SPCs, stained with anti-SPV antibody, were also positive for CD14 and CD172A, antigens expressed on monocytes and macrophages. CD14 and CD172A negative SPCs were considered to be SPV infected degenerated epithelial cells or fibroblasts. ..
  42. Kallesh D, Hosamani M, Balamurugan V, Bhanuprakash V, Yadav V, Singh R. Quantitative PCR: a quality control assay for estimation of viable virus content in live attenuated goat pox vaccine. Indian J Exp Biol. 2009;47:911-5 pubmed
    ..present study, TaqMan probe quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) based on conserved DNA pol gene of capripoxvirus was developed for the quality control of attenuated monovalent goatpox and/or combined attenuated goatpox and ..
  43. Achour H, Bouguedour R, Bouhbal A, Guechtouli A, Aouissat M. [Comparative study of the immunizing ability of some attenuated strains of sheep pox virus and of a sensitizing vaccine]. Rev Sci Tech. 2000;19:773-83 pubmed
  44. Raghavendra R, Neelagund S, Kuluvar G, Bhanuprakash V, Revanaiah Y. Protective effect of partially purified 35?kDa protein from silk worm (Bombyx mori) fecal matter against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity and in vitro anti-viral properties. Pharm Biol. 2010;48:1426-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein was found to be ineffective against camelpox and goatpox viruses at its MNTC in vitro. ..
  45. Ma W, Wang F, Yu L, Xue Y, Wang Y, Wei J, et al. Identification of an intergenic region that is not essential for replication of goatpox virus. Arch Virol. 2010;155:1337-41 pubmed publisher
    ..A comparative growth assay demonstrated the stability of the recombinant virus at the replication level. These results suggest that the intergenic region is not essential for replication of goatpox virus. ..
  46. Hosamani M, Singh S, Mondal B, Sen A, Bhanuprakash V, Bandyopadhyay S, et al. A bivalent vaccine against goat pox and Peste des Petits ruminants induces protective immune response in goats. Vaccine. 2006;24:6058-64 pubmed
  47. Slinger E, Langemeijer E, Siderius M, Vischer H, Smit M. Herpesvirus-encoded GPCRs rewire cellular signaling. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;331:179-84 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, vGPCRs effectively rewire cellular signaling networks. Delineating the cellular signaling networks modulated by these vGPCRs will be crucial for treatment of virus-associated pathologies...
  48. Zhao Z, Wu G, Zhu X, Yan X, Dou Y, Li J, et al. RNA interference targeting virion core protein ORF095 inhibits Goatpox virus replication in Vero cells. Virol J. 2012;9:48 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we show the suppression of Goatpox virus (GTPV) replication via knockdown of virion core protein using RNA interference...
  49. Embury Hyatt C, Babiuk S, Manning L, Ganske S, Bowden T, Boyle D, et al. Pathology and viral antigen distribution following experimental infection of sheep and goats with capripoxvirus. J Comp Pathol. 2012;146:106-15 pubmed publisher
    Current understanding of capripoxvirus pathogenesis is limited since there have been no detailed studies examining cell tropism at well-defined intervals following infection...
  50. Cheng Z, Yue J, Li Y, Xu L, Wang K, Zhou B, et al. [Development and application of TaqMan-MGB real-time quantitative PCR assay for detection of goat pox virus]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2009;25:464-72 pubmed
    The complete gene sequences of eight capripoxvirus strains in GenBank were aligned and analyzed with DNAStar software...
  51. Bowden T, Coupar B, Babiuk S, White J, Boyd V, Duch C, et al. Detection of antibodies specific for sheeppox and goatpox viruses using recombinant capripoxvirus antigens in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Virol Methods. 2009;161:19-29 pubmed publisher
    Viruses in the genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae, cause sheeppox, goatpox and lumpy skin disease, which are the most serious poxvirus diseases of production animals...
  52. Malik Y, Singh D, Chandrashekar K, Shukla S, Sharma K, Vaid N, et al. Occurrence of dual infection of peste-des-petits-ruminants and goatpox in indigenous goats of central India. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2011;58:268-73 pubmed publisher
    ..It is presumed that the heavy mortality observed in goats is possibly attributable to the occurrence of mixed infection of PPR and GP, or PPR, BT and GP...
  53. Chaudhary S, Pandey K, Singh R, Verma P, Gupta P. A vero cell derived combined vaccine against sheep pox and Peste des Petits ruminants for sheep. Vaccine. 2009;27:2548-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that component vaccines did not interfere each other and can be used in target population for economic vaccination strategies...
  54. Balinsky C, Delhon G, Afonso C, Risatti G, Borca M, French R, et al. Sheeppox virus kelch-like gene SPPV-019 affects virus virulence. J Virol. 2007;81:11392-401 pubmed publisher
    Sheeppox virus (SPPV), a member of the Capripoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae, is the etiologic agent of a significant disease of sheep in the developing world...
  55. Chen Y, Cai X, Jing Z, Ding J, Wang Y, Meng X, et al. [Construction, expression and immunogenicity of eukaryotic vectors based on goat pox virus P32 gene]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2008;24:133-7 pubmed
    ..The percentage of CD4+ /CD8+ T cells was significantly higher than that of the control. In conclusion, these constructed eukaryotic vectors could induce humoral and celluar immune responses in mice...
  56. Rao T, Negi B, Bansal M. Identification and characterization of differentiating soluble antigens of sheep and goat poxviruses. Acta Virol. 1996;40:259-62 pubmed
    ..The study thus gave an evidence that the SPV-specific proteins are of a higher molecular mass nature...
  57. Mondal B, Hosamani M, Dutta T, Senthilkumar V, Rathore R, Singh R. An outbreak of sheep pox on a sheep breeding farm in Jammu, India. Rev Sci Tech. 2004;23:943-9 pubmed
    ..9% and 8.3%, respectively. Morbidity and mortality rates in the entire flock were 18.4% and 6.3%, respectively. The grazing and migration pattern indicates that the disease was probably introduced to the farm by local sheep...
  58. Beytut E. Sheep pox virus induces proliferation of type II pneumocytes in the lungs. J Comp Pathol. 2010;143:132-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study show that sheep pox virus induces marked proliferation of type II pneumocytes and bronchiolar epithelial cells and that the lung lesions in diseased lambs are mainly proliferative...
  59. Rao T, Negi B. Evaluation of different serological tests for the diagnosis of goat pox using soluble antigens. Trop Anim Health Prod. 1997;29:235-9 pubmed
    ..The RPHA test was as sensitive as the latex agglutination (LA) test, and more sensitive than precipitation tests viz. agar gel precipitation and counter immunoelectrophoresis. Nevertheless, the LA test was practically the most useful...
  60. Carn V. An antigen trapping ELISA for the detection of capripoxvirus in tissue culture supernatant and biopsy samples. J Virol Methods. 1995;51:95-102 pubmed
    A trapping ELISA for the detection of capripoxvirus antigen in tissue culture supernatant and biopsy material was developed, using a guinea-pig polyclonal detector antiserum raised against a recombinant capripoxvirus specific antigen, ..
  61. Abu El Saad A, Abdel Moneim A. Modulation of macrophage functions by sheeppox virus provides clues to understand interaction of the virus with host immune system. Virol J. 2005;2:22 pubmed
    ..However, little is known about the basic mechanisms adopted by sheeppox virus (SPPV). SPPV causes an acute disease of sheep that recently, has been observed to reinfect its host in spite of vaccination...
  62. Awad M, Michael A, Soliman S, Samir S, Daoud A. Trials for preparation of inactivated sheep pox vaccine using binary ethyleneimine. Egypt J Immunol. 2003;10:67-72 pubmed
    ..The vaccine proved to be safe, sterile and inducing protection for the vaccinated lambs when challenged by the virulent sheep pox virus up to 6 months post vaccination...
  63. Yuan P, Ma Q, Meng R, Wang C, Dou W, Wang G, et al. Multicolor quantum dot-encoded microspheres for the fluoroimmunoassays of chicken newcastle disease and goat pox virus. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2009;9:3092-8 pubmed
    ..The multicolor microspheres can capture corresponding antibodies labeled with QDs, QDs-CND antibody and QDs-GPV antibody in the fluoroimmunoassays. The microspheres can be distinguished from each other based on their optical encoding...
  64. Yeruham I, Yadin H, van Ham M, Bumbarov V, Soham A, Perl S. Economic and epidemiological aspects of an outbreak of sheeppox in a dairy sheep flock. Vet Rec. 2007;160:236-7 pubmed
  65. Bhanot V, Balamurugan V, Bhanuprakash V, Venkatesan G, Sen A, Yadav V, et al. Expression of P32 protein of goatpox virus in Pichia pastoris and its potential use as a diagnostic antigen in ELISA. J Virol Methods. 2009;162:251-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study showed a potential of the yeast expressed GTPV-P32 protein as safe antigen in ELISA for seroepidemiological study of the capripox infection in sheep and goats, in India as well as capripox enzootic countries...
  66. Roy P, Purushothaman V, Sreekumar C, Tamizharasan S, Chandramohan A. Sheep pox disease outbreaks in Madras Red and Mechery breeds of indigenous sheep in Tamilnadu, India. Res Vet Sci. 2008;85:617-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The disease was diagnosed as sheep pox by agar gel immunodiffusion test, isolation of virus and its neutralization in BHK(21) cells by specific antiserum and by electron microscopy...
  67. Gelaye E, Lamien C, Silber R, Tuppurainen E, Grabherr R, Diallo A. Development of a cost-effective method for capripoxvirus genotyping using snapback primer and dsDNA intercalating dye. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75971 pubmed publisher
    ..SPPV), goat pox virus (GTPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) are very closely related viruses of the Capripoxvirus (CaPV) genus of the Poxviridae family...
  68. Woldemeskel M, Ashenafi H. Study on skin diseases in sheep from northern Ethiopia. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2003;110:20-2 pubmed
    ..The increasing threat of skin diseases to the development of sheep production warranting an urgent control intervention is indicated...
  69. Carn V, Kitching R, Hammond J, Chand P. Use of a recombinant antigen in an indirect ELISA for detecting bovine antibody to capripoxvirus. J Virol Methods. 1994;49:285-94 pubmed
    The gene coding for the capripoxvirus structural protein P32 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase, and purified on glutathione Sepharose...
  70. Haegeman A, Zro K, Vandenbussche F, Demeestere L, Van Campe W, Ennaji M, et al. Development and validation of three Capripoxvirus real-time PCRs for parallel testing. J Virol Methods. 2013;193:446-51 pubmed publisher
    ..of parallel testing using multiple real-time PCRs with similar characteristics can improve further Capripoxvirus diagnosis...
  71. Hosamani M, Bhanuprakash V, Kallesh D, Balamurugan V, Pande A, Singh R. Cell culture adapted sheeppox virus as a challenge virus for potency testing of sheeppox vaccine. Indian J Exp Biol. 2008;46:685-9 pubmed
    ..Use of this field virus enables consistent potency experiments of sheeppox vaccines avoiding use of animals for its propagation and titration...
  72. Chen W, Hu S, Qu L, Hu Q, Zhang Q, Zhi H, et al. A goat poxvirus-vectored peste-des-petits-ruminants vaccine induces long-lasting neutralization antibody to high levels in goats and sheep. Vaccine. 2010;28:4742-50 pubmed publisher
    Recombinant capripoxvirus (CPV) is a promising candidate differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) vaccine against peste-des-petits-ruminants (PPR)...
  73. Babiuk S, Parkyn G, Copps J, Larence J, Sabara M, Bowden T, et al. Evaluation of an ovine testis cell line (OA3.Ts) for propagation of capripoxvirus isolates and development of an immunostaining technique for viral plaque visualization. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2007;19:486-91 pubmed
    ..Ts) was evaluated and compared with primary lamb kidney (LK) cells for its utility in capripoxvirus propagation and titration. A comparison of OA3...
  74. Singh R, Tiwari A, Negi B. Evaluation of hyperimmune sera against goat pox viral antigens. Trop Anim Health Prod. 1998;30:229-32 pubmed
    ..The present work evaluated various HIS raised against different antigens of GPV in order to develop an antiserum for laboratory diagnosis of goat pox infections without any non-specificity...